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1.
MethodsX ; 6: 1-5, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591915

RESUMO

The development of gene editing technologies, especially the CRISPR-Cas9 system, has been pivotal for understanding the functional role of proteins. Rapid and efficient genotyping methods are necessary to screen for generated mutations and streamline the isolation of homozygotes. CRISPR-Cas9 system targeting a single site in the gene typically results in small indels. Many genotyping methods utilize the heteroduplex that is formed when wild-type and mutant amplicons with small indels anneal during PCR creating a bubble due to mismatched strands. These methods include T7 endonuclease/Cel-I assay, high resolution melting (HRM) analysis, and heteroduplex mobility assay (HMA). Our protocol explains a simple, two step method of a mixing HMA (mHMA) to identify homozygous mutants, a modification of the previously published HMA. We have utilized the mHMA for screening and genotyping numerous CRISPR generated models. The mHMA method to differentiate homozygous wild type from homozygous mutant animals eliminates - •DNA sequencing, even with small indels that can be difficult to discern on a gel.•additional enzymatic reaction steps, such as with the T7EI/Cel-I assay.•specialized equipment and analysis tools, such as with HRM analysis.

2.
J Genet ; 97(5): 1315-1325, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30555080

RESUMO

Nodal-related protein (ndr2) is amember of the transforming growth factor type ß superfamily of factors and is required for ventral midline patterning of the embryonic central nervous system in zebrafish. In humans, mutations in the gene encoding nodal cause holoprosencephaly and heterotaxy. Mutations in the ndr2 gene in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) lead to similar phenotypes, including loss of the medial floor plate, severe deficits in ventral forebrain development and cyclopia. Alleles of the ndr2 gene have been useful in studying patterning of ventral structures of the central nervous system. Fifteen different ndr2 alleles have been reported in zebrafish, of which eight were generated using chemical mutagenesis, four were radiation-induced and the remaining alleles were obtained via random insertion, gene targeting (TALEN) or unknown methods. Therefore, most mutation sites were random and could not be predicted a priori. Using the CRISPR-Cas9 system from Streptococcus pyogenes, we targeted distinct regions in all three exons of zebrafish ndr2 and observed cyclopia in the injected (G0) embryos.We show that the use of sgRNA-Cas9 ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes can cause penetrant cyclopic phenotypes in injected (G0) embryos. Targeted polymerase chain reaction amplicon analysis using Sanger sequencing showed that most of the alleles had small indels resulting in frameshifts. The sequence information correlates with the loss of ndr2 activity. In this study, we validate multiple CRISPR targets using an in vitro nuclease assay and in vivo analysis using embryos. We describe one specific mutant allele resulting in the loss of conserved terminal cysteine-coding sequences. This study is another demonstration of the utility of the CRISPR-Cas9 system in generating domain-specific mutations and provides further insights into the structure-function of the ndr2 gene.


Assuntos
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação , Ribonucleoproteínas/genética , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Embrião não Mamífero/embriologia , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Holoprosencefalia/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/química , Modelos Moleculares , Fenótipo , Domínios Proteicos , Ribonucleoproteínas/metabolismo , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Peixe-Zebra/genética , Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/química
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