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Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028596


PURPOSE: To compare the clinical characteristics and overall survival (OS) of germline mutation carriers in homologous recombination repair (HRR) genes and noncarriers with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). METHODS: Germline DNA from 3,078 patients with PDAC enrolled in a prospective registry at Mayo Clinic between 2000 and 2017 was analyzed for mutations in 37 cancer predisposition genes. Characteristics and OS of patients with mutations in eight genes (ATM, BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D) involved in HRR were compared with patients testing negative for mutations in all 37 genes. RESULTS: The 175 HRR mutation carriers and 2,730 noncarriers in the study had a median duration of follow-up of 9.9 years. HRR mutation carriers were younger (median age at diagnosis: 63 vs. 66 years, P < 0.001) and more likely to have metastatic disease at diagnosis (46% vs. 36%, P = 0.004). In a multivariable model adjusting for sex, age at diagnosis, and tumor staging, patients with germline HRR mutations had a significantly longer OS compared with noncarriers [HR, 0.83; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70-0.97; P = 0.02]. Further gene-level analysis demonstrated that germline ATM mutation carriers had longer OS compared with patients without germline mutations in any of the 37 genes (HR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94; P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that germline mutation carrier status in PDAC is associated with longer OS compared with noncarriers. Further research into tumor biology and response to platinum-based chemotherapy in germline mutation carriers with PDAC are needed to better understand the association with longer OS.

JCO Precis Oncol ; 4: 32-43, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32832836


PURPOSE: In studies of men of European ancestry, rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair pathway genes have been shown to be associated with risk of aggressive prostate cancer. The contribution of rare coding variation to prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry has not been established. METHODS: We sequenced a panel of 19 DNA repair and cancer predisposition genes in 2,453 African American and 1,151 Ugandan prostate cancer cases and controls. Rare variants were classified as pathogenic or putatively functionally disruptive and examined in association with prostate cancer risk and disease aggressiveness in gene and pathway-level association analyses. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants were found in 75 out of 2,098 cases (3.6%) and 31 out of 1,481 controls (2.1%) (OR=1.82, 95% CI=1.19 to 2.79, P=0.0044) with the association being stronger for more aggressive disease phenotypes (OR=3.10, 95% CI=1.54 to 6.23, P=0.0022). The highest risks for aggressive disease were observed with pathogenic variants in the ATM, BRCA2, PALB2 and NBN genes, with odds ratios ranging from ~4 to 15 in the combined study sample of African American and Ugandan men. Rare, non-pathogenic, non-synonymous variants did not have a major impact on risk of overall prostate cancer or disease aggressiveness. CONCLUSIONS: Rare pathogenic variants in DNA repair genes have appreciable effects on risk of aggressive prostate cancer in men of African ancestry. These findings have potential implications for panel testing and risk stratification in this high-risk population.

J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 May 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427313


BACKGROUND: The risks of breast cancer in African American (AA) women associated with inherited mutations in breast cancer predisposition genes are not well defined. Thus, whether multigene germline hereditary cancer testing panels are applicable to this population is unknown. We assessed associations between mutations in panel-based genes and breast cancer risk in 5054 AA women with breast cancer and 4993 unaffected AA women drawn from 10 epidemiologic studies. METHODS: Germline DNA samples were sequenced for mutations in 23 cancer predisposition genes using a QIAseq multiplex amplicon panel. Prevalence of mutations and odds ratios (ORs) for associations with breast cancer risk were estimated with adjustment for study design, age, and family history of breast cancer. RESULTS: Pathogenic mutations were identified in 10.3% of women with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer, 5.2% of women with ER-positive breast cancer, and 2.3% of unaffected women. Mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2, and PALB2 were associated with high risks of breast cancer (OR = 47.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 10.43 to >100; OR = 7.25, 95% CI = 4.07 to 14.12; OR = 8.54, 95% CI = 3.67 to 24.95, respectively). RAD51D mutations were associated with high risk of ER-negative disease (OR = 7.82, 95% CI = 1.61 to 57.42). Moderate risks were observed for CHEK2, ATM, ERCC3, and FANCC mutations with ER-positive cancer, and RECQL mutations with all breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies genes that predispose to breast cancer in the AA population, demonstrates the validity of current breast cancer testing panels for use in AA women, and provides a basis for increased referral of AA patients for cancer genetic testing.

J Natl Cancer Inst ; 111(3): 264-271, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29982661


BACKGROUND: Increased risk of malignancies other than pancreatic cancer (PC) has been reported among first-degree relatives (FDRs) of PC patients; however, the roles of susceptibility gene mutations are unclear. We assessed risk for 15 cancers among FDRs of unselected PC probands. METHODS: Data on 17 162 FDRs, with more than 336 000 person-years at risk, identified through 2305 sequential PC probands enrolled at Mayo Clinic (2000-2016) were analyzed. Family history data were provided by the probands. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, comparing malignancies observed among the FDRs with that expected using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data. Genetic testing was performed among a subset of probands (n = 2094), enabling stratified analyses among FDRs based on whether the related proband tested positive or negative for inherited mutation in 22 sequenced cancer susceptibility genes. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Compared with SEER, PC risk was twofold higher among FDRs of PC probands (SIR = 2.04, 95% CI = 1.78 to 2.31, P < .001). Primary liver cancer risk was elevated among female FDRs (SIR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.34 to 3.12, P < .001). PC risk was more elevated among FDRs of mutation-positive probands (SIR = 4.32, 95% CI = 3.10 to 5.86) than FDRs of mutation-negative probands (SIR = 1.77, 95% CI = 1.51 to 2.05, between-group P < .001). FDR PC risk was higher when the related proband was younger than age 60 years at diagnosis and mutation-positive (SIR = 5.24, 95% CI = 2.93 to 8.64) than when the proband was younger than age 60 years but mutation-negative (SIR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.21 to 2.47, between-group P < .001). Breast (SIR = 1.29, 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.63) and ovarian (SIR = 2.38, 95% CI = 1.30 to 4.00) cancers were elevated among FDRs of mutation-positive probands. CONCLUSIONS: Our study substantiates twofold risk of PC among FDRs of PC patients and suggests increased risk for primary liver cancer among female FDRs. FDRs of susceptibility mutation carriers had substantially increased risk for PC and increased risk for breast and ovarian cancers.

Família , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco