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1.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1095-1102, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040137

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries, has a heritable component. To date, 16 genetic risk regions have been robustly discovered by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of endometrial cancer. Post-GWAS analyses including expression quantitative trait loci analysis and laboratory-based functional studies have been successful in identifying genes and pathways involved in endometrial carcinogenesis. Mendelian randomization analysis studies have confirmed factors causal for endometrial cancer risk, including increased body mass index and early onset of menarche. In this review, we summarize findings from GWAS and post-GWAS analyses of endometrial cancer. We discuss clinical implications of these findings, current knowledge gaps, and future directions for the study of endometrial cancer genetics.

2.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance classification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, we developed the cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Here, we calibrate and validate the assay, enabling its integration with in silico and clinical data. METHODS: Two sets of previously classified MLH1 and MSH2 variants were selected from a curated MMR gene database, and their biochemical activity determined by the CIMRA assay. The assay was calibrated by regression analysis followed by symmetric cross-validation and Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity. CIMRA assay reproducibility was assessed in four laboratories. RESULTS: Concordance between the training runs met our prespecified validation criterion. The CIMRA assay alone correctly classified 65% of variants, with only 3% discordant classification. Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity increased the proportion of correctly classified variants to 87%, without changing the discordance rate. Interlaboratory results were highly reproducible. CONCLUSION: The CIMRA assay accurately predicts pathogenic and benign MMR gene variants. Quantitative combination of assay results with in silico analysis correctly classified the majority of variants. Using this calibration, CIMRA assay results can be integrated into the diagnostic algorithm for MMR gene variants.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385613

RESUMO

Molecular markers of sorafenib efficacy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) patients are not available. The purpose of this study was to discover genetic markers of survival in mRCC patients treated with sorafenib. Germline variants from 56 genes were genotyped in 295 mRCC patients. Variant-overall survival (OS) associations were tested in multivariate regression models. Mechanistic studies were conducted to validate clinical associations. VEGFA rs1885657, ITGAV rs3816375, and WWOX rs8047917 (sorafenib arm), and FLT4 rs307826 and VEGFA rs3024987 (sorafenib and placebo arms combined) were associated with shorter OS. FLT4 rs307826 increased VEGFR-3 phosphorylation, membrane trafficking and receptor activation. VEGFA rs1885657 and rs58159269 increased transcriptional activity of the constructs containing these variants in endothelial and RCC cell lines, and VEGFA rs58159269 increased endothelial cell proliferation and tube formation. FLT4 rs307826 and VEGFA rs58159269 led to reduced sorafenib cytotoxicity. Genetic variation in VEGFA and FLT4 could affect survival in sorafenib-treated mRCC patients. These markers should be examined in additional malignancies treated with sorafenib, and in other angiogenesis inhibitors used in mRCC.

4.
PLoS One ; 13(8): e0202272, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30107003

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Advanced pancreatic cancer is a highly refractory disease almost always associated with survival of little more than a year. New interventions based on novel targets are needed. We aim to identify new genetic determinants of overall survival (OS) in patients after treatment with gemcitabine using genome-wide screens of germline DNA. We aim also to support these findings with in vitro functional analysis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Genome-wide screens of germline DNA in two independent cohorts of pancreatic cancer patients (from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 80303 and the Mayo Clinic) were used to select new genes associated with OS. The vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) was selected, and the interactions of genetic variation in VDR with circulating vitamin D levels and gemcitabine treatment were evaluated. Functional effects of common VDR variants were also evaluated in experimental assays in human cell lines. RESULTS: The rs2853564 variant in VDR was associated with OS in patients from both the Mayo Clinic (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.70-0.94, p = 0.0059) and CALGB 80303 (HR 0.74, 0.63-0.87, p = 0.0002). rs2853564 interacted with high pre-treatment levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D, a measure of endogenous vitamin D) (p = 0.0079 for interaction) and with gemcitabine treatment (p = 0.024 for interaction) to confer increased OS. rs2853564 increased transcriptional activity in luciferase assays and reduced the binding of the IRF4 transcription factor. CONCLUSION: Our findings propose VDR as a novel determinant of survival in advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Common functional variation in this gene might interact with endogenous vitamin D and gemcitabine treatment to determine improved patient survival. These results support evidence for a modulatory role of the vitamin D pathway for the survival of advanced pancreatic cancer patients.

5.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3166, 2018 08 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30093612

RESUMO

Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer of the female reproductive tract in developed countries. Through genome-wide association studies (GWAS), we have previously identified eight risk loci for endometrial cancer. Here, we present an expanded meta-analysis of 12,906 endometrial cancer cases and 108,979 controls (including new genotype data for 5624 cases) and identify nine novel genome-wide significant loci, including a locus on 12q24.12 previously identified by meta-GWAS of endometrial and colorectal cancer. At five loci, expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) analyses identify candidate causal genes; risk alleles at two of these loci associate with decreased expression of genes, which encode negative regulators of oncogenic signal transduction proteins (SH2B3 (12q24.12) and NF1 (17q11.2)). In summary, this study has doubled the number of known endometrial cancer risk loci and revealed candidate causal genes for future study.

7.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 896, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29270124

RESUMO

The development of new drugs has become challenging as the necessary investments in time and money have increased while drug approval rates have decreased. A potential solution to this problem is drug repositioning which aims to use existing drugs to treat conditions for which they were not originally intended. One approach that may enhance the likelihood of success is to reposition drugs against a target that has a genetic basis. The multitude of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) conducted in recent years represents a large potential pool of novel targets for drug repositioning. Although trait-associated variants identified from GWAS still need to be causally linked to a target gene, recently developed functional genomic techniques, databases, and workflows are helping to remove this bottleneck. The pre-clinical validation of repositioning against these targets also needs to be carefully performed to ensure that findings are not confounded by off-target effects or limitations of the techniques used. Nevertheless, the approaches described in this review have the potential to provide a faster, cheaper and more certain route to clinical approval.

8.
Nature ; 551(7678): 92-94, 2017 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29059683

RESUMO

Breast cancer risk is influenced by rare coding variants in susceptibility genes, such as BRCA1, and many common, mostly non-coding variants. However, much of the genetic contribution to breast cancer risk remains unknown. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry and 14,068 cases and 13,104 controls of East Asian ancestry. We identified 65 new loci that are associated with overall breast cancer risk at P < 5 × 10-8. The majority of credible risk single-nucleotide polymorphisms in these loci fall in distal regulatory elements, and by integrating in silico data to predict target genes in breast cells at each locus, we demonstrate a strong overlap between candidate target genes and somatic driver genes in breast tumours. We also find that heritability of breast cancer due to all single-nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory features was 2-5-fold enriched relative to the genome-wide average, with strong enrichment for particular transcription factor binding sites. These results provide further insight into genetic susceptibility to breast cancer and will improve the use of genetic risk scores for individualized screening and prevention.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Loci Gênicos , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Sítios de Ligação/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Simulação por Computador , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Oncotarget ; 8(39): 64670-64684, 2017 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29029385

RESUMO

We previously identified associations with ovarian cancer outcome at five genetic loci. To identify putatively causal genetic variants and target genes, we prioritized two ovarian outcome loci (1q22 and 19p12) for further study. Bioinformatic and functional genetic analyses indicated that MEF2D and ZNF100 are targets of candidate outcome variants at 1q22 and 19p12, respectively. At 19p12, the chromatin interaction of a putative regulatory element with the ZNF100 promoter region correlated with candidate outcome variants. At 1q22, putative regulatory elements enhanced MEF2D promoter activity and haplotypes containing candidate outcome variants modulated these effects. In a public dataset, MEF2D and ZNF100 expression were both associated with ovarian cancer progression-free or overall survival time. In an extended set of 6,162 epithelial ovarian cancer patients, we found that functional candidates at the 1q22 and 19p12 loci, as well as other regional variants, were nominally associated with patient outcome; however, no associations reached our threshold for statistical significance (p<1×10-5). Larger patient numbers will be needed to convincingly identify any true associations at these loci.

10.
Front Pharmacol ; 8: 218, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28487654

RESUMO

After menopause, estradiol is primarily synthesized in peripheral tissues by the enzyme aromatase, encoded by CYP19A1. CYP19A1 variation associates with circulating estradiol in postmenopausal women and this variation is best represented by the intronic variant rs727479. This variation appears to have pleiotropic effects as it also associates with endometrial cancer risk. Indeed, estradiol plays an important role in the development of breast and endometrial cancer. Aromatase inhibitor (AI) drugs are used in the treatment of both diseases, however, response rates for AIs are low and there is currently no way to identify breast or endometrial cancer patients who are more likely to receive a clinical benefit. Multiple studies have proposed that genetic variation in CYP19A1 will have effects on AI efficacy: eight candidate variant studies of sample size greater than 50 describe associations between CYP19A1 variation and the outcome of patients treated with AIs. Nominally significant associations with patient outcome were reported for several variants, including rs727479. However, only an association between rs4646 and time to progression was replicated in an independent study. Moreover, rs4646 is also the only variant that has an association with patient outcome that passes a multiple testing threshold and this variant is in linkage disequilibrium with rs727479, supporting the hypothesis that associations with patient outcome may be driven through the effects on circulating estradiol. Despite this preliminary evidence, well phenotyped and comprehensively genotyped patient sets need to be studied before conclusions can be drawn about the effects of CYP19A1 variation on AI efficacy.

11.
Nat Genet ; 48(6): 667-674, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27135401

RESUMO

We conducted a meta-analysis of three endometrial cancer genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and two follow-up phases totaling 7,737 endometrial cancer cases and 37,144 controls of European ancestry. Genome-wide imputation and meta-analysis identified five new risk loci of genome-wide significance at likely regulatory regions on chromosomes 13q22.1 (rs11841589, near KLF5), 6q22.31 (rs13328298, in LOC643623 and near HEY2 and NCOA7), 8q24.21 (rs4733613, telomeric to MYC), 15q15.1 (rs937213, in EIF2AK4, near BMF) and 14q32.33 (rs2498796, in AKT1, near SIVA1). We also found a second independent 8q24.21 signal (rs17232730). Functional studies of the 13q22.1 locus showed that rs9600103 (pairwise r(2) = 0.98 with rs11841589) is located in a region of active chromatin that interacts with the KLF5 promoter region. The rs9600103[T] allele that is protective in endometrial cancer suppressed gene expression in vitro, suggesting that regulation of the expression of KLF5, a gene linked to uterine development, is implicated in tumorigenesis. These findings provide enhanced insight into the genetic and biological basis of endometrial cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Feminino , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
12.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 23(2): 77-91, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26574572

RESUMO

Candidate gene studies have reported CYP19A1 variants to be associated with endometrial cancer and with estradiol (E2) concentrations. We analyzed 2937 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6608 endometrial cancer cases and 37 925 controls and report the first genome wide-significant association between endometrial cancer and a CYP19A1 SNP (rs727479 in intron 2, P=4.8×10(-11)). SNP rs727479 was also among those most strongly associated with circulating E2 concentrations in 2767 post-menopausal controls (P=7.4×10(-8)). The observed endometrial cancer odds ratio per rs727479 A-allele (1.15, CI=1.11-1.21) is compatible with that predicted by the observed effect on E2 concentrations (1.09, CI=1.03-1.21), consistent with the hypothesis that endometrial cancer risk is driven by E2. From 28 candidate-causal SNPs, 12 co-located with three putative gene-regulatory elements and their risk alleles associated with higher CYP19A1 expression in bioinformatical analyses. For both phenotypes, the associations with rs727479 were stronger among women with a higher BMI (Pinteraction=0.034 and 0.066 respectively), suggesting a biologically plausible gene-environment interaction.


Assuntos
Aromatase/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/etiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores Etários , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias do Endométrio/sangue , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Fenótipo
13.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 22(5): 851-61, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26330482

RESUMO

Excessive exposure to estrogen is a well-established risk factor for endometrial cancer (EC), particularly for cancers of endometrioid histology. The physiological function of estrogen is primarily mediated by estrogen receptor alpha, encoded by ESR1. Consequently, several studies have investigated whether variation at the ESR1 locus is associated with risk of EC, with conflicting results. We performed comprehensive fine-mapping analyses of 3633 genotyped and imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 6607 EC cases and 37 925 controls. There was evidence of an EC risk signal located at a potential alternative promoter of the ESR1 gene (lead SNP rs79575945, P=1.86×10(-5)), which was stronger for cancers of endometrioid subtype (P=3.76×10(-6)). Bioinformatic analysis suggests that this risk signal is in a functionally important region targeting ESR1, and eQTL analysis found that rs79575945 was associated with expression of SYNE1, a neighbouring gene. In summary, we have identified a single EC risk signal located at ESR1, at study-wide significance. Given SNPs located at this locus have been associated with risk for breast cancer, also a hormonally driven cancer, this study adds weight to the rationale for performing informed candidate fine-scale genetic studies across cancer types.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias do Endométrio/genética , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Genótipo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Prognóstico , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Fatores de Risco
14.
J Thorac Oncol ; 10(7): 1067-75, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26134224

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We propose that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes of the vascular endothelial growth factor pathway of angiogenesis will associate with survival in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. METHODS: Fifty-three SNPs in vascular endothelial growth factor-pathway genes were genotyped in 150 European stage I-III NSCLC patients and tested for associations with patient survival. Replication was performed in an independent cohort of 142 European stage I-III patients. Reporter gene assays were used to assess the effects of SNPs on transcriptional activity. RESULTS: In the initial cohort, five SNPs associated (q < 0.05) with relapse-free survival (RFS). The minor alleles of intronic FLT1 SNPs, rs7996030 and rs9582036, associated with reduced RFS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.67 [95% confidence interval, CI, 1.22-2.29] and HR = 1.51 [95% CI, 1.14-2.01], respectively) and reduced transcriptional activity. The minor alleles of intronic KRAS SNPs, rs12813551 and rs10505980, associated with increased RFS (HR = 0.64 [0.46-0.87] and HR = 0.64 [0.47-0.87], respectively), and the minor allelic variant of rs12813551 also reduced transcriptional activity. Lastly, the minor allele of the intronic KRAS SNP rs10842513 associated with reduced RFS (HR = 1.65 [95% CI, 1.16-2.37]). Analysis of the functional variants suggests they are located in transcriptional enhancer elements. The negative effect of rs9582036 on RFS was confirmed in the replication cohort (HR = 1.69 [0.99-2.89], p = 0.028), and the association was significant in pooled analysis of both cohorts (HR = 1.67 [1.21-2.30], p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: The functional FLT1 variant rs9582036 is a prognostic determinant of recurrence in stage I-III NSCLC. Its predictive value should be tested in the adjuvant setting of stage I-III NSCLC.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Receptor 1 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/enzimologia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Estudos de Coortes , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/enzimologia , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Prognóstico , Análise de Sobrevida
15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 97(2): 329-36, 2015 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26211970

RESUMO

The gene(s) whose expression is regulated by allergy risk variants is unknown for many loci identified through genome-wide association studies. Addressing this knowledge gap might point to new therapeutic targets for allergic disease. The aim of this study was to identify the target gene(s) and the functional variant(s) underlying the association between rs7009110 on chromosome 8q21 and allergies. Eight genes are located within 1 Mb of rs7009110. Multivariate association analysis of publicly available exon expression levels from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) identified a significant association between rs7009110 and the expression of a single gene, PAG1 (p = 0.0017), 732 kb away. Analysis of histone modifications and DNase I hypersensitive sites in LCLs identified four putative regulatory elements (PREs) in the region. Chromosome conformation capture confirmed that two PREs interacted with the PAG1 promoter, one in allele-specific fashion. To determine whether these PREs were functional, LCLs were transfected with PAG1 promoter-driven luciferase reporter constructs. PRE3 acted as a transcriptional enhancer for PAG1 exclusively when it carried the rs2370615:C allergy predisposing allele, a variant in complete linkage disequilibrium with rs7009110. As such, rs2370615, which overlaps RelA transcription factor (TF) binding in LCLs and was found to disrupt Foxo3a binding to PRE3, represents the putative functional variant in this locus. Our studies suggest that the risk-associated allele of rs2370615 predisposes to allergic disease by increasing PAG1 expression, which might promote B cell activation and have a pro-inflammatory effect. Inhibition of PAG1 expression or function might have therapeutic potential for allergic diseases.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Hipersensibilidade/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Humanos , Hipersensibilidade/imunologia , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Luciferases , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Análise Multivariada , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico/genética
16.
Am J Hum Genet ; 96(1): 5-20, 2015 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25529635

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed SNP rs889312 on 5q11.2 to be associated with breast cancer risk in women of European ancestry. In an attempt to identify the biologically relevant variants, we analyzed 909 genetic variants across 5q11.2 in 103,991 breast cancer individuals and control individuals from 52 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Multiple logistic regression analyses identified three independent risk signals: the strongest associations were with 15 correlated variants (iCHAV1), where the minor allele of the best candidate, rs62355902, associated with significantly increased risks of both estrogen-receptor-positive (ER(+): odds ratio [OR] = 1.24, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.21-1.27, ptrend = 5.7 × 10(-44)) and estrogen-receptor-negative (ER(-): OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.15, ptrend = 3.0 × 10(-4)) tumors. After adjustment for rs62355902, we found evidence of association of a further 173 variants (iCHAV2) containing three subsets with a range of effects (the strongest was rs113317823 [pcond = 1.61 × 10(-5)]) and five variants composing iCHAV3 (lead rs11949391; ER(+): OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.87-0.93, pcond = 1.4 × 10(-4)). Twenty-six percent of the prioritized candidate variants coincided with four putative regulatory elements that interact with the MAP3K1 promoter through chromatin looping and affect MAP3K1 promoter activity. Functional analysis indicated that the cancer risk alleles of four candidates (rs74345699 and rs62355900 [iCHAV1], rs16886397 [iCHAV2a], and rs17432750 [iCHAV3]) increased MAP3K1 transcriptional activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis revealed diminished GATA3 binding to the minor (cancer-protective) allele of rs17432750, indicating a mechanism for its action. We propose that the cancer risk alleles act to increase MAP3K1 expression in vivo and might promote breast cancer cell survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Grupos de Populações Continentais/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , MAP Quinase Quinase Quinase 1/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Risco
17.
Nat Commun ; 4: 4999, 2014 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25248036

RESUMO

GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/genética , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatina/metabolismo , Cromossomos Humanos Par 2/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fator 3-alfa Nuclear de Hepatócito/metabolismo , Humanos , Proteína 5 de Ligação a Fator de Crescimento Semelhante à Insulina/metabolismo , Células MCF-7 , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
18.
Hum Mutat ; 35(2): 227-35, 2014 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24186849

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is a host-mediated mechanism in disease pathophysiology. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is a major determinant of angiogenesis, and a comprehensive annotation of the functional variation in this pathway is essential to understand the genetic basis of angiogenesis-related diseases. We assessed the allelic heterogeneity of gene expression, population specificity of cis expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), and eQTL function in luciferase assays in CEU and Yoruba people of Ibadan, Nigeria (YRI) HapMap lymphoblastoid cell lines in 23 resequenced genes. Among 356 cis-eQTLs, 155 and 174 were unique to CEU and YRI, respectively, and 27 were shared between CEU and YRI. Two cis-eQTLs provided mechanistic evidence for two genome-wide association study findings. Five eQTLs were tested for function in luciferase assays and the effect of two KRAS variants was concordant with the eQTL effect. Two eQTLs found in each of PRKCE, PIK3C2A, and MAP2K6 could predict 44%, 37%, and 45% of the variance in gene expression, respectively. This is the first analysis focusing on the pattern of functional genetic variation of the VEGF pathway genes in CEU and YRI populations and providing mechanistic evidence for genetic association studies of diseases for which angiogenesis plays a pathophysiologic role.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Neovascularização Patológica/genética , Neovascularização Fisiológica/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Biologia Computacional , Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Análise Multivariada , Nigéria , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas
19.
Methods Mol Biol ; 1015: 293-310, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23824864

RESUMO

Human genomics research has produced vast amounts of data that can be applied to or used to inform pharmacogenomic studies. The Internet is an extremely useful resource for pharmacogenomics as many Web sites provide access to data from genomic and clinical studies or host tools which can be used to interpret findings or generate hypotheses. Human genetic variation can now easily be explored or visualized through genome browsers and Web-based repositories which store the details of millions of human germ-line and somatic genetic variants. Gene expression data from many different tissue and cell types are available through Web-based repositories, and human genetic variants that associate with mRNA expression can be identified using Web data portals. Pharmacogenetic associations can be explored through publically available data repositories and the functionality of genetic variants predicted through Web-based bioinformatic tools. Furthermore, resources relating to currently used genetic tests are available online. Large clinical and population studies, many linked to medical records, can be queried for the availability of biospecimens or data. In the future, as the amount of genomic and associated clinical data increases, there is little doubt that Web-based resources will continue to evolve and overcome barriers hindering their efficient use, leading to systems-based approaches to pharmacogenomics.


Assuntos
Recursos em Saúde , Internet , Farmacogenética/métodos , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Software
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