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1.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 710598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34421957

RESUMO

There have been efforts to develop citrus cultivars that are tolerant of Huanglongbing (HLB), a catastrophic phloem-limited disease. Previous studies demonstrated that continuous plant growth with phloem regeneration is one of the major characteristics of HLB tolerance. In this study, the metabolic mechanisms of HLB tolerance in citrus were elucidated using a multiple pathway-targeted metabolomic approach. Comparative analysis of healthy and infected HLB-tolerant and HLB-sensitive mandarin cultivars (Citrus reticulata) revealed differentially expressed metabolic responses among different groups. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated aspartate and glutamate metabolism, purine metabolism, and biosynthesis of plant hormones were upregulated in the tolerant group, except salicylic acid signaling. Catabolic pathways linked to energy-yielding metabolism were also upregulated in the tolerant group. These metabolisms and pathways were interconnected with each other, unveiling a pivotal metabolic network associated with HLB tolerance. In the network, auxins and cytokinins, the plant hormones responsible for plant growth and phloem regeneration, were accumulated. In addition, purine metabolites serving as energy carriers and nitrogen sources of plants were increased. Only salicylic acid-related metabolites for plant defense responses were decreased in the tolerant group. Our findings may evidence the strategy of HLB-tolerant cultivars that sustain plant growth and phloem formation rather than displaying direct plant defense to overcome the disease.

2.
Plants (Basel) ; 10(7)2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371641

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB), caused by the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CaLas), is the primary biotic stress causing significant economic damage to the global citrus industry. Among the abiotic stresses, salinity affects citrus production worldwide, especially in arid and coastal regions. In this study, we evaluated open-pollinated seedlings of the S10 (a diploid rootstock produced from a cross between two siblings of the Hirado Buntan Pink pummelo (Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.) with the Shekwasha mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco)) for their ability to tolerate HLB and salinity stresses. In a greenhouse study, 'Valencia' sweet orange (either HLB-positive or negative) was grafted onto six clonally propagated lines generated from the screened seedlings in the greenhouse and the trees were irrigated with 150 mM NaCl after eight months of successful grafting and detection of CaLas in the leaf petioles. Cleopatra mandarin was used as a salt-tolerant and HLB-sensitive rootstock control. CaLas infection was monitored using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction before and after NaCl treatments. Following three months of NaCl treatment, 'Valencia' leaves on the S10 rootstock seedlings recorded lower levels of chlorophyll content compared to Cleopatra under similar conditions. Malondialdehyde content was higher in HLB-infected 'Valencia' grafted onto Cleopatra than in the S10 lines. Several plant defense-related genes were significantly upregulated in the S10 lines. Antioxidant and Na+ co-transporter genes were differentially regulated in these lines. Based on our results, selected S10 lines have potential as salt-tolerant rootstocks of 'Valencia' sweet orange under endemic HLB conditions. However, it is necessary to propagate selected lines through tissue culture or cuttings because of the high percentage of zygotic seedlings derived from S10.

3.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255842, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375348

RESUMO

The Australian finger lime is a unique citrus species that has gained importance due to its unique fruit characteristics and perceived tolerance to Huanglongbing (HLB), an often-fatal disease of citrus trees. In this study, we developed allotetraploid finger lime hybrids and cybrids by utilizing somatic cell fusion techniques to fuse diploid 'OLL8' sweet orange or 'Page' tangelo callus-derived protoplasts with finger lime (FL) mesophyll-derived protoplasts. Six somatic fusions were regenerated from the 'OLL8' + FL fusion, while three putative cybrids were regenerated from the 'Page' + FL fusion. Ploidy levels and nuclear-expressed sequence tag derived simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers confirmed the somatic hybrid production, and mitochondrial DNA primer sets confirmed the cybrid nature. Several trees produced by the somatic fusion remained HLB negative even after 6 years of growth in an HLB-endemic environment. Pathogenesis related (PR) and other genes that are often upregulated in HLB-tolerant trees were also upregulated in our somatic fusions. These newly developed somatic fusions and cybrids could potentially be used as breeding parents to develop the next generation of improved HLB-tolerant rootstocks and scions.

4.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4377, 2021 07 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312382

RESUMO

The origin and dispersal of cultivated and wild mandarin and related citrus are poorly understood. Here, comparative genome analysis of 69 new east Asian genomes and other mainland Asian citrus reveals a previously unrecognized wild sexual species native to the Ryukyu Islands: C. ryukyuensis sp. nov. The taxonomic complexity of east Asian mandarins then collapses to a satisfying simplicity, accounting for tachibana, shiikuwasha, and other traditional Ryukyuan mandarin types as homoploid hybrid species formed by combining C. ryukyuensis with various mainland mandarins. These hybrid species reproduce clonally by apomictic seed, a trait shared with oranges, grapefruits, lemons and many cultivated mandarins. We trace the origin of apomixis alleles in citrus to mangshanyeju wild mandarins, which played a central role in citrus domestication via adaptive wild introgression. Our results provide a coherent biogeographic framework for understanding the diversity and domestication of mandarin-type citrus through speciation, admixture, and rapid diffusion of apomictic reproduction.


Assuntos
Apomixia/genética , Citrus/genética , Frutas/genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Alelos , Citrus/classificação , Extremo Oriente , Frequência do Gene , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Geografia , Haplótipos , Hibridização Genética , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
5.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 638321, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33643366

RESUMO

Several citrus varieties show gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI), which can contribute to seedless fruit production in several cultivars. This study investigated the genes regulating this trait through RNA-seq performed using styles collected from the flowers of Japanese citrus cultivars 'Hyuganatsu,' 'Tosabuntan,' 'Hassaku,' 'Banpeiyu,' and 'Sweet Spring'. We screened the transcripts of putative T2 RNases, i.e., the protein family including all S-RNases from S-RNase-based GSI plants, and constructed a phylogenetic tree using the screened T2 RNases and S-RNases retrieved from citrus genome databases and a public database. Three major clusters (class I-III) were formed, among which, the class III cluster contained family specific subclusters formed by S-RNase and a citrus-specific cluster monophyletic to the S-RNase clusters. From the citrus class III cluster, six transcripts were consistent with the S haplotypes previously determined in Japanese citrus accessions, sharing characteristics such as isoelectric point, extracellular localization, molecular weight, intron number and position, and tissue-specific expression with S-RNases. One T2 RNase gene in self-incompatible Hyuganatsu was significantly down-regulated in the styles of a self-compatible mutant of Hyuganatsu in RNA-seq and qPCR analyses. In addition, the inheritance pattern of some T2 RNase genes was consistent with the pattern of the S haplotype in the progeny population of Hyuganatsu and Tosabuntan. As all results supported citrus self-incompatibility being based on S-RNase, we believe that six T2 RNase genes were S-RNases. The homology comparison between the six T2 RNases and S-RNases recently reported in Chinese citrus revealed that three out of six T2 RNases were identical to S-RNases from Chinese citrus. Thus, the other three T2 RNases were finally concluded to be novel citrus S-RNases involved in self-incompatibility.

6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477297

RESUMO

Mal secco is one of the most severe diseases of citrus, caused by the necrotrophic fungus Plenodomus tracheiphilus. With the main aim of identifying candidate genes involved in the response of citrus plants to "Mal secco", we performed a de novo transcriptome analysis of rough lemon seedlings subjected to inoculation of P. tracheiphilus. The analysis of differential expressed genes (DEGs) highlighted a sharp response triggered by the pathogen as a total of 4986 significant DEGs (2865 genes up-regulated and 2121 down-regulated) have been revealed. The analysis of the most significantly enriched KEGG pathways indicated that a crucial role is played by genes involved in "Plant hormone signal transduction", "Phenylpropanoid biosynthesis", and "Carbon metabolism". The main findings of this work are that under fungus challenge, the rough lemon genes involved both in the light harvesting and the photosynthetic electron flow were significantly down-regulated, thus probably inducing a shortage of energy for cellular functions. Moreover, the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) was activated through the induced salicylic acid cascade. Interestingly, RPM1 interacting protein 4, an essential positive regulator of plant defense, and BIR2, which is a negative regulator of basal level of immunity, have been identified thus representing useful targets for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/genética , Citrus/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Micoses/genética , Fotossíntese , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
7.
Plant J ; 104(5): 1215-1232, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32985030

RESUMO

Trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata), a deciduous close relative of evergreen Citrus, has important traits for citrus production, including tolerance/resistance to citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing, HLB) and other major diseases, and cold tolerance. It has been one of the most important rootstocks, and one of the most valuable sources of resistance and tolerance genes for citrus. Here we present a high-quality, chromosome-scale genome assembly of P. trifoliata. The 264.9-Mb assembly contains nine chromosomal pseudomolecules with 25 538 protein-coding genes, covering 97.2% of the estimated gene space. Comparative analyses of P. trifoliata and nine Citrus genomes revealed 605 species-specific genes and six rapidly evolving gene families in the P. trifoliata genome. Poncirus trifoliata has evolved specific adaptation in the C-repeat/DREB binding factor (CBF)-dependent and CBF-independent cold signaling pathways to tolerate cold. We identified candidate genes within quantitative trait loci for HLB tolerance, and at the loci for resistance to citrus tristeza virus and citrus nematode. Genetic diversity analysis of Poncirus accessions and Poncirus/Citrus hybrids shows a narrow genetic base in the US germplasm collection, and points to the importance of collecting and preserving more natural genetic variation. Two phenotypically divergent Poncirus accessions are found to be clonally related, supporting a previous conjecture that dwarf Flying Dragon originated as a mutant of a non-dwarfing type. The high-quality genome reveals features and evolutionary insights of Poncirus, and it will serve as a valuable resource for genetic, genomic and molecular research and manipulation in citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Resposta ao Choque Frio/genética , Genoma de Planta , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Poncirus/genética , Quimera , Closterovirus/patogenicidade , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Variação Genética , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Família Multigênica , Infecções por Nematoides/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Proteínas/genética , Proteínas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Seleção Genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
8.
Plants (Basel) ; 9(7)2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629813

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening, is the most destructive disease of citrus worldwide. In the United States, this disease is associated with a phloem-restricted bacterium, Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Commercial citrus cultivars are susceptible to HLB, but Poncirus trifoliata, a close relative of Citrus, is highly tolerant of HLB. Isolating P. trifoliata gene(s) controlling its HLB tolerance followed by expressing the gene(s) in citrus is considered a potential cisgenic approach to engineering citrus for tolerance to HLB. Previous gene expression studies indicated that the constitutive disease resistance (CDR) genes in P. trifoliata (PtCDRs) may play a vital role in its HLB tolerance. This study was designed to use Arabidopsis mutants as a model system to confirm the function of PtCDRs in plant disease resistance. PtCDR2 and PtCDR8 were amplified from P. trifoliata cDNA and transferred into the Arabidopsis cdr1 mutant, whose resident CDR1 gene was disrupted by T-DNA insertion. The PtCDR2 and PtCDR8 transgenic Arabidopsis cdr1 mutant restored its hypersensitive response to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000) expressing avrRpt2. The defense marker gene PATHOGENESIS RELATED 1 (PR1) expressed at much higher levels in the PtCDR2 or PtCDR8 transgenic cdr1 mutant than in the non-transgenic cdr1 mutant with or without pathogen infection. Multiplication of Pst DC3000 bacteria in Arabidopsis was inhibited by the expression of PtCDR2 and PtCDR8. Our results showed that PtCDR2 and PtCDR8 were functional in Arabidopsis and played a positive role in disease resistance and demonstrated that Arabidopsis mutants can be a useful alternate system for screening Poncirus genes before making the time-consuming effort to transfer them into citrus, a perennial woody plant that is highly recalcitrant for Agrobacterium or biolistic-mediated transformation.

9.
Hortic Res ; 7: 38, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194974

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease that has devastated the Florida citrus industry, threatens the entire U.S. citrus industry, and globally is rapidly spreading. Florida's citrus production is 90% sweet orange, which is quite sensitive to HLB. The heavy reliance on sweet orange for Florida citrus production makes the industry especially vulnerable to diseases that are damaging to this type of citrus. Furthermore, 90% of Florida oranges are used in producing orange juice that is defined by a federal regulation known as the "orange juice standard", specifying that at least 90% of "orange juice" must be derived from Citrus sinensis. Genomic analyses definitively reveal that sweet orange is not a true species, but just one of many introgression hybrids of C. reticulata and C. maxima, with phenotypic diversity resulting from accumulated mutations in this single hybrid, the "sweet orange". No other fruit industry is limited by law to such a narrow genetic base. Fortunately, there are new citrus hybrids displaying reduced sensitivity to HLB, and in some cases they produce juice, alone or in blends, that consumers would recognize as "orange juice". Reconsidering current regulations on orange juice standards may permit use of such hybrids in "orange juice", providing greater latitude for commercialization of these hybrids, leading to higher-quality orange juice and a more sustainable Florida orange juice industry.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(10): 3286-3296, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32052973

RESUMO

The bacterial disease Huanglongbing (HLB) has been causing large economic losses in the citrus industry worldwide. Aimed at unraveling the mechanisms of scion/rootstock combination on improving HLB-affected orange juice quality, a specific scion/rootstock combination field trial was designed using three sibling rootstocks and two late-maturing sweet orange scion cultivars. Scion/rootstock combination significantly improved the overall consumer liking of orange juice from the HLB-affected trees. Rootstocks showed significant effects on the consumer liking and overall flavor, while scions had significant effects on the freshness and overall orange flavor intensity of the juice. A PLS-DA model combined with KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and some biomarker metabolites further indicated that scions mainly affected metabolism of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate in orange fruits. Meanwhile, rootstocks had an impact on the biosynthetic pathways of secondary metabolites. Sugars and organic acids were not closely correlated with the overall liking and sensory perception of orange juice. Rather, flavonoids, terpenoids, and volatile aromas played important roles in improving consumer overall liking. These results indicated that an optimum tolerant scion/rootstock combination can make a positive contribution toward improved fruit or juice quality from HLB-affected citrus trees.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Citrus sinensis/genética , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Humanos , Metabolômica , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Rhizobiaceae/fisiologia , Metabolismo Secundário , Paladar
11.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059041

RESUMO

Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB), which is also known as citrus greening, is a destructive disease continuing to devastate citrus production worldwide. Although all citrus varieties can be infected with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas), a certain level of HLB tolerance of scion varieties can be conferred by some rootstocks. To understand the effects of rootstock varieties on orange fruit under CaLas stress, comparative iTRAQ proteomic profilings were conducted, using fruit from 'Valencia' sweet orange grafted on the sensitive ('Swingle') and tolerant rootstocks (a new selection called '46x20-04-48') infected by CaLas as experimental groups, and the same plant materials without CaLas infection as controls. The symptomatic fruit on 'Swingle' had 573 differentially-expressed (DE) proteins in comparison with their healthy fruit on the same rootstock, whereas the symptomatic fruit on '46x20-04-48' had 263 DE proteins. Many defense-associated proteins were down-regulated in the symptomatic fruit on 'Swingle' rootstock that were seldom detected in the symptomatic fruit on the '46x20-04-48' rootstock, especially the proteins involved in the jasmonate biosynthesis (AOC4), jasmonate signaling (ASK2, RUB1, SKP1, HSP70T-2, and HSP90.1), protein hydrolysis (RPN8A and RPT2a), and vesicle trafficking (SNAREs and Clathrin) pathways. Therefore, we predict that the down-regulated proteins involved in the jasmonate signaling pathway and vesicle trafficking are likely to be related to citrus sensitivity to the CaLas pathogen.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/genética , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobiaceae/patogenicidade , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Defensinas/genética , Defensinas/metabolismo , Resistência à Doença/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/microbiologia , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/genética , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Proteoma/genética , Proteoma/metabolismo , Proteômica , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 101, 2019 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866831

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Valencene is a major sesquiterpene in citrus oil and biosynthesized by valencene synthase (Cstps1; EC: 4.2.3.73) from the 15-carbon substrate farnesyl diphosphate. It is abundant in juice of some mandarins (e.g. Citrus reticulata Blanco cv. Fortune), however, it is undetectable in others (e.g. C. reticulata Blanco cv. Murcott), We have discovered that the Murcott mandarin Cstps1 gene expression is severely reduced. A previous genetic mapping study using an F1 population of Fortune × Murcott found that the segregation of valencene production in fruit exhibited a Mendelian inheritance ratio of 1:1. There was only one dominant locus associated with valencene content detected on the mandarin genetic map. The goal of this study was to understand the molecular mechanism underlying the valencene deficiency observed in some citrus hybrids. RESULTS: There was a clear relationship between presence or absence of the valencene synthase gene (Cstps1) expression, and presence or absence of valencene among randomly selected mandarin hybrids. Cloning the coding regions of Cstps1 from Fortune and Murcott mandarin, and aligning with previous reported Valencia orange Cstps1 sequence, showed that they both exhibited extremely high similarity with the known Cstps1. By further cloning and analyzing the promoter region of Cstps1 from Valencia, Fortune and Murcott, a 12-nucleotide deletion at approximately - 270 bp from the Cstps1 coding region was only found in Murcott. Three binary vectors, designated as p1380-FortP-GUSin, p1380-MurcP-GUSin and p1380-MurcP(+ 12)-GUSin, were developed for promoter activity analysis. Transient over-expression of Fortune Cstps1 promoter in sweet orange showed notable GUS activity, but the Murcott Cstps1 promoter did not. In addition, by re-inserting the 12-nucleotide fragment, the activity of the Murcott Cstps1 promoter was mostly recovered. CONCLUSION: The deficiency of valencene production in some mandarins is probably due to a 12-nucleotide deletion in the promoter region of the Cstps1, which could be a crucial switch of Cstps1 transcription. Our results further enhanced the understanding of valencene biosynthesis in citrus.


Assuntos
Alquil e Aril Transferases/metabolismo , Citrus/enzimologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Alquil e Aril Transferases/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Citrus/genética , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fosfatos de Poli-Isoprenil/metabolismo , Deleção de Sequência
13.
Hortic Res ; 6: 31, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30792870

RESUMO

Orange fruit from trees infected by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas) often do not look fully mature and exhibit off-flavours described as bitter, harsh, and metallic rather than juicy and fruity. Although previous studies have been carried out to understand the effect of CaLas on the flavour of orange juice using metabolomic methods, the mechanisms leading to the off-flavour that occurs in Huanglongbing (HLB)-symptomatic fruit are not well understood. In this study, fruits were collected from symptomatic and healthy Valencia sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) trees grafted on Swingle (C. paradisi X Poncirus trifoliata) rootstock. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to measure the proteins, sugars, organic acids, amino acids, and volatile terpenoids. The results showed that most of the differentially expressed proteins involved in glycolysis, the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and amino-acid biosynthesis were degraded, and terpenoid metabolism was significantly downregulated in the symptomatic fruit. Valencene, limonene, 3-carene, linalool, myrcene, and α-terpineol levels were significantly lower in fruit from CaLas-infected trees than from healthy trees. Similar phenomena were observed for sucrose and glucose. Our study indicated that off-flavour of symptomatic fruit was associated with a reduction in the levels of terpenoid products and the downregulation of proteins in glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and the terpenoid biosynthesis pathway.

14.
Front Plant Sci ; 9: 1694, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30542355

RESUMO

Huanglongbing (HLB), or citrus greening, is the most devastating disease in citrus worldwide. Commercial citrus varieties including sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) are highly susceptible to HLB, and trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata, a close Citrus relative) is widely considered resistant or highly tolerant to HLB. In this study, an intergeneric F1 population of sweet orange and trifoliate orange was genotyped by Genotyping-by-Sequencing, and high-density SNP-based genetic maps were constructed separately for trifoliate orange and sweet orange. The two genetic maps exhibited high synteny and high coverage of the citrus genome. Progenies of the F1 population and their parents were planted in a replicated field trial, exposed to intense HLB pressure for 3 years, and then evaluated for susceptibility to HLB over 2 years. The F1 population exhibited a wide range in severity of HLB foliar symptom and canopy damage. Genome-wide QTL analysis based on the phenotypic data of foliar symptom and canopy damage in 2 years identified three clusters of repeatable QTLs in trifoliate orange linkage groups LG-t6, LG-t8 and LG-t9. Co-localization of QTLs for two traits was observed within all three regions. Additionally, one cluster of QTLs in sweet orange (linkage group LG-s7) was also detected. The majority of the identified QTLs each explained 18-30% of the phenotypic variation, indicating their major role in determining HLB responses. These results show, for the first time, a quantitative genetic nature yet the presence of major loci for the HLB tolerance in trifoliate orange. The results suggest that sweet orange also contains useful genetic factor(s) for improving HLB tolerance in commercial citrus varieties. Findings from this study should be very valuable and timely to researchers worldwide as they are hastily searching for genetic solutions to the devastating HLB crisis through breeding, genetic engineering, or genome editing.

15.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 129: 1-10, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29783096

RESUMO

Citrus tolerance to huanglongbing could result from tolerance to the pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) and/or to its vector Diaphorina citri. Field observations and greenhouse-controlled studies showed that some citrus cultivars were more tolerant than others. However, the mechanism(s) behind the tolerance has not been determined yet. Using GC-MS, we investigated the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and the non-volatile metabolite profiles of two tolerant citrus cultivars- Australian finger lime, 'LB8-9' Sugar Belle® mandarin hybrid, and a recently released mandarin hybrid 'Bingo'. The three were grafted onto the rootstock, Carrizo citrange. Our findings showed that the metabolomic profiles of Australian finger lime were different from that of 'LB8-9'. Finger lime was high in many amino acids and tricarboxylic acid intermediates, whereas 'LB8-9' was high in several amino acids, sugars, and sugar alcohols. 'LB8-9' was high in thymol, which is known for its strong antimicrobial activity against a panel of pathogenic bacteria. The metabolomic profiles of 'Bingo' were intensely different from the other mandarin hybrid, 'LB8-9', including a reduced thymol biosynthetic pathway and low amounts of most of the amino acids and sugar alcohols. Remarkably, 1,8-cineole (eucalyptol) was only detected in 'Bingo', indicating that eucalyptol could have feeding and ovipositional repellency against D. citri. The metabolite profiles generated for HLB-tolerant citrus species will improve the ability of citrus breeders and will allow them to take more informed decisions. Metabolomic profiling of HLB-tolerant citrus species could identify tolerance specific markers that can be introduced to other commercial citrus cultivars to improve their tolerance to HLB disease.


Assuntos
Citrus/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Citrus/metabolismo , Citrus/fisiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Imunidade Vegetal , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
16.
Hortic Res ; 5: 13, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29531752

RESUMO

Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium-mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase (PDS) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants. We produced pds mutant shoots at a rate of 47.5% from tobacco leaf explants, without the use of antibiotic selection. Among these pds plants, 17.2% were confirmed to be non-transgenic, for an overall non-transgenic mutation rate of 8.2%. Our method is reliable and effective in creating non-transgenic mutant plants without the need to segregate out transgenes through sexual reproduction. This method should be applicable to many economically important, heterozygous, perennial crop species that are more difficult to regenerate.

17.
Nature ; 554(7692): 311-316, 2018 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29414943

RESUMO

The genus Citrus, comprising some of the most widely cultivated fruit crops worldwide, includes an uncertain number of species. Here we describe ten natural citrus species, using genomic, phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses of 60 accessions representing diverse citrus germ plasms, and propose that citrus diversified during the late Miocene epoch through a rapid southeast Asian radiation that correlates with a marked weakening of the monsoons. A second radiation enabled by migration across the Wallace line gave rise to the Australian limes in the early Pliocene epoch. Further identification and analyses of hybrids and admixed genomes provides insights into the genealogy of major commercial cultivars of citrus. Among mandarins and sweet orange, we find an extensive network of relatedness that illuminates the domestication of these groups. Widespread pummelo admixture among these mandarins and its correlation with fruit size and acidity suggests a plausible role of pummelo introgression in the selection of palatable mandarins. This work provides a new evolutionary framework for the genus Citrus.


Assuntos
Citrus/classificação , Citrus/genética , Evolução Molecular , Especiação Genética , Genoma de Planta/genética , Genômica , Filogenia , Ásia Sudeste , Biodiversidade , Produção Agrícola/história , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , História Antiga , Migração Humana , Hibridização Genética
18.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(5): 1296-1304, 2018 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29328677

RESUMO

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) is the presumed causal agent of Huanglongbing, one of the most destructive diseases in citrus. However, the lipid metabolism component of host response to this pathogen has not been investigated well. Here, metabolic profiling of a variety of long-chain fatty acids and their oxidation products was first performed to elucidate altered host metabolic responses of disease. Fatty acid signals were found to decrease obviously in response to disease regardless of cultivar. Several lipid oxidation products strongly correlated with those fatty acids were also consistently reduced in the diseased group. Using a series of statistical methods and metabolic pathway mapping, we found significant markers contributing to the pathological symptoms and identified their internal relationships and metabolic network. Our findings suggest that the infection of CLas may cause the altered metabolism of long-chain fatty acids, possibly leading to manipulation of the host's defense derived from fatty acids.


Assuntos
Citrus/metabolismo , Citrus/microbiologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobiaceae , Citrus paradisi/metabolismo , Citrus paradisi/microbiologia , Citrus sinensis/metabolismo , Citrus sinensis/microbiologia , Florida , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Metabolômica , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 98(3): 1124-1131, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28731231

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Citrus fruit flavor is an important attribute prioritized in variety improvement. The present study compared juice volatiles compositions from 13 selected citrus genotypes, including six mandarins (Citrus reticulata), three sour oranges (Citrus aurantium), one blood orange (Citrus sinensis), one lime (Citrus limonia), one Clementine (Citrus clementina) and one satsuma (Citrus unshiu). RESULTS: Large differences were observed with respect to volatile compositions among the citrus genotypes. 'Goutou' sour orange contained the greatest number of volatile compounds and the largest volatile production level. 'Ponkan' mandarin had the smallest number of volatiles and 'Owari' satsuma yielded the lowest volatile production level. 'Goutou' sour orange and 'Moro' blood orange were clearly distinguished from other citrus genotypes based on the analysis of volatile compositions, even though they were assigned into one single group with two other sour oranges by the molecular marker profiles. CONCLUSIONS: The clustering analysis based on the aroma volatile compositions was able to differentiate mandarin varieties and natural sub-groups, and was also supported by the molecular marker study. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of citrus juice aroma volatiles can be used as a tool to distinguish citrus genotypes and assist in the assessment of future citrus breeding programs. The aroma volatile profiles of the different citrus genotypes and inter-relationships detected among volatile compounds and among citrus genotypes will provide fundamental information on the development of marker-assisted selection in citrus breeding. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Citrus/classificação , Citrus/genética , Aromatizantes/química , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Genótipo , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Paladar
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 66(1): 203-211, 2018 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237265

RESUMO

Pioneering investigations referring to citrus flavor have been intensively conducted. However, the characteristic flavor difference between sweet orange and mandarin has not been defined. In this study, sensory analysis illustrated the crucial role of aroma in the differentiation between orange flavor and mandarin flavor. To study aroma, Valencia orange and LB8-9 mandarin were used. Their most aroma-active compounds were preliminarily identified by aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Quantitation of key volatiles followed by calculation of odor activity values (OAVs) further detected potent components (OAV ≥ 1) impacting the overall aromatic profile of orange/mandarin. Follow-up aroma profile analysis revealed that ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, octanal, decanal, and acetaldehyde were essential for orange-like aroma, whereas linalool, octanal, α-pinene, limonene, and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal were considered key components for mandarin-like aroma. Furthermore, an unreleased mandarin hybrid producing fruit with orange-like flavor was used to validate the identification of characteristic volatiles in orange-like aroma.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus/química , Aromatizantes/química , Adulto , Feminino , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adulto Jovem
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