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1.
Eur Heart J ; 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077925

RESUMO

AIMS: The recently released 4th version of the Universal Definition of Myocardial Infarction (UDMI) introduces an increased emphasis on the entities of acute and chronic myocardial injury. We applied the 4th UDMI retrospectively in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms potentially indicating myocardial infarction (MI) to investigate its effect on diagnosis and prognosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 2302 patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of MI. The final diagnosis was adjudicated sequentially according to the 3rd and 4th UDMI. Reclassification after readjudication was assessed. Established diagnostic algorithms for patients with suspected MI were applied to compare diagnostic accuracy. All patients were followed to assess mortality, recurrent MI, revascularization, and rehospitalization to investigate the effect of the 4th UDMI on prognosis. After readjudication, 697 patients were reclassified. Most of these patients were reclassified as having acute (n = 78) and chronic myocardial injury (n = 585). Four hundred and thirty-four (18.9%) patients were diagnosed with MI, compared with 501 (21.8%) MIs when adjudication was based on the 3rd UDMI. In the non-MI population, patients with myocardial injury (n = 663) were older, more often female and had worse renal function compared with patients without myocardial injury (n = 1205). Application of diagnostic algorithms for patients with suspected MI revealed a high accuracy after readjudication. Reclassified patients had a substantially higher rate of cardiovascular events compared with not-reclassified patients, particularly patients reclassified to the category of myocardial injury. CONCLUSION: By accentuating the categories of acute and chronic myocardial injury the 4th UDMI succeeds to identify patients with higher risk for cardiovascular events and poorer outcome and thus seems to improve risk assessment in patients with suspected MI. Application of established diagnostic algorithms remains safe when using the 4th UDMI.

2.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2020 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to investigate changes of incidence, outcome and related interventions of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) over the past decade in Germany. METHODS: Data on the international statistical classification of diseases and procedural codes from the Federal Bureau of Statistics in Germany was used. This included all ACS cases in Germany in the years 2005-2015. Analyses were performed separately for the diagnoses of overall ACS, ST-elevation myocardial infarction (MI), non-ST-elevation MI and unstable angina pectoris. Procedures including coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention and the endpoint in-hospital mortality were assessed. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2015 a total of 3797,546 cases of ACS were recorded. The mean age was 69 years and 36% were females. In-hospital mortality was 6.3%, 62% underwent coronary angiography and 42% received percutaneous coronary intervention. In-hospital mortality was highest for patients with ST-elevation MI (12.0%) and lowest for patients with unstable angina pectoris (0.6%). From 2005 to 2015 the incidence rates of ACS, ST-elevation MI and unstable angina pectoris decreased, while the incidence rate of non-ST-elevation MI increased. The percentages of performed coronary angiographies and percutaneous coronary interventions increased from 52 to 70% and 34 to 50%, respectively. The adjusted incidence rate of in-hospital mortality decreased from 64.9 cases per 1000 person-years to 54.8 cases. CONCLUSION: In a large dataset including more than 3.7 million cases, we report an increase in coronary procedures and a reduction of ACS incidence and related mortality in the past decade in Germany.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925996

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) have recently proposed a new classification of cardiogenic shock (CS) dividing patients into five subgroups. OBJECTIVE: Aim of this study was to apply the SCAI classification to a cohort of patients presenting with CS and to evaluate its ability to predict 30-day survival. METHODS: SCAI CS subgroups were interpreted based on the recent consensus statement and then applied to N = 1,007 consecutive patients presenting with CS or large myocardial infarction (MI) between October 2009 and October 2017. The association between SCAI classification and 30-day all-cause mortality was assessed by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Mean age in the study cohort was 67 (±15) years, 72% were male. Mean lactate at baseline was 6.05 (±5.13) mmol/l and 51% of the patients had prior cardiac arrest. Overall survival probability was 50.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 47.5-54.0%). In view of the SCAI classification, the survival probability was 96.4% (95% CI 93.7-99.0%) in class A, 66.1% (95% CI 50.2-87.1%) in class B, 46.1% (95% CI 40.6-52.4%) in class C, 33.1% (95% CI 26.6-41.1%) in class D, and 22.6% (95% CI 17.1-30.0%) in class E. Higher SCAI classification was significantly associated with lower 30-day survival (p < .01). CONCLUSION: In this large clinical cohort, the SCAI classification was significantly associated with 30-day survival. This finding supports the rationale of the SCAI CS classification and calls for a validation in a prospective trial.

4.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 460-467, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843947

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have elevated levels of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn). We investigated the diagnostic performance of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) algorithms to rule out or rule in acute myocardial infarction (AMI) without ST-elevation in patients with DM. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 3,681 patients with suspected AMI and stratified those by the presence of DM. The ESC 0/1-h and 0/3-h algorithms were used to calculate negative and positive predictive values (NPV, PPV). In addition, alternative cutoffs were calculated and externally validated in 2,895 patients. RESULTS: In total, 563 patients (15.3%) had DM, and 137 (24.3%) of these had AMI. When the ESC 0/1-h algorithm was used, the NPV was comparable in patients with and without DM (absolute difference [AD] -1.50 [95% CI -5.95, 2.96]). In contrast, the ESC 0/3-h algorithm resulted in a significantly lower NPV in patients with DM (AD -2.27 [95% CI -4.47, -0.07]). The diagnostic performance for rule-in of AMI (PPV) was comparable in both groups: 0/1-h (AD 6.59 [95% CI -19.53, 6.35]) and 0/3-h (AD 1.03 [95% CI -7.63, 9.7]). Alternative cutoffs increased the PPV in both algorithms significantly, while improvements in NPV were only subtle. CONCLUSIONS: Application of the ESC 0/1-h algorithm revealed comparable safety to rule out AMI comparing patients with and without DM, while this was not observed with the ESC 0/3-h algorithm. Although alternative cutoffs might be helpful, patients with DM remain a high-risk population in whom identification of AMI is challenging and who require careful clinical evaluation.

5.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319885458, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31707846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Modifiable lifestyle risk factors (modRF) of coronary artery disease (CAD) are associated with increased inflammation represented by elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. Lifestyle changes may influence the inflammatory burden in patients with CAD, relevantly modifying the target population for emerging anti-inflammatory compounds. AIMS: The aims of this study were to analyse the association of modRF and CRP levels in CAD patients, and to define a potential target population for anti-inflammatory treatment with and without the optimisation of modRF. METHODS: We included all patients with angiographically documented CAD from the observational cohort study INTERCATH. Patients with recent myocardial infarction, malignancy, infectious disease, and pre-existing immunosuppressive medication including a history of solid organ transplantation were excluded. Overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2), smoking, lack of physical activity (PA; <1.5 h/week), and poor diet (≤12 points of an established Mediterranean diet score (MDS), range 0-28 points) were considered as modRF. CRP was measured by a high-sensitivity assay (hsCRP) at baseline. We performed multivariable linear regressions with log-transformed hsCRP as the dependent variable. Based on these associations, we calculated potential hsCRP levels for each patient, assuming optimisation of the individual modRF. RESULTS: Of 1014 patients, 737 (73%) were male, the mean age was 69 years, and 483 (48%) had an hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l. ModRF were significantly overrepresented in patients with hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l compared to patients with an hsCRP < 2 mg/l (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: 76% vs 61%; PA < 1.5 h/week: 69% vs 57%; MDS ≤ 12: 46% vs 37%; smoking: 61% vs 54%; p < 0.05 for all). hsCRP increased with the incremental number of modRF present (median hsCRP values for N = 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 modRF: 1.1, 1.0, 1.6, 2.4, 2.8 mg/l, p < 0.001). Multivariable linear regression adjusting for age, sex, intake of lipid-lowering medication, and diabetes mellitus revealed independent associations between log-transformed hsCRP and all modRF (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2: exp(ß) = 1.55, p < 0.001; PA < 1.5 h/week: exp(ß) = 1.33, p < 0.001; MDS ≤ 12: exp(ß) = 1.18, p = 0.018; smoking: exp(ß) = 1.18, p = 0.019). Individual recalculation of hsCRP levels assuming optimisation of modRF identified 183 out of 483 (38%) patients with hsCRP ≥ 2 mg/l who could achieve an hsCRP < 2 mg/l via lifestyle changes. CONCLUSION: modRF are strongly and independently associated with CRP levels in patients with CAD. A relevant portion of CAD patients with high inflammatory burden could achieve an hsCRP < 2 mg/l by lifestyle changes alone. This should be considered both in view of the cost and side-effects of pharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment and for the design of future clinical trials in this field.

6.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg ; 56(6): 1131-1139, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566209

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to determine the differences in outcomes of surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) and transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in low-risk patients. METHODS: All patients with a logistic EuroSCORE II <4% who underwent transfemoral TAVI between 2008 and 2016 (n = 955) or SAVR between 2009 and 2014 (n = 886) at our centre were included. One hundred and nine patients per group were available for propensity score matching. RESULTS: Mortality during the 30-day follow-up showed no differences (SAVR vs TAVI: 1.1% vs 1.8%, P = 1.0) but the rates of permanent pacemaker implantation (0.0 vs 14.8%, P < 0.001) and paravalvular leakage ≥ moderate (0.0 vs 7.0%, P = 0.017) were higher in TAVI patients. No difference was found regarding postoperative effective orifice area and transvalvular pressure gradients. Although, the 1-year survival was similar between both groups; 3- and 5-year survival was significantly inferior in the TAVI patient cohort. CONCLUSIONS: TAVI yielded similar short-term outcomes compared with SAVR despite higher rates of permanent pacemaker implantation and paravalvular leakage ≥ moderate, but inferior long-term survival. Poorer long-term outcomes of the TAVI patient cohort were attributable to a more comorbid TAVI population. This emphasizes the need for long-term results from randomized controlled trials before TAVI can be broadly expanded to younger low-risk patients.

7.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 108(12): 1386-1393, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early risk stratification of patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) constitutes an unmet need in current daily clinical practice. We aimed to evaluate the predictive value of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) levels for 1-year mortality in patients with suspected AMI. METHODS AND RESULTS: suPAR levels were determined in 1314 patients presenting to the emergency department with suspected AMI. Patients were followed up for 12 months to assess all-cause mortality. Of 1314 patients included, 308 were diagnosed with AMI. Median suPAR levels did not differ between subjects with AMI compared to non-AMI (3.5 ng/ml vs. 3.2 ng/ml, p = 0.066). suPAR levels reliably predicted all-cause mortality after 1 year. Hazard ratio for 1-year mortality was 12.6 (p < 0.001) in the quartile with the highest suPAR levels compared to the first quartile. The prognostic value for 6-month mortality was comparable to an established risk prediction model, the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events (GRACE) score, with an AUC of 0.79 (95% CI 0.72-0.86) for the GRACE score and 0.77 (95% CI 0.69-0.84) for suPAR. Addition of suPAR improved the GRACE score, as shown by integrated discrimination improvement statistics of 0.036 (p = 0.03) suggesting a further discrimination of events from non-events by the addition of suPAR. CONCLUSIONS: suPAR levels reliably predicted mortality in patients with suspected AMI. STUDY REGISTRATION: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02355457).

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