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1.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(2): 337-345, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434492

RESUMO

Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) is associated with congenital absence of the uterus, cervix, and the upper part of the vagina; it is a sex-limited trait. Disrupted development of the Müllerian ducts (MD)/Wölffian ducts (WD) through multifactorial mechanisms has been proposed to underlie MRKHS. In this study, exome sequencing (ES) was performed on a Chinese discovery cohort (442 affected subjects and 941 female control subjects) and a replication MRKHS cohort (150 affected subjects of mixed ethnicity from North America, South America, and Europe). Phenotypic follow-up of the female reproductive system was performed on an additional cohort of PAX8-associated congenital hypothyroidism (CH) (n = 5, Chinese). By analyzing 19 candidate genes essential for MD/WD development, we identified 12 likely gene-disrupting (LGD) variants in 7 genes: PAX8 (n = 4), BMP4 (n = 2), BMP7 (n = 2), TBX6 (n = 1), HOXA10 (n = 1), EMX2 (n = 1), and WNT9B (n = 1), while LGD variants in these genes were not detected in control samples (p = 1.27E-06). Interestingly, a sex-limited penetrance with paternal inheritance was observed in multiple families. One additional PAX8 LGD variant from the replication cohort and two missense variants from both cohorts were revealed to cause loss-of-function of the protein. From the PAX8-associated CH cohort, we identified one individual presenting a syndromic condition characterized by CH and MRKHS (CH-MRKHS). Our study demonstrates the comprehensive utilization of knowledge from developmental biology toward elucidating genetic perturbations, i.e., rare pathogenic alleles involving the same loci, contributing to human birth defects.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/genética , Anormalidades Congênitas/genética , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/anormalidades , Ductos Paramesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mutação , Ductos Mesonéfricos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Adulto , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 4/genética , Proteína Morfogenética Óssea 7/genética , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Pleiotropia Genética , Proteínas Homeobox A10/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Fator de Transcrição PAX8/genética , Herança Paterna , Penetrância , Proteínas com Domínio T/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Proteínas Wnt/genética , Ductos Mesonéfricos/anormalidades
2.
Front Genet ; 10: 1005, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31681433

RESUMO

Approximately 10% of breast cancer (BC) cases are hereditary BC (HBC), with HBC most commonly encountered in the context of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) syndrome. Although thousands of loss-of-function (LoF) alleles in over 20 genes have been associated with HBC susceptibility, the genetic etiology of approximately 50% of cases remains unexplained, even when polygenic risk models are considered. We focused on one of the least-studied European populations and applied whole-exome sequencing (WES) to 52 individuals from 17 Greek HBOC families, in which at least one patient was negative for known HBC risk variants. Initial screening revealed pathogenic variants in known cancer genes, including BARD1:p.Trp91* detected in a cancer-free individual, and MEN1:p.Glu260Lys detected in a BC patient. Gene- and variant-based approaches were applied to exome data to identify candidate risk variants outside of known risk genes. Findings were verified in a collection of Canadian HBOC patients of European ancestry (FBRCAX), in an independent group of Canadian BC patients (CHUM-BC) and controls (CARTaGENE), as well as in individuals from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the UK Biobank (UKB). Rare LoF variants were uncovered in MDM1 and NBEAL1 in Greek and Canadian HBOC patients. We also report prioritized missense variants SETBP1:c.4129G > C and C7orf34:c.248C > T. These variants comprise promising candidates whose role in cancer pathogenicity needs to be explored further.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 134(1): 353-62, 2012 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22434525

RESUMO

In spite the close association of the triple-negative breast cancer immunophenotype with hereditary breast cancers and the BRCA1 pathway, there is a lack of population studies that determine the frequency of BRCA1 mutations among triple-negative breast cancer patients. To address this, we have screened a large sample of 403 women diagnosed with triple-negative invasive breast cancer, independently of their age or family history, for germline BRCA1 mutations. Median age at diagnosis was 50 years (range 20-83). The overall prevalence of triple-negative cases among the initial patient group with invasive breast cancer was 8%. BRCA1 was screened by direct DNA sequencing in all patients, including all exons where a mutation was previously found in the Greek population (exons 5, 11, 12, 16, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24-77% of the BRCA1 coding region), including diagnostic PCRs to detect the three Greek founder large genomic rearrangements. Sixty-five deleterious BRCA1 mutations were identified among the 403 triple-negative breast cancer patients (16%). Median age of onset for mutation carriers was 39 years. Among a total of 106 women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer (<40 years), 38 (36%) had a BRCA1 mutation, while 27% of women with triple-negative breast cancer diagnosed before 50 years (56/208) had a BRCA1 mutation. A mutation was found in 48% (50/105) of the triple-negative breast cancer patients with family history of breast or ovarian cancer. It is noteworthy, however, that of the 65 carriers, 15 (23%) had no reported family history of related cancers. All but one of the carriers had grade III tumors (98%). These results indicate that women with early-onset triple-negative breast cancer, and ideally all triple-negative breast cancer patients, are candidates for BRCA1 genetic testing even in the absence of a family history of breast or ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/genética , Carcinoma Lobular/genética , Testes Genéticos , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Ductal de Mama/metabolismo , Carcinoma Lobular/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Lobular/epidemiologia , Carcinoma Lobular/metabolismo , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/diagnóstico , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Seleção de Pacientes , Prevalência , Receptor ErbB-2/metabolismo , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Receptores de Progesterona/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
4.
Reprod Biomed Online ; 19(1): 89-98, 2009 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19573296

RESUMO

The quality of DNA obtained from single cells for molecular analysis is primarily dependent on cell type and cell lysis. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) amplifies the DNA isothermally with the use of Phi29 polymerase and random hexamer primers. The efficiency and accuracy of MDA was assessed on different cell types (buccal cells, lymphocytes, fibroblasts) using two multiplex PCR reactions that have been applied in clinical preimplantation genetic diagnosis cases (DM triplex-DM1, APOC2, Dl9S112 and CF triplex-DF508del, IVS8CA, IVS17TA). These results were compared using the DM triplex with MDA products from single blastomeres. Cells were lysed using a modified protocol excluding dithiothreitol in the alkaline lysis buffer. The MDA amplification efficiency for buccal cells was 82.0% (41/50) compared with 96.0% (48/50) for lymphocytes and 100% (20/20) for fibroblasts. The average allele dropout (ADO) rates were 31.0% for buccal cells, 20.8% for lymphocytes and 20.0% for fibroblasts with high inter-locus variation across all cell types (5.0-45.5%). Overall, MDA on single lymphocytes and fibroblasts lysed using the modified protocol produced DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for subsequent molecular analysis by PCR and gave results comparable with MDA products from blastomeres, in contrast to buccal cells.


Assuntos
DNA/genética , Amplificação de Genes , Alelos , Humanos , Linfócitos/ultraestrutura , Mucosa Bucal/citologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
5.
Fetal Diagn Ther ; 24(2): 86-91, 2008.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18648204

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: First trimester ultrasound (US) screening has become part of antenatal care. The aim of this study was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of the information given and experiences of first trimester nuchal translucency (NT) screening and to identify the background factors in a woman's biography that influence her information needs and experiences of NT screening. METHODS: This study was a descriptive, prospective survey which involved collecting information from the participants by using a questionnaire and took place in a public hospital in Athens. The sample consisted of 510 consecutive, unselected pregnant women of gestational age between 11 and 14 weeks, who had attended a nuchal translucency (NT) screening. RESULTS: The majority of women felt that they had received either a limited or intermediate amount of information about the US screening and stated that they would have liked to receive more information. However, most of them (98%) answered that their expectations were fulfilled. 82% felt that the US examination was a positive experience, while 16% felt that US examination was a stressful experience. Furthermore, higher rates of positive experiences were observed among women with a higher educational level and greater satisfaction with the information received (chi(2)((d.f.=6)) = 29.411, p = 0.000, chi(2)((d.f.=3)) = 30.171, p = 0.000 respectively). Most women had wished to undertake NT screening to ensure that the fetus was healthy and without any defects and believed that a US examination should be performed at every antenatal visit. CONCLUSION: This study shows that most women lack information, specifically about the purposes and the diagnostic limitations of NT screening. Health professionals should therefore dedicate more time to discussing with women, and provide appropriate and understandable information tailored to the educational level of women and should emphasize the indications, purposes and limitations of US screening.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Medição da Translucência Nucal , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Percepção , Compreensão , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Grécia , Humanos , Satisfação do Paciente , Seleção de Pacientes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Inquéritos e Questionários
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