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1.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 111983, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513545

RESUMO

The 2010 Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil spill affected nearly 1105 km of coastal marsh. Long-term shoreline loss in the northern Gulf of Mexico is an important question with far-reaching ecological and human-use implications. Numerous studies have examined potential exacerbated marsh shoreline retreat after the DWH using ground-level sampling and/or aerial/satellite imagery interpretation. This paper reviews previous DWH erosion studies, discusses their limitations and sometimes conflicting results, and provides a comprehensive analysis of a larger data set. Shoreline retreat measurements from multiple studies following the DWH incident were combined for 131 herbaceous marsh sample sites for the period from Fall 2010 to Summer 2015. Significant increases in shoreline loss were found only in the period from Fall 2010 to Fall 2011 for heavily oiled shorelines relative to other periods. The evidence does not suggest widespread long-term coastal marsh erosion from the DWH.


Assuntos
Poluição por Petróleo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Monitoramento Ambiental , Golfo do México , Humanos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Áreas Alagadas
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 12(8): 10639-58, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23112620

RESUMO

The characterization of soil attributes using hyperspectral sensors has revealed patterns in soil spectra that are known to respond to mineral composition, organic matter, soil moisture and particle size distribution. Soil samples from different soil horizons of replicated soil series from sites located within Washington and Oregon were analyzed with the FieldSpec Spectroradiometer to measure their spectral signatures across the electromagnetic range of 400 to 1,000 nm. Similarity rankings of individual soil samples reveal differences between replicate series as well as samples within the same replicate series. Using classification and regression tree statistical methods, regression trees were fitted to each spectral response using concentrations of nitrogen, carbon, carbonate and organic matter as the response variables. Statistics resulting from fitted trees were: nitrogen R(2) 0.91 (p < 0.01) at 403, 470, 687, and 846 nm spectral band widths, carbonate R(2) 0.95 (p < 0.01) at 531 and 898 nm band widths, total carbon R(2) 0.93 (p < 0.01) at 400, 409, 441 and 907 nm band widths, and organic matter R(2) 0.98 (p < 0.01) at 300, 400, 441, 832 and 907 nm band widths. Use of the 400 to 1,000 nm electromagnetic range utilizing regression trees provided a powerful, rapid and inexpensive method for assessing nitrogen, carbon, carbonate and organic matter for upper soil horizons in a nondestructive method.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Carbonatos/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Radiometria/métodos , Solo/química , Análise Espectral/métodos , Radiação Eletromagnética , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Oregon , Análise de Regressão , Washington
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