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2.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(5): 944-954, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32370855

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the indications for prediagnostic testing, subsequent diagnoses found, and follow-up practices in patients who were incidentally diagnosed with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our prospective MGUS database, we identified 329 patients residing in southeastern Minnesota who were diagnosed from January 1, 2011, through December 31, 2014, and followed up at Mayo Clinic. RESULTS: Most test orders came from nonhematologists (n=310, 94.2%). The top 5 indications were neuropathy (n=65, 19.8%), renal disease (n=45, 13.7%), anemia (n=42, 12.8%), bone disorder or connective tissue pain (n=42, 12.8%), and cutaneous disease (n=19, 5.8%). Hypercalcemia was an infrequent indication (n=9, 2.7%). The final diagnosis for all neuropathy evaluations was sensory/motor neuropathy-not otherwise specified, with 18.7% having IgM MGUS. Chronic kidney disease-not otherwise specified, iron deficiency, and osteoporosis/osteopenia were the most common subsequent diagnoses for test indications of renal disease, anemia, and bone disorder or connective tissue pain, respectively. Most patients (n=213, 64.7%) had 1 or more follow-up visit during the study period. A minority were followed by hematologists (43.5%, n=143). Patients with low-risk MGUS comprised 45.0% (n=148) of the cohort. Male patients and younger patients were more likely to be followed up than their counterparts (P<.01). About one-third (n=27, 32.1%) of patients 80 years or older (n=84) continued to have regular follow-up visits. Hematologists were more likely to follow patients with MGUS more closely than nonhematologists (P<.001). However, the intensity of follow-up was not based on MGUS risk. CONCLUSION: Monoclonal protein testing is commonly performed for signs and symptoms not typically associated with lymphoplasmacytic malignancies. There is a significant variation in MGUS follow-up between hematologists and nonhematologists (P<.001) that is not based on risk factors or clinical practice guidelines.

3.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(5): 52, 2020 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376870

RESUMO

We conducted a retrospective review of multiple myeloma (MM), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) patients seen at Mayo Clinic to determine whether a bone marrow biopsy (BM) is necessary in all patients diagnosed with a monoclonal protein. A total of 2254 MM, 397 SMM, and 5836 MGUS patients were included in the study. A total of 29 (1.3%) MM patients "without CRAB/FLC" were identified where BM or advanced imaging was critical for diagnosis, 8 (0.3% MM cohort) of whom were diagnosed with MM solely on BM findings (plasma cells > 60%). Without BM or advanced imaging none of these patients would be classified low-risk MGUS. A total of 314 (79%) MGUS-like SMM patients were identified where classification of SMM was based on BM findings. Without BM 97 would be classified as low/low-intermediate-risk MGUS and 151 intermediate or high-risk MGUS; 66 had missing information precluding classification. Only three (<1% SMM cohort) were low-risk MGUS without abnormalities in hemoglobin, calcium, and renal function. In patients presenting with low-risk MGUS and normal hemoglobin, calcium, and renal function, the risk of missing a diagnosis of SMM and MM by omitting BM is <1%. BM should be deferred in these patients in preference to clinical and laboratory monitoring.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32360276

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous reports have suggested that a higher bone marrow plasma-cell percentage (BMPC%) is associated with worse outcomes. However, it is unknown whether BMPC% is an independent predictor because genetic information was not available at that time. Currently the impact of BMPC% at diagnosis of multiple myeloma (MM) is not well described. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We evaluated the prognostic impact of BMPC% ≥ 60% versus < 60% in 1426 newly diagnosed MM patients. All patients had an estimation of their BMPC% at diagnosis, and the highest percentage was used. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) analyses were performed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses for PFS and OS using the Cox proportional hazards model were performed for age, Revised International Staging System (R-ISS) score, creatinine level, and BMPC%. RESULTS: BMPC% ≥ 60% was found in 562 patients (39%), and the median PFS was shorter for these patients compared to BMPC% < 60% (22.6 vs. 32.1 months; P < .0001). Also, for OS, the median was shorter for the higher BMPC% group (53.4 vs. 75.4 months; P < .0001). On the multivariate analysis for PFS, age ≥ 65 years (hazard ratio [HR], 1.46; P < .0001), R-ISS (1-2 vs. 3) (HR, 0.49; P < .0001), and BMPC% ≥ 60% (HR, 1.23; P = .015) were predictive. On the multivariate analysis for OS, age ≥ 65 years (HR, 2.23; P < .001), R-ISS (1-2 vs. 3) (HR, 0.41; P < .0001), and BMPC% ≥ 60% (HR, 1.24; P = .02) were also predictive. CONCLUSION: BMPC% ≥ 60% at diagnosis is predictive for PFS and OS, even in a multivariate analysis that included known prognostic factors for MM.

7.
Blood ; 2020 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187362

RESUMO

Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare histiocytosis that was recently recognized as a neoplastic disorder owing to the discovery of recurrent activating MAP-kinase (RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK) pathway mutations. Typical findings of ECD include central diabetes insipidus, restrictive pericarditis, perinephric fibrosis, and sclerotic bone lesions. The histopathologic diagnosis of ECD is often challenging due to non-specific inflammatory and fibrotic findings on histopathologic review of tissue specimens. Additionally, the association of ECD with unusual tissue tropism and an insidious onset often results in diagnostic errors and delays. Most patients with ECD require treatment, except for a minority of patients with minimally symptomatic single-organ disease. The first ECD consensus guidelines were published in 2014 on behalf of the physicians and researchers within the Erdheim-Chester Disease Global Alliance. With the recent molecular discoveries and the approval of the first targeted therapy (vemurafenib) for BRAF-V600-mutant ECD, there is a need for updated clinical practice guidelines to optimize the diagnosis and treatment of this disease. This document presents consensus recommendations that resulted from the International Medical Symposia on ECD in 2017 and 2019. Herein, we include the guidelines for the clinical, laboratory, histologic, and radiographic evaluation of ECD patients along with treatment recommendations based on our clinical experience and review of literature in the molecular era.

8.
Leuk Lymphoma ; : 1-9, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157935

RESUMO

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a rare syndrome of pathologic immune activation in children that is increasingly being recognized in adults. Efficacy data for the HLH-04 protocol in adults is lacking. This study retrospectively analyzed 31 adult patients, median age 46 years, who received HLH-04 from 1/1/2004 to 5/1/2018. HLH etiology included malignancy (n = 9), autoimmune (n = 8), infection (n = 8), and idiopathic (n = 6). Eighteen patients were evaluable for response at week 4 with 7 having no response, 11 reaching partial response, and 0 reaching complete response (CR). Six patients eventually achieved CR at a median 195 days. The 1-year overall survival (OS) was 35% and median OS was 3.2 months. Univariate analysis showed shorter survival for hemoglobin <9 g/dL (HR 4.29, p = 0.003), platelets <100 × 109/L (HR 4.06, p = 0.027), ANC <1 × 109/L (HR 5.24, p = 0.001), and total bilirubin >1.2 mg/dL (HR 3.30, p = 0.022). Outcomes of adults treated with HLH-04 remain dismal and newer treatment modalities are needed.

9.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(3): 33, 2020 03 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144237

RESUMO

Bortezomib-based regimens are widely used as induction therapy for multiple myeloma (MM). Unlike lenalidomide, the role of bortezomib in consolidation and maintenance therapy for MM is less clear. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the impact of bortezomib-based consolidation and maintenance therapy on survival outcomes and adverse events. PubMed, Web of Science, Embase databases, and major conference proceedings were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of bortezomib-based regimens as consolidation or maintenance therapy for MM. Ten RCTs enrolling 3147 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Bortezomib-based regimens were compared with regimens without bortezomib or observation. The meta-analysis suggested that bortezomib-based maintenance therapy improved progression-free survival (PFS; hazard ratio [HR] = 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.95, P = 0.02) and overall survival (OS; HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.58-0.87, P = 0.001). Bortezomib-based consolidation therapy improved PFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.68-0.88, P < 0.001) but not OS (HR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.78-1.24, P = 0.87). Bortezomib-based consolidation/maintenance therapy led to a trend toward increased risk of grade ≥ 3 neurologic symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms, and fatigue. More research is warranted to further assess the role of bortezomib-based consolidation and maintenance therapy for multiple myeloma.

10.
Am J Hematol ; 95(5): 497-502, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32010993

RESUMO

We evaluated bone marrow minimal residual disease (MRD) negativity in 44 patients with light chain (AL) amyloidosis using next generation flow cytometry (sensitivity ≥1 × 10-5 ; median events analyzed: 8.7 million, range: 4.8 to 9.7 million). All patients underwent MRD testing in 2 years from start of therapy (median: 7 months). The overall MRD negative rate was 64% (n = 28). The MRD-negative rate after one-line of therapy was 71% (20/28). And, MRD negative rates were higher with stem-cell transplant as first-line therapy (86%, 18/21) vs chemotherapy alone as first-line treatment (29%, 2/7), P = .005. The MRD negative rate amongst patients in complete response was 75% (15/20), and in very good partial response, 50% (11/22). There were two patients in partial response/rising light chains (with renal dysfunction) who were MRD negative. There were no differences in baseline characteristics of MRD negative vs MRD positive patients, except younger age amongst MRD-negative patients. Patients with MRD negativity were more likely to have achieved cardiac response at the time of MRD assessment, 67% (8/12) vs 22% (2/7), P = .04. Renal response rates were similar in both groups. Progression free survival was assessed in the 42 patients achieving CR or VGPR. After median follow-up of 14 months, the estimated 1-year progression free survival in MRD negative vs MRD positive patients was 100% (26 patients, 0 events) vs 64% (16 patients, five events), P = .006, respectively. MRD assessment should be explored as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials and MRD risk-adapted trials may help optimize treatment in AL amyloidosis.

11.
JCO Oncol Pract ; : OP1900255, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32048924

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Gender disparity persists in academic medicine. Female faculty are underrepresented in leadership positions and have lower research output. We studied gender differences in faculty rank and departmental leadership and contributing factors among academic hematologists and oncologists in the United States. METHODS: For clinical faculty at 146 hematology or oncology fellowship programs listed in the Fellowship and Residency Electronic Interactive Database, we collected data on demographics, academic rank, and research output using the Doximity and Scopus databases. We compared unadjusted characteristics of men and women by using 2-sided t tests and χ2 tests where appropriate. To predict probability of full professorship or leadership position among men versus women, we performed multivariable logistic regression analysis adjusted for clinical experience in years, number of publications, h-index, clinical trial investigator status, National Institutes of Health funding, and workplace ranking (top 20 v not). RESULTS: Two thousand one hundred sixty academic hematologists and oncologists were included. Women composed 21.9% (n = 142) of full professors, 35.7% (n = 169) of associate professors, and 45.4% (n = 415) of assistant professors. Thirty percent (n = 70) of departmental leaders were women. Female faculty, compared with male faculty, had a lower mean h-index (12.1 v 20.9, respectively; P < .001) and fewer years of professional experience since fellowship (10 v 16 years, respectively; P < .001). After adjusting for duration of clinical experience, academic productivity, and workplace ranking, the odds of obtaining professorship (odds ratio [OR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.57; P = .85) or divisional leadership (OR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.58; P = .28) for female physicians were not different compared with male physicians. CONCLUSION: Gender disparity exists in senior ranks of academic hematology and oncology; however, gender is not a significant predictor in achieving professorship or department leadership position.

12.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(2): 20, 2020 02 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32098948

RESUMO

In patients with immunoglobulin light-chain (AL) amyloidosis, depth of hematologic response correlates with both organ response and overall survival. Our group has demonstrated that screening with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) is a quick, sensitive, and accurate means to diagnose and monitor the serum of patients with plasma cell disorders. Microflow liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization and quadrupole TOF MS adds further sensitivity. We identified 33 patients with AL amyloidosis who achieved amyloid complete hematologic response, who also had negative bone marrow by six-color flow cytometry, and who had paired serum samples to test by MS. These samples were subjected to blood MS. Four patients (12%) were found to have residual disease by these techniques. The presence of residual disease by MS was associated with a poorer time to progression (at 50 months 75% versus 13%, p = 0.003). MS of the blood out-performed serum and urine immunofixation, the serum immunoglobulin free light chain, and six-color flow cytometry of the bone marrow in detecting residual disease. Additional studies that include urine MS and next-generation techniques to detect clonal plasma cells in the bone marrow will further elucidate the full potential of this technique.

14.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(1): 4, 2020 01 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913261

RESUMO

Rarity of light-chain amyloidosis (AL) makes randomized studies challenging. We pooled three phase II studies of immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) to update survival, toxicity, and assess new response/progression criteria. Studies included were lenalidomide-dexamethasone (Len-Dex) (n = 37; years: 2004-2006), cyclophosphamide-Len-Dex (n = 35; years: 2007-2008), and pomalidomide-Dex (n = 29; years: 2008-2010) trial. Primary endpoint was hematologic response. Overall survival (OS) was calculated from registration to death and progression-free survival (PFS) was calculated from registration to progression or death. Hematologic, cardiac, and renal response/progression was assessed using the modern criteria. Analysis included 101 patients, with a median age of 65 years, 61% male, 37 newly diagnosed (ND), and 64 relapsed/refractory (RR). Median follow-up was 101 months (range 17-150) and 78% of patients died. OS and PFS for pooled cohort were 31 and 15 months, respectively. Forty-eight patients achieved a hematologic response; for ND, 10 patients (28%) achieved ≥VGPR (very good partial response) and 8 (14%) among the RR. Only cardiac stage was prognostic for OS. Common grade ≥3 toxicities were hematologic, fatigue, and rash, and were similar among studies. Hematologic and renal responses occurred more frequently and rapidly using modern response criteria; cardiac response was less frequent but occurred quickly. IMiDs can result in long progression-free intervals/survival with tolerable toxicities. The new response/progression criteria were rapid and allows for tailoring therapy.

15.
Blood Cancer J ; 10(1): 7, 2020 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31974359

RESUMO

Patients with a sole del(20q) chromosomal abnormality and without morphologic features of a myeloid neoplasm (MN) have shown variable clinical outcomes. To explore the potential risk stratification markers in this group of patients, we evaluated their genetic mutational landscape by a 35-gene MN-focused next-generation sequencing (NGS) panel and examined the association of mutations to progression of MNs. Our study included 56 patients over a 10-year period with isolated del(20q), of whom 23 (41.1%) harbored at least one mutation. With a median follow-up of 32.6 months (range: 0.1-159.1), 9 of 23 patients with mutation(s) progressed to MNs, while all 33 patients without mutations did not progress to MN. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis demonstrated the presence of mutation(s) as a significant risk factor for progression to MN (P < 0.0001). MN progression was strongly associated with the presence of non-DNMT3A/TET2/ASXL1 epigenetic modifiers and nonspliceosome mutations (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference among patients with and without MN progression with respect to the number of mutations, variant allele frequency, percentage of del(20q), and other clinical/laboratory variables. This study illustrates the underlying genetic heterogeneity and complexity of isolated del(20q), and underscores the prognostic value of NGS mutational analysis in these cases.

17.
Haematologica ; 105(2): 348-357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004029

RESUMO

Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare subtype of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. With the last major report published in 1990, there is a paucity of contemporary data on this disease. Our objective was to report the clinicopathological features, treatments and outcomes of patients seen at a tertiary referral center. Sixty-four patients with histopathological diagnosis of Rosai-Dorfman disease were identified from 1994 to 2017 (median age 50 years; range, 2-79). The median duration from symptom onset to diagnosis was seven months (range, 0-128), which was also reflected in the number of biopsies required to establish the diagnosis (median 2; range, 1-6). The most common presentation was subcutaneous masses (40%). Of the 64 patients, 8% had classical (nodal only) and 92% had extra-nodal disease (67% extra-nodal only). The most common organs involved were skin and subcutaneous tissue (52%), followed by lymph nodes (33%). Three patients had an overlap with Erdheim-Chester disease, which had not been described before. Two of these were found to have MAP2K1 mutations. Commonly utilized first line treatments were surgical excision (38%) and systemic corticosteroids (27%). Corticosteroids led to a response in 56% of the cases. Of those treated initially, 15 (30%) patients developed recurrent disease. The most commonly used systemic agent was cladribine (n=6), with 67% overall response rate. Our study demonstrates that Rosai-Dorfman disease has diverse clinical manifestations and outcomes. While this disease has been historically considered a benign entity, a subset of patients endures an aggressive course necessitating the use of systemic therapies.

20.
Amyloid ; 27(1): 13-16, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544536

RESUMO

Response assessment in light chain (AL) amyloidosis is challenging given the low level of circulating free light chains usually seen. Multi-parametric flow cytometry (MFC) from a marrow aspirate was demonstrated to retain a prognostic significance in several recent studies. In this work, 82 AL patients who had MFC study at end of therapy were analysed based on whether clonal plasma cells were detected or not. Among patients who achieved deep response (i.e. very good partial response or complete response) to first-line therapy, lack of clonal marrow plasma cells as measured by MFC was associated with improved progression-free survival (PFS) compared to patients with residual clonal plasma cells (3-year PFS 88% vs. 46%, p = .003), particularly among patients who achieved a complete response (3-year PFS 100% vs. 33%, p = .001). Absence of clonal plasma cells by MFC compared with patients with detectable clonal plasma cells among deep responders was associated with lower level of involved light chain (involved free light chain (iFLC), median 1.1 vs. 1.7 mg/dL; p = .02) and higher frequency of renal response (100% vs. 68%; p = .005). Further studies are needed to determine if MFC should be incorporated into response criteria in AL amyloidosis.

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