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1.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 200(1): 281-297, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33624220

RESUMO

Given environmental contamination with toxic metals, diets that promote the elimination of these metals from the body of individuals, including those suffering from obesity, are urgently needed. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplementation with resveratrol (Res), L-carnitine (L-Car), tyrosine (Tyr), and tryptophan (Trp) on the content of trace elements in the organs of mice. DBA/2J mice and DBCB tetrahybrid mice received diets high in carbohydrate and fat supplemented with Res, L-Car, Tyr, or Trp for 65 days. In the liver, kidneys, and brain, the contents of 18 elements, including Al, As, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Se, and Zn, were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Res, L-Car, Tyr, and Trp had minimal or no effect on the essential elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Zn, Se) in all organs studied. The Mn content notably increased in the organs of mice consuming L-Car and Trp. Mn accumulation was stimulated by Res in organs exclusively in DBCB mice and by Tyr exclusively in livers and brains of DBA/2J mice. Al levels were significantly reduced by L-Car and Trp in all organs of the mice, by Res in only DBCB mice, and by Tyr in only kidneys and livers of DBA/2J mice. In addition, L-Car and Trp decreased Pb accumulation in most organs of mice. Res and Tyr also inhibited Pb accumulation in some cases. Thus, the studied supplements affected the metabolism of trace elements, which may contribute to dietary treatments for obese individuals.


Assuntos
Oligoelementos , Aminoácidos Aromáticos , Animais , Carnitina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073081

RESUMO

We studied the effects of the addition of large neutral amino acids, such as tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp), in mice DBA/2J and tetrahybrid mice DBCB receiving a high-fat, high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD) for 65 days. The locomotor activity, anxiety, muscle tone, mass of internal organs, liver morphology, adipokines, cytokines, and biochemical indices of animals were assessed. The Tyr supplementation potentiated increased anxiety in EPM and contributed to a muscle tone increase, a decrease in the AST/ALT ratio, and an increase in protein anabolism in both mice strains. Tyr contributed to a decrease in liver fatty degeneration and ALT reduction only in DBCB that were sensitive to the development of obesity. The addition of Trp caused an increase in muscle tone and potentiated an increase in anxiety with age in animals of both genotypes. Trp had toxic effects on the livers of mice, which was manifested in increased fatty degeneration in DBCB, edema, and the appearance of micronuclei in DBA/2J. The main identified effects of Tyr on mice are considered in the light of its modulating effect on the dopamine neurotransmitter metabolism, while for the Trp supplement, effects were presumably associated with the synthesis of its toxic metabolites by representatives of the intestinal microflora.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Obesidade/metabolismo , Triptofano , Tirosina , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dopamina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Triptofano/administração & dosagem , Triptofano/metabolismo , Tirosina/administração & dosagem , Tirosina/metabolismo
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670919

RESUMO

Amino acids tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) play a significant role in the regulation of energy metabolism, locomotor activity, and eating behavior. We studied the possibility of modulating these processes in obesity by increasing the pool of Tyr and Trp in the experimental diet. As a model of obesity, we used Wistar rats fed a diet with an excess specific energy value (HFCD) for 64 days. Trp led to a normalization of the rats' body weight almost to the control level, but increased anxiety-like behavior and decreased long-term memory. The consumption of amino acids resulted in increased grip strength and impairment of short-term memory. The locomotor activity of animals decreased with age as a result of Tyr consumption, while Trp, on the contrary, prevented this. The Tyr supplementation led to the normalization of triglycerides and LDL. In the spleen cell lysates, amino acids suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines. The liver tissue morphology showed that the consumption of Tyr noticeably weakened the signs of fatty degeneration. The addition of Trp, on the contrary, led to an unfavorable effect, consisting of the appearance of a high number of large rounded fatty vacuoles. The data obtained indicate a more pronounced anti-inflammatory effect of Tyr as compared to Trp.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/etiologia , Triptofano/metabolismo , Tirosina/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal , Citocinas , Metabolismo Energético , Comportamento Alimentar , Inflamação , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Memória , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Triglicerídeos , Triptofano/farmacologia , Tirosina/farmacologia
4.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 64: 126687, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33290928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The levels of a number of essential and toxic trace elements in organs and tissues are affected by the disruptions in body homeostasis caused by obesity. Some of these elements may also be influenced by the consumption of biologically active substances of polyphenolic origin, which possess potent abilities to complex with transition metal ions. AIMS: The aim of this study was to determine the content of essential and toxic trace elements in Wistar outbred and hereditary obese Zucker Leprfa (Z) rats consuming a standard balanced diet or hypercaloric diet with excess fat and fructose, supplemented with quercetin or not supplemented. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Wistar and Z rats were fed a control AIN-93M-based semi-synthetic diet or a high-fat-high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD, with 30% fat by weight and 20% fructose provided in the drinking water). A portion of the animals in each line and diet group was administered quercetin at 50 mg/kg body weight. Essential trace elements were included in the diets as a high-purity salt mixture. After the termination of feeding on day 63, the livers, kidneys, and brains of the rats were excised and the content of 16 elements (Fe, Mg, Cu, Mn, Co, Se, Zn, Cr, Ni, Al, Cd, As, Pb, V, Cs, and Ag) was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). RESULTS: In the livers of the Z rats, the contents of Co, Zn, Mg, Fe, Se, and V were reduced and the content of Cr was increased compared to that of the Wistar rats. Supplementation with quercetin significantly decreased liver Fe, V, and Se content, which was more noticeable in the Wistar rats than in the Z rats. In kidneys of Z rats consuming control diet, the contents of Co, Cu, and Cs were decreased whereas those of Ni, Al, and Se were increased compared with the contents in the Wistar rats. The same trend was observed with HFCD feeding except for Cs content. Quercetin reduced kidney V content in both rat lines fed both diets, whereas it reduced Se and Cs only in the Z rats fed control diet. In the brains of the Z rats, a large increase was observed in some trace elements including Pb, Cd, Al, Cr, Ni, Fe, and V compared with the levels in the Wistar rat brains. Supplementation of the control diet with quercetin decreased Al and Ni in the brains of the Z rats. CONCLUSION: There were significant differences in the mineral content of organs between the Wistar and Z rats, with different propensities for obesity. Moreover some of these effects had no straightforward association with decreased feed consumption or hepatic fat accumulation. When introduced into the diets, quercetin affected the content of essential and toxic elements, but with ambiguous physiological significance. Thus, indicators of essential and toxic trace elements deserve to be used in the protocols of preclinical as well as clinical trials of biologically active substances and food supplements.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Quercetina/toxicidade , Oligoelementos/toxicidade , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Zucker , Oligoelementos/administração & dosagem
5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 88: 108527, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33068743

RESUMO

Polyphenolic biologically active substances (BAS) including resveratrol (R) can exert beneficial effects on fat accumulation, blood pressure, glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and plasma lipid profile in patients with obesity, and associated diseases. The study aimed to determine the effect of R at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight on the DBA/2J and DBCB mice with diet-induced obesity followed by the consumption high-fat high-carbohydrate diet (HFCD). Behavioral reactions (elevated plus maze [EPM]) and muscle tone (the strength of the forepaw grip) were tested, and plasma biochemical and immunological parameters were assessed. In the repeated EPM test, anxiety increased only in DBCB mice during the second trial. In DBCB mice treated with HFCD, the muscle tone decreased with the second trial; however, this effect was not observed in the background of R consumption. R decreased the level of triglycerides, diminished the activities of alanine and asparagine aminotransferases, which were elevated upon HFCD consumption. Ghrelin level increased after R consumption in mice of both genotypes. The leptin to ghrelin ratio was reduced in DBCB mice receiving R. Consumption of R increased IL-3 and IL-10 levels in both DBA/2J and DBCB mice. IL-12p70 level increased in DBCB mice in response to R. R addition to HFCD reduced several symptoms of dyslipidemia in highly sensitive tetrahybrid mice. The results obtained indicate the importance of a personalized (depending on the genotype) approach when any R prescription, among other BAS and dietary factors, are used in diet therapy for patients with low, moderate and high-risk obesity.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Comportamento Animal , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Gorduras na Dieta/farmacologia , Teste de Labirinto em Cruz Elevado , Frutose/farmacologia , Grelina/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Interleucina-10/metabolismo , Interleucina-3/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Obesidade/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
6.
Nutrition ; 95: 111561, 2021 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34999386

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Transresveratrol (Res) and l-carnitine (l-Car) are proposed to alleviate metabolic and immune disorders and increase physical activity in obese individuals. This study aims to estimate the effect of Res and l-Car in rats with diet-induced obesity. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were fed a diet with excess fat and fructose (high-fat high-carbohydrate diet [HFCD]) supplemented with Res and l-Car at doses of 25 and 300 mg/kg of body weight, respectively, for 63 d. An assessment of grip strength, behavioral reactions, as well as biochemical, morphological, and immunological parameters, was performed. RESULTS: Res supplementation did not affect energy consumption, but l-Car increased when animals had free access to feed. Body weight gains were the highest in animals fed the HFCD, lowest in rats receiving the control balanced diet, and intermediate in animals receiving Res and l-Car. Feeding with Res and l-Car canceled the decrease in long-term memory in rats fed the HFCD, as well as reduced anxiety and increased mobility. With both supplements, bilirubin, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels in the blood plasma returned to normal values, but only l-Car increased the ratio of aspartic and alanine transaminases. In addition, l-Car lowered the levels of leptin and ghrelin and increased transforming growth factor beta 1 in the blood plasma, and consumption of Res was accompanied by a decrease in interleukin-17A and increase in interferon gamma in spleen lysates. Moreover, l-Car reduced the number of cells with lipid inclusions in the liver. CONCLUSIONS: The consumption of Res and l-Car leads to a significant reduction in dyslipidemia and inflammation with potentially favorable changes in behavioral responses.

7.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 10(11)2020 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33114664

RESUMO

The experimental data on the oral toxicity of nanostructured amorphous silica (SiO2), widely used in food supplements, pharmaceuticals, and cosmetics, in terms of its in vivo effect on the immune system, are contradictory. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the rat's immune function after SiO2 oral administration. In the first experiment, SiO2 was daily orally administered to Wistar rats for 92 days in doses of 0.1, 1.0, 10, and 100 mg/kg of body weight (bw). In the second 28-day experiment, SiO2 in a dose of 100 mg/kg bw was daily orally administered to rats parenterally immunized with the food allergen ovalbumin (OVA) for the reproduction of systemic anaphylaxis reaction. Together with integral indices, we assessed intestinal permeability to protein macromolecules; hematology; CD45RA+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD161a+ cells; cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10; and IgG to OVA. The results obtained showed that SiO2 has no effect on the severity of the anaphylactic reaction, but is capable inducing a toxic effect on the T-cell immune systems of rats. Estimated no observed adverse effect level NOAEL for SiO2 ranges up to 100 mg/kg bw in terms of its daily consumption for 1-3 months. Using SiO2 as a food additive should be the subject of regulation.

8.
Behav Brain Res ; 378: 112270, 2020 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585131

RESUMO

Quercetin can affect some pathological manifestations in obesity. The mechanism underlying the presumed therapeutic effect of quercetin is probably related to the influence on the central processes regulating energy homeostasis. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of quercetin on the neuromotor and behavioral functions in Zucker (Z) and Wistar (W) rats with genetically and/or diet-induced obesity. Rats of both strains received balanced or high fat and fructose diet (HFCD) in a 62-day experiment or the same diets supplemented with quercetin at the dose of 50 mg/kg body weight per day. The neuromotor function and behavioral responses were examined using the grip strength test, open field test, elevated plus maze test and conditioned passive avoidance response (CPAR) test. The quercetin potentiated a decrease in anxiety in W rats consumed HFCD and this effect was absent in Z rats with a defect in the leptin receptor gene. In contrast, quercetin increased locomotor activity and impaired short-term memory in the CPAR test only in Z rats with the absence of normal leptin reception. Against the background of the identified changes quercetin exerted significant effects on the lipid and nitrogen metabolism indices such as HDL cholesterol, AsAT/AlAT activities ratio, urea level as well as body and fat mass that were different in Z and W rats. The data obtained show that the effects of quercetin on behavior vary significantly between two strains of rat and consequently are mediated by processes of leptin reception.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Aprendizagem/efeitos dos fármacos , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Força Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Quercetina/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Masculino , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ratos Zucker , Receptores para Leptina/genética
9.
Physiol Rep ; 7(4): e13987, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30784211

RESUMO

We compared anxiety, neuromotor, and cognitive functions in mutant rats with different allelic variants of dopamine transporter DAT knockout receiving balanced or excess in fat and fructose diet. The experiments were performed in DAT-/- homozygotes, DAT+/- heterozygotes, and DAT+/+ wild type rats. The genotype of DAT-KO rats was confirmed by restriction analysis of DAT gene compared to behavioral responses in the open field test (OF). Animals in the first groups of each strain were fed a balanced AIN93M diet; and those in the second groups with a high-fat/high-fructose diet. Neuromotor function was studied as grip strength, and behavioral responses were assessed in the elevated plus maze and conditioned passive avoidance response tests. The mass of the internal organs and white and brown fat, as well as selected lipid and nitrogen metabolism parameters in blood plasma were determined at the end of the experiment. DAT-/- had the highest specific grip strength, and showed an increase in initial exploratory activity in comparison with DAT+/- and DAT +/+. The exploratory activity was significantly reduced in the second test compared to the first one in DAT-/- and DAT+/- of first but not second group. Anxiety decreased with age in the second groups of DAT+/- and DAT+/+ (but not in DAT-/-) and was higher in DAT+/+ than in DAT+/- and DAT-/-. Excess fat and fructose resulted in the deterioration of short-term memory in DAT+/+. Lipidomic indices of blood plasma were less responsive to diet in DAT-/- and DAT-/+ in comparison to DAT+/+. The increased AsAT/AlAT activity ratio in DAT-/- compared with those in DAT+/+ suggests the activation of catabolism activity in the mutants. The consumption of excess fat and fructose significantly modified the effects produced by DAT gene allelic variants presumably due to the influence on the processes of dopamine metabolism.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/metabolismo , Cognição , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/genética , Força da Mão , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/fisiologia , Animais , Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Proteínas da Membrana Plasmática de Transporte de Dopamina/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Biotechnol J ; 2(10): 1297-305, 2007 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17546707

RESUMO

Population satiety with trace elements (TE) is a problem that is widely discussed in nutrition science. For optimal nutrition, the form of TE eaten in food is very important. Organic forms of TE in nutrition are appropriate as human metabolism has adapted to these kinds of nutrients during species evolution. This is now considered a reason for the beneficial use of biotechnologically produced TE sources in human food. Advanced matrixes for TE incorporation are unicellular organisms such as yeast, lactobacilli and Spirulina. Addition of inorganic salts at certain concentrations into cultivation media enables the mineral ions to incorporate into the microbial biomass. As a consequence, the biomass becomes enriched with organic forms of incorporated TE, which are presented by their complexes with amino acids, proteins and probably lipids and polysaccharides. In addition, a new direction of research has made good advances, in which technology has been developed for production of organic forms of TE through complex formation between transition metals (zinc, copper, manganese, chromium, iron) with amino acids and peptides formed during enzymatic hydrolysis of food protein. This brief review discusses the results demonstrating the advances in the biotechnological production of new TE sources, to obtain food components destined for wide prophylaxis of TE deficiency or for dietary treatment of the adverse consequences of these deficiencies.


Assuntos
Biotecnologia/métodos , Biotecnologia/tendências , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/tendências , Oligoelementos/síntese química , Oligoelementos/metabolismo
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