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1.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477794

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of complex traits, such as alcohol use disorders (AUD), usually identify variants in non-coding regions and cannot by themselves distinguish whether the associated variants are functional or in linkage disequilibrium with the functional variants. Transcriptome studies can identify genes whose expression differs between alcoholics and controls. To test which variants associated with AUD may cause expression differences, we integrated data from deep RNA-seq and GWAS of four postmortem brain regions from 30 subjects with AUD and 30 controls to analyze allele-specific expression (ASE). We identified 88 genes with differential ASE in subjects with AUD compared to controls. Next, to test one potential mechanism contributing to the differential ASE, we analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR) of these genes. Of the 88 genes with differential ASE, 61 genes contained 437 SNPs in the 3'UTR with at least one heterozygote among the subjects studied. Using a modified PASSPORT-seq (parallel assessment of polymorphisms in miRNA target-sites by sequencing) assay, we identified 25 SNPs that affected RNA levels in a consistent manner in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-BE(2). Many of these SNPs are in binding sites of miRNAs and RNA-binding proteins, indicating that these SNPs are likely causal variants of AUD-associated differential ASE. In sum, we demonstrate that a combination of computational and experimental approaches provides a powerful strategy to uncover functionally relevant variants associated with the risk for AUD.

2.
Brain ; 142(9): 2581-2589, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497858

RESUMO

Autopsy measures of Alzheimer's disease neuropathology have been leveraged as endophenotypes in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). However, despite evidence of sex differences in Alzheimer's disease risk, sex-stratified models have not been incorporated into previous GWAS analyses. We looked for sex-specific genetic associations with Alzheimer's disease endophenotypes from six brain bank data repositories. The pooled dataset included 2701 males and 3275 females, the majority of whom were diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease at autopsy (70%). Sex-stratified GWAS were performed within each dataset and then meta-analysed. Loci that reached genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10-8) in stratified models were further assessed for sex interactions. Additional analyses were performed in independent datasets leveraging cognitive, neuroimaging and CSF endophenotypes, along with age-at-onset data. Outside of the APOE region, one locus on chromosome 7 (rs34331204) showed a sex-specific association with neurofibrillary tangles among males (P = 2.5 × 10-8) but not females (P = 0.85, sex-interaction P = 2.9 × 10-4). In follow-up analyses, rs34331204 was also associated with hippocampal volume, executive function, and age-at-onset only among males. These results implicate a novel locus that confers male-specific protection from tau pathology and highlight the value of assessing genetic associations in a sex-specific manner.

3.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0218111, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31283791

RESUMO

Late onset Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia for which about 30 susceptibility loci have been reported. The aim of the current study is to identify novel genes associated with Alzheimer's disease using the largest up-to-date reference single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) panel, the most accurate imputation software and a novel gene-based analysis approach which tests for patterns of association within genes, in the powerful genome-wide association dataset of the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project Consortium, comprising over 7 million genotypes from 17,008 Alzheimer's cases and 37,154 controls. In addition to earlier reported genes, we detected three novel gene-wide significant loci PPARGC1A (p = 2.2 × 10-6), RORA (p = 7.4 × 10-7) and ZNF423 (p = 2.1 × 10-6). PPARGC1A and RORA are involved in circadian rhythm; circadian disturbances are one of the earliest symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. PPARGC1A is additionally linked to energy metabolism and the generation of amyloid beta plaques. RORA is involved in a variety of functions apart from circadian rhythm, such as cholesterol metabolism and inflammation. The ZNF423 gene resides in an Alzheimer's disease-specific protein network and is likely involved with centrosomes and DNA damage repair.

4.
Neurosci Lett ; 711: 134403, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351091

RESUMO

Recent methylome-wide association studies (MWAS) in humans have solidified the concept that aberrant DNA methylation is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We summarize these findings to improve the understanding of mechanisms governing DNA methylation pertinent to transcriptional regulation, with an emphasis of AD-associated promoter DNA hypermethylation, which establishes an epigenetic barrier for transcriptional activation. By considering brain cell type specific expression profiles that have been published only for non-demented individuals, we detail functional activities of selected neuron, microglia, and astrocyte-enriched genes (AGAP2, DUSP6 and GPR37L1, respectively), which are DNA hypermethylated at promoters in AD. We highlight future directions in MWAS including experimental confirmation, functional relevance to AD, cell type-specific temporal characterization, and mechanism investigation.

6.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(6): e12580, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31099175

RESUMO

Genetic influences on alcohol and drug dependence partially overlap, however, specific loci underlying this overlap remain unclear. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a phenotype representing alcohol or illicit drug dependence (ANYDEP) among 7291 European-Americans (EA; 2927 cases) and 3132 African-Americans (AA: 1315 cases) participating in the family-based Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. ANYDEP was heritable (h 2 in EA = 0.60, AA = 0.37). The AA GWAS identified three regions with genome-wide significant (GWS; P < 5E-08) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosomes 3 (rs34066662, rs58801820) and 13 (rs75168521, rs78886294), and an insertion-deletion on chromosome 5 (chr5:141988181). No polymorphisms reached GWS in the EA. One GWS region (chromosome 1: rs1890881) emerged from a trans-ancestral meta-analysis (EA + AA) of ANYDEP, and was attributable to alcohol dependence in both samples. Four genes (AA: CRKL, DZIP3, SBK3; EA: P2RX6) and four sets of genes were significantly enriched within biological pathways for hemostasis and signal transduction. GWS signals did not replicate in two independent samples but there was weak evidence for association between rs1890881 and alcohol intake in the UK Biobank. Among 118 AA and 481 EA individuals from the Duke Neurogenetics Study, rs75168521 and rs1890881 genotypes were associated with variability in reward-related ventral striatum activation. This study identified novel loci for substance dependence and provides preliminary evidence that these variants are also associated with individual differences in neural reward reactivity. Gene discovery efforts in non-European samples with distinct patterns of substance use may lead to the identification of novel ancestry-specific genetic markers of risk.

7.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(6): e12579, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31090166

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of alcohol dependence (AD) have reliably identified variation within alcohol metabolizing genes (eg, ADH1B) but have inconsistently located other signals, which may be partially attributable to symptom heterogeneity underlying the disorder. We conducted GWAS of DSM-IV AD (primary analysis), DSM-IV AD criterion count (secondary analysis), and individual dependence criteria (tertiary analysis) among 7418 (1121 families) European American (EA) individuals from the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism (COGA). Trans-ancestral meta-analyses combined these results with data from 3175 (585 families) African-American (AA) individuals from COGA. In the EA GWAS, three loci were genome-wide significant: rs1229984 in ADH1B for AD criterion count (P = 4.16E-11) and Desire to cut drinking (P = 1.21E-11); rs188227250 (chromosome 8, Drinking more than intended, P = 6.72E-09); rs1912461 (chromosome 15, Time spent drinking, P = 1.77E-08). In the trans-ancestral meta-analysis, rs1229984 was associated with multiple phenotypes and two additional loci were genome-wide significant: rs61826952 (chromosome 1, DSM-IV AD, P = 8.42E-11); rs7597960 (chromosome 2, Time spent drinking, P = 1.22E-08). Associations with rs1229984 and rs18822750 were replicated in independent datasets. Polygenic risk scores derived from the EA GWAS of AD predicted AD in two EA datasets (P < .01; 0.61%-1.82% of variance). Identified novel variants (ie, rs1912461, rs61826952) were associated with differential central evoked theta power (loss - gain; P = .0037) and reward-related ventral striatum reactivity (P = .008), respectively. This study suggests that studying individual criteria may unveil new insights into the genetic etiology of AD liability.

8.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 43(6): 1113-1125, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30994927

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomewide association studies (GWAS) have begun to identify loci related to alcohol consumption, but little is known about whether this genetic propensity overlaps with specific indices of problem drinking in ascertained samples. METHODS: In 6,731 European Americans who had been exposed to alcohol, we examined whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) from a GWAS of weekly alcohol consumption in the UK Biobank predicted variance in 6 alcohol-related phenotypes: alcohol use, maximum drinks within 24 hours (MAXD), total score on the Self-Rating of the Effects of Ethanol Questionnaire (SRE-T), DSM-IV alcohol dependence (DSM4AD), DSM-5 alcohol use disorder symptom counts (DSM5AUDSX), and reduction/cessation of problematic drinking. We also examined the extent to which an single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1229984) in ADH1B, which is strongly associated with both alcohol consumption and dependence, contributed to the polygenic association with these phenotypes and whether PRS interacted with sex, age, or family history of alcoholism to predict alcohol-related outcomes. We performed mixed-effect regression analyses, with family membership and recruitment site included as random effects, as well as survival modeling of age of onset of DSM4AD. RESULTS: PRS for alcohol consumption significantly predicted variance in 5 of the 6 outcomes: alcohol use (Δmarginal R2  = 1.39%, Δ area under the curve [AUC] = 0.011), DSM4AD (Δmarginal R2  = 0.56%; ΔAUC = 0.003), DSM5AUDSX (Δmarginal R2  = 0.49%), MAXD (Δmarginal R2  = 0.31%), and SRE-T (Δmarginal R2  = 0.22%). PRS were also associated with onset of DSM4AD (hazard ratio = 1.11, p = 2.08e-5). The inclusion of rs1229984 attenuated the effects of the alcohol consumption PRS, particularly for DSM4AD and DSM5AUDSX, but the PRS continued to exert an independent effect for all 5 alcohol measures (Δmarginal R2 after controlling for ADH1B = 0.14 to 1.22%). Interactions between PRS and sex, age, or family history were nonsignificant. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic propensity for typical alcohol consumption was associated with alcohol use and was also associated with 4 of the additional 5 outcomes, though the variance explained in this sample was modest. Future GWAS that focus on the multifaceted nature of AUD, which goes beyond consumption, might reveal additional information regarding the polygenic underpinnings of problem drinking.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(485)2019 Mar 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30918111

RESUMO

Tau inclusions are a shared feature of many neurodegenerative diseases, among them frontotemporal dementia caused by tau mutations. Treatment approaches for these conditions include targeting posttranslational modifications of tau proteins, maintaining a steady-state amount of tau, and preventing its tendency to aggregate. We discovered a new regulatory pathway for tau degradation that operates through the farnesylated protein, Rhes, a GTPase in the Ras family. Here, we show that treatment with the farnesyltransferase inhibitor lonafarnib reduced Rhes and decreased brain atrophy, tau inclusions, tau sumoylation, and tau ubiquitination in the rTg4510 mouse model of tauopathy. In addition, lonafarnib treatment attenuated behavioral abnormalities in rTg4510 mice and reduced microgliosis in mouse brain. Direct reduction of Rhes in the rTg4510 mouse by siRNA reproduced the results observed with lonafarnib treatment. The mechanism of lonafarnib action mediated by Rhes to reduce tau pathology was shown to operate through activation of lysosomes. We finally showed in mouse brain and in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons a normal developmental increase in Rhes that was initially suppressed by tau mutations. The known safety of lonafarnib revealed in human clinical trials for cancer suggests that this drug could be repurposed for treating tauopathies.

10.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213374, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30917153

RESUMO

Genetic and epigenetic variability between iPSC-derived neural progenitor cells (NPCs) combined with differences in investigator technique and selection protocols contributes to variability between NPC lines, which subsequently impacts the quality of differentiated neuronal cultures. We therefore sought to develop an efficient method to reduce this variability in order to improve the purity of NPC and neuronal cultures. Here, we describe a magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) method for enriching NPC cultures for CD271-/CD133+ cells at both early (<2-3) and late (>10) passage. MACS results in a similar sorting efficiency to fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), while achieving an increased yield of live cells and reduced cellular stress. Furthermore, neurons derived from MACS NPCs showed greater homogeneity between cell lines compared to those derived from unsorted NPCs. We conclude that MACS is a cheap technique for incorporation into standard NPC differentiation and maintenance protocols in order to improve culture homogeneity and consistency.

11.
Nat Med ; 25(2): 277-283, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30664784

RESUMO

Neurofilament light chain (NfL) is a promising fluid biomarker of disease progression for various cerebral proteopathies. Here we leverage the unique characteristics of the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network and ultrasensitive immunoassay technology to demonstrate that NfL levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (n = 187) and serum (n = 405) are correlated with one another and are elevated at the presymptomatic stages of familial Alzheimer's disease. Longitudinal, within-person analysis of serum NfL dynamics (n = 196) confirmed this elevation and further revealed that the rate of change of serum NfL could discriminate mutation carriers from non-mutation carriers almost a decade earlier than cross-sectional absolute NfL levels (that is, 16.2 versus 6.8 years before the estimated symptom onset). Serum NfL rate of change peaked in participants converting from the presymptomatic to the symptomatic stage and was associated with cortical thinning assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, but less so with amyloid-ß deposition or glucose metabolism (assessed by positron emission tomography). Serum NfL was predictive for both the rate of cortical thinning and cognitive changes assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination and Logical Memory test. Thus, NfL dynamics in serum predict disease progression and brain neurodegeneration at the early presymptomatic stages of familial Alzheimer's disease, which supports its potential utility as a clinically useful biomarker.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Progressão da Doença , Degeneração Neural/sangue , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Humanos , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/genética
12.
Neurology ; 91(14): e1295-e1306, 2018 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30217935

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the onset, sequence, and rate of progression of comprehensive biomarker and clinical measures across the spectrum of Alzheimer disease (AD) using the Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) study and compare these to cross-sectional estimates. METHODS: We conducted longitudinal clinical, cognitive, CSF, and neuroimaging assessments (mean of 2.7 [±1.1] visits) in 217 DIAN participants. Linear mixed effects models were used to assess changes in each measure relative to individuals' estimated years to symptom onset and to compare mutation carriers and noncarriers. RESULTS: Longitudinal ß-amyloid measures changed first (starting 25 years before estimated symptom onset), followed by declines in measures of cortical metabolism (approximately 7-10 years later), then cognition and hippocampal atrophy (approximately 20 years later). There were significant differences in the estimates of CSF p-tau181 and tau, with elevations from cross-sectional estimates preceding longitudinal estimates by over 10 years; further, longitudinal estimates identified a significant decline in CSF p-tau181 near symptom onset as opposed to continued elevations. CONCLUSION: These longitudinal estimates clarify the sequence and temporal dynamics of presymptomatic pathologic changes in autosomal dominant AD, information critical to a better understanding of the disease. The pattern of biomarker changes identified here also suggests that once ß-amyloidosis begins, additional pathologies may begin to develop less than 10 years later, but more than 15 years before symptom onset, an important consideration for interventions meant to alter the disease course.

13.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 10(1): 86, 2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30153862

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A relationship quantitative trait locus exists when the correlation between multiple traits varies by genotype for that locus. Relationship quantitative trait loci (rQTL) are often involved in gene-by-gene (G×G) interactions or gene-by-environmental interactions, making them a powerful tool for detecting G×G. METHODS: We performed genome-wide association studies to identify rQTL between tau and Aß42 and ptau and Aß42 with over 3000 individuals using age, gender, series, APOE ε2, APOE ε4, and two principal components for population structure as covariates. Each significant rQTL was separately screened for interactions with other loci for each trait in the rQTL model. Parametric bootstrapping was used to assess significance. RESULTS: We found four significant tau/Aß42 rQTL from three unique locations and six ptau/Aß42 rQTL from five unique locations. G×G screens with these rQTL produced four significant G×G interactions (one Aß42, two ptau, and one tau) with four rQTL where each second locus was from a unique location. On follow-up, rs1036819 and rs74025622 were associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) case/control status; rs15205 and rs79099429 were associated with rate of decline. CONCLUSIONS: The two most significant rQTL (rs8027714 and rs1036819) for ptau/Aß42 are on different chromosomes and both are strong hits for pelvic organ prolapse. While diseases of the nervous system can cause pelvic organ prolapse, it is unlikely related to the ptau/Aß42 relationship but may suggest that these two loci share a pathway. In addition to a ptau/Aß42 rQTL and association with AD case/control status, rs1036819 is a strong rQTL for case/control status/Aß42 and for tau/Aß42. It resides in the ZFAT gene, which is related to autoimmune thyroid disease. For tau, rs9817620 interacts with the tau/Aß42 rQTL rs74025622. It is in the CHL1 gene, which is a neural cell adhesion molecule and may be involved in signal transduction pathways. CHL1 is related to BACE1, which is a ß-secretase enzyme that initiates production of the ß-amyloid peptide involved in AD and is a primary drug target. Overall, there are numerous loci that affect the relationship between these important AD endophenotypes and some are due to interactions with other loci. Some affect the risk of AD and/or rate of progression.

14.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 10(1): 69, 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30045758

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) cause autosomal dominant forms of Alzheimer disease (ADAD). More than 280 pathogenic mutations have been reported in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2. However, understanding of the basic biological mechanisms that drive the disease are limited. The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network (DIAN) is an international observational study of APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 mutation carriers with the goal of determining the sequence of changes in presymptomatic mutation carriers who are destined to develop Alzheimer disease. RESULTS: We generated a library of 98 dermal fibroblast lines from 42 ADAD families enrolled in DIAN. We have reprogrammed a subset of the DIAN fibroblast lines into patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines. These cells were thoroughly characterized for pluripotency markers. CONCLUSIONS: This library represents a comprehensive resource that can be used for disease modeling and the development of novel therapeutics.

15.
Alzheimers Res Ther ; 10(1): 67, 2018 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30021643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease that is clinically characterized by progressive cognitive decline. Mutations in amyloid-ß precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) are the pathogenic cause of autosomal dominant AD (ADAD). However, polymorphisms also exist within these genes. METHODS: In order to distinguish polymorphisms from pathogenic mutations, the DIAN Expanded Registry has implemented an algorithm for determining ADAD pathogenicity using available information from multiple domains, including genetic, bioinformatic, clinical, imaging, and biofluid measures and in vitro analyses. RESULTS: We propose that PSEN1 M84V, PSEN1 A396T, PSEN2 R284G, and APP T719N are likely pathogenic mutations, whereas PSEN1 c.379_382delXXXXinsG and PSEN2 L238F have uncertain pathogenicity. CONCLUSIONS: In defining a subset of these variants as pathogenic, individuals from these families can now be enrolled in observational and clinical trials. This study outlines a critical approach for translating genetic data into meaningful clinical outcomes.

16.
Acta Neuropathol ; 136(6): 857-872, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29967939

RESUMO

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of amyloid-ß 42 (Aß42) and tau have been evaluated as endophenotypes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) genetic studies. Although there are sex differences in AD risk, sex differences have not been evaluated in genetic studies of AD endophenotypes. We performed sex-stratified and sex interaction genetic analyses of CSF biomarkers to identify sex-specific associations. Data came from a previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of CSF Aß42 and tau (1527 males, 1509 females). We evaluated sex interactions at previous loci, performed sex-stratified GWAS to identify sex-specific associations, and evaluated sex interactions at sex-specific GWAS loci. We then evaluated sex-specific associations between prefrontal cortex (PFC) gene expression at relevant loci and autopsy measures of plaques and tangles using data from the Religious Orders Study and Rush Memory and Aging Project. In Aß42, we observed sex interactions at one previous and one novel locus: rs316341 within SERPINB1 (p = 0.04) and rs13115400 near LINC00290 (p = 0.002). These loci showed stronger associations among females (ß = - 0.03, p = 4.25 × 10-8; ß = 0.03, p = 3.97 × 10-8) than males (ß = - 0.02, p = 0.009; ß = 0.01, p = 0.20). Higher levels of expression of SERPINB1, SERPINB6, and SERPINB9 in PFC was associated with higher levels of amyloidosis among females (corrected p values < 0.02) but not males (p > 0.38). In total tau, we observed a sex interaction at a previous locus, rs1393060 proximal to GMNC (p = 0.004), driven by a stronger association among females (ß = 0.05, p = 4.57 × 10-10) compared to males (ß = 0.02, p = 0.03). There was also a sex-specific association between rs1393060 and tangle density at autopsy (pfemale = 0.047; pmale = 0.96), and higher levels of expression of two genes within this locus were associated with lower tangle density among females (OSTN p = 0.006; CLDN16 p = 0.002) but not males (p ≥ 0.32). Results suggest a female-specific role for SERPINB1 in amyloidosis and for OSTN and CLDN16 in tau pathology. Sex-specific genetic analyses may improve understanding of AD's genetic architecture.

17.
Nat Neurosci ; 21(8): 1049-1060, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30038282

RESUMO

The rapid elimination of dying neurons and nonfunctional synapses in the brain is carried out by microglia, the resident myeloid cells of the brain. Here we show that microglia clearance activity in the adult brain is regionally regulated and depends on the rate of neuronal attrition. Cerebellar, but not striatal or cortical, microglia exhibited high levels of basal clearance activity, which correlated with an elevated degree of cerebellar neuronal attrition. Exposing forebrain microglia to apoptotic cells activated gene-expression programs supporting clearance activity. We provide evidence that the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) epigenetically restricts the expression of genes that support clearance activity in striatal and cortical microglia. Loss of PRC2 leads to aberrant activation of a microglia clearance phenotype, which triggers changes in neuronal morphology and behavior. Our data highlight a key role of epigenetic mechanisms in preventing microglia-induced neuronal alterations that are frequently associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases.

18.
Science ; 360(6395)2018 06 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29930110

RESUMO

Disorders of the brain can exhibit considerable epidemiological comorbidity and often share symptoms, provoking debate about their etiologic overlap. We quantified the genetic sharing of 25 brain disorders from genome-wide association studies of 265,218 patients and 784,643 control participants and assessed their relationship to 17 phenotypes from 1,191,588 individuals. Psychiatric disorders share common variant risk, whereas neurological disorders appear more distinct from one another and from the psychiatric disorders. We also identified significant sharing between disorders and a number of brain phenotypes, including cognitive measures. Further, we conducted simulations to explore how statistical power, diagnostic misclassification, and phenotypic heterogeneity affect genetic correlations. These results highlight the importance of common genetic variation as a risk factor for brain disorders and the value of heritability-based methods in understanding their etiology.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Encefalopatias/classificação , Encefalopatias/diagnóstico , Variação Genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/classificação , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Fenótipo , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Fatores de Risco
19.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 99, 2018 05 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29777097

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a public health priority for the 21st century. Risk reduction currently revolves around lifestyle changes with much research trying to elucidate the biological underpinnings. We show that self-report of parental history of Alzheimer's dementia for case ascertainment in a genome-wide association study of 314,278 participants from UK Biobank (27,696 maternal cases, 14,338 paternal cases) is a valid proxy for an AD genetic study. After meta-analysing with published consortium data (n = 74,046 with 25,580 cases across the discovery and replication analyses), three new AD-associated loci (P < 5 × 10-8) are identified. These contain genes relevant for AD and neurodegeneration: ADAM10, BCKDK/KAT8 and ACE. Novel gene-based loci include drug targets such as VKORC1 (warfarin dose). We report evidence that the association of SNPs in the TOMM40 gene with AD is potentially mediated by both gene expression and DNA methylation in the prefrontal cortex. However, it is likely that multiple variants are affecting the trait and gene methylation/expression. Our discovered loci may help to elucidate the biological mechanisms underlying AD and, as they contain genes that are drug targets for other diseases and disorders, warrant further exploration for potential precision medicine applications.

20.
Front Neurosci ; 12: 209, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29670507

RESUMO

Gene-based tests to study the combined effect of rare variants on a particular phenotype have been widely developed for case-control studies, but their evolution and adaptation for family-based studies, especially studies of complex incomplete families, has been slower. In this study, we have performed a practical examination of all the latest gene-based methods available for family-based study designs using both simulated and real datasets. We examined the performance of several collapsing, variance-component, and transmission disequilibrium tests across eight different software packages and 22 models utilizing a cohort of 285 families (N = 1,235) with late-onset Alzheimer disease (LOAD). After a thorough examination of each of these tests, we propose a methodological approach to identify, with high confidence, genes associated with the tested phenotype and we provide recommendations to select the best software and model for family-based gene-based analyses. Additionally, in our dataset, we identified PTK2B, a GWAS candidate gene for sporadic AD, along with six novel genes (CHRD, CLCN2, HDLBP, CPAMD8, NLRP9, and MAS1L) as candidate genes for familial LOAD.

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