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1.
Avian Pathol ; : 1-8, 2022 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35261311

RESUMO

Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) economically affects the global poultry industry causing respiratory and reproductive disorders. Considering the paucity of data on aMPV occurrence in European free-ranging avifauna, a molecular survey was conducted on wild birds of 23 species belonging to the orders Anseriformes, Charadriiformes or Passeriformes, captured alive and sampled in Northeast Italy as part of the national avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance activities. A total of 492 oropharyngeal swabs, collected from 2007-2010, all AIV-negative, were screened from aMPV by subtype-specific qRT-PCR. An aMPV-C strain, named aMPV/C/IT/Wigeon/758/07, was found in a wintering young Eurasian wigeon (Mareca penelope) sampled in November 2007. The matrix, fusion, and attachment glycoprotein genes of the detected strain were subsequently amplified by specific independent RT-PCRs, then sequenced, and compared in a phylogenetic framework with known aMPV homologous sequences retrieved from GenBank. Close genetic relationships were found between the aMPV/C/IT/Wigeon/758/07 strain and subtype C Eurasian lineage strains isolated in the late 1990s in French domestic ducks, suggesting epidemiological links. Eurasian wigeons are medium/long-range migrant dabbling ducks that move along the Black Sea/Mediterranean flyway; our finding might, therefore, be related to migratory bridges between countries. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of the occurrence of aMPV subtype C in Italy and backdates the aMPV-C circulation to 2007. Moreover, the results suggest the susceptibility of Eurasian wigeons to aMPV. Broader investigations are needed to assess the role of wild ducks and the significance of the wildfowl/poultry interface in aMPV-C epidemiology. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTSWild birds live-captured in Italy were tested for aMPV detection and characterization.aMPV-C Eurasian lineage was found for the first time in a wintering Eurasian wigeon.Migratory birds could be involved in the aMPV epidemiology.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(2)2022 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35049810

RESUMO

The first two European outbreaks of herpetic pneumonia caused by Psittacid alphaherpesvirus-5 were diagnosed based on gross pathology findings, histological examination, transmission electron microscopy visualization and genome sequencing. The outbreaks, characterized by high morbidity and high mortality rates, involved two parrot species, namely the Indian ringneck parrot (Psittacula krameri) and the Alexandrine parakeet (Psittacula eupatria). Clinical signs observed were ruffled feathers, dyspnea, tail bobbing, open wings while breathing, depression and anorexia. Necropsy was performed on Indian ringneck parrots only, and the most evident and serious gross lesion found in all the birds was a diffuse marked consolidation of the lungs associated with parenchyma congestion and oedema. Histological examination confirmed the existence of bronchopneumonia characterized by the presence of syncytial cells with intranuclear inclusion bodies. In one bird, fibrinous airsacculitis was observed as well. Lung tissue inspection through electron microscopy revealed the presence of virus particles resembling herpesviruses. Viral DNA was extracted, amplified using primers for Alloherpesviridae DNA polymerase gene detection, and then sequenced. BLAST analysis showed a 100% identity with the only previously reported sequence of PsHV-5 (MK955929.1).

4.
Front Plant Sci ; 12: 786871, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34950172

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease virus is the causative agent of Gumboro disease, a severe infection that affects young chickens and is associated with lymphoid depletion in the bursa of Fabricius. Traditional containment strategies are based either on inactivated or live-attenuated vaccines. These approaches have several limitations such as residual virulence or low efficacy in the presence of maternally derived antibodies (MDA) but, most importantly, the impossibility to detect the occurrence of natural infections in vaccinated flocks. Therefore, the development of novel vaccination strategies allowing the differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA) is a priority. Recently, commercial vectored and experimental subunit vaccines based on VP2 have been proved effective in protecting from clinical disease and posed the basis for the development of novel DIVA strategies. In this study, an engineered version of the VP3 protein of IBDV (His-VP3) was produced in plants, successfully purified from Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, and used to develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-VP3 antibodies. The His-VP3 ELISA was validated with a panel of 180 reference sera and demonstrated to have 100% sensitivity (95% CI: 94.7-100.0) and 94.17% specificity (95% CI: 88.4-97.6). To evaluate the application of His-VP3 ELISA as a DIVA test, the novel assay was used to monitor, in combination with a commercial kit, detecting anti-VP2 antibodies, the immune response of chickens previously immunized with an inactivated IBDV vaccine, a recombinant Turkey herpes virus carrying the VP2 of IBDV (HVT-ND-IBD) or with plant-produced VP2 particles. The combined tests correctly identified the immune status of the vaccinated specific pathogen free white-leghorn chickens. Moreover, the His-VP3 ELISA correctly detected MDA against VP3 in commercial broiler chicks and showed that antibody titers fade with time, consistent with the natural decrease of maternally derived immunity. Finally, the novel assay, in combination with a VP2-specific ELISA, demonstrated its potential application as a DIVA test in chickens inoculated with VP2-based vaccines, being able to detect the seroconversion after challenge with a very virulent IBDV strain.

5.
Microorganisms ; 9(11)2021 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835314

RESUMO

The increasing involvement of wild waterfowl in H5 Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Virus (HPAIV) circulation continues to pose a threat to animal and public health worldwide. In winter 2020-2021, two field surveillance activities were carried out on a weekly basis, through virological and serological analyses, in 823 hunted and 521 trapped migratory aquatic birds in northeast Italy. Sixty Eurasian teals were recaptured several times, which allowed us to follow the progression of the HPAI H5 infection in naturally infected wild waterfowl. Oropharyngeal, cloacal, and feather swabs (OS, CS and FS) were collected from each duck and tested by real time rRT-PCR Type A influenza. The identified viruses were characterized and pathotyped by sequencing. Several viruses belonging to three different HPAI H5 subtypes were detected: H5N8, H5N5, and H5N1. High prevalence of infection with HPAI H5 clade 2.3.4.4b during November-December 2020 (up to 27.1%) was observed in captured Eurasian teals, while infection rates in hunted dabbling ducks, mainly Eurasian wigeons, showed the highest prevalence of infection in November 2020 (8.9%) and January 2021 (10.2%). All HPAI positive birds were also clinically healthy when recaptured weeks apart. The OS and FS showed the highest detection efficiency of HPAIV. Our results highlight that HPAI passive surveillance should be complemented by a targeted active surveillance to more efficiently detect novel HPAI viruses.

6.
Pathogens ; 10(8)2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451511

RESUMO

The illegal trade of companion animals in the European Union poses several legal, ethical and health issues to the entire community. In the framework of the Biocrime Interreg project between Italy and Austria, we surveyed puppies and kittens confiscated at the borders to identify the most frequent pathogens associated with (i) the risk of spread within the shelter, (ii) the development of fatal disease and (iii) the zoonotic potential. From January 2018 to December 2020, we examined a total of 613 puppies and 62 kittens coming from 44 requisitions. Feces, skin specimens and blood sera from confiscated animals were tested to verify the presence of major infections and to assess the rabies post-vaccination immunity. Out of the total of individuals under investigation, necropsies and laboratory investigations were also performed on 79 puppies and three kittens that had died during the observation period. Results indicated a high prevalence of Canine Parvovirus (CPV) and Giardia spp. infections, CPV as the most likely cause of fatal gastroenteritis in puppies and Salmonella and Microsporum canis as major zoonotic pathogens. Conversely, both extended spectrum beta lactamases Escherichia coli and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius strains as rare findings. Results highlighted that illegal animal trade could expose the human population to potential zoonotic risk and naïve animal population to potentially disrupting epidemic waves, both of these issues being largely underestimated when buying companion animals.

7.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452311

RESUMO

Since 2006, multiple outbreaks of avian influenza (AI) have been reported in Nigeria involving different subtypes. Surveillance and molecular epidemiology have revealed the vital role of live bird markets (LBMs) in the dissemination of AI virus to commercial poultry farms. To better understand the ecology and epidemiology of AI in Nigeria, we performed whole-genome sequencing of nineteen H9N2 viruses recovered, from apparently healthy poultry species, during active surveillance conducted in nine LBMs across Nigeria in 2019. Analyses of the HA gene segment of these viruses showed that the H9N2 strains belong to the G1 lineage, which has zoonotic potential, and are clustered with contemporary H9N2 identified in Africa between 2016 and 2020. We observed two distinct clusters of H9N2 viruses in Nigeria, suggesting different introductions into the country. In view of the zoonotic potential of H9N2 and the co-circulation of multiple subtypes of AI virus in Nigeria, continuous monitoring of the LBMs across the country and molecular characterization of AIVs identified is advocated to mitigate economic losses and public health threats.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Zoonoses Virais/transmissão , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Zoonoses Virais/epidemiologia , Zoonoses Virais/virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
9.
Res Vet Sci ; 138: 196-200, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171543

RESUMO

We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) among stone martens (Martes foina) in Italy. After being rescued in Northern Italy between April and June 2018, six subjects were kept in a wildlife and exotic animal rescue center in Bologna province. Subjects have been monitored for 15 months in captivity. Within this time-lapse, two subjects died, while among the remaining four, only one showed clinical symptoms referable to distemper. Surviving subjects have been regularly tested for CDV by means of reverse transcriptase-PCR from conjunctival and oropharyngeal swabs for eleven months. The identified viruses belonged to the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup. Neutralizing antibodies were detected at the end of the eleven months, when all subjects tested reverse transcriptase-PCR negative. Our findings confirm the circulation of the Wildlife-Europe CDV genetic subgroup (Europe 1/South America 1 lineage) within the Italian wildlife, and improve knowledge on viral infection in stone martens.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Vírus da Cinomose Canina/imunologia , Cinomose/epidemiologia , Mustelidae , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/sangue , Cinomose/imunologia , Cinomose/virologia , Feminino , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 33(3): 439-447, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33769152

RESUMO

Laboratory tests provide essential support to the veterinary practitioner, and their use has grown exponentially. This growth is the result of several factors, such as the eradication of historical diseases, the occurrence of multifactorial diseases, and the obligation to control endemic and epidemic diseases. However, the introduction of novel techniques is counterbalanced by economic constraints, and the establishment of evidence- and consensus-based guidelines is essential to support the pathologist. Therefore, we developed standardized protocols, categorized by species, type of production, age, and syndrome at the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie (IZSVe), a multicenter institution for animal health and food safety. We have 72 protocols in use for livestock, poultry, and pets, categorized as, for example, "bovine enteric calf", "rabbit respiratory", "broiler articular". Each protocol consists of a panel of tests, divided into 'mandatory' and 'ancillary', to be selected by the pathologist in order to reach the final diagnosis. After autopsy, the case is categorized into a specific syndrome, subsequently referred to as a syndrome-specific panel of analyses. The activity of the laboratories is monitored through a web-based dynamic reporting system developed using a business intelligence product (QlikView) connected to the laboratory information management system (IZILAB). On a daily basis, reports become available at general, laboratory, and case levels, and are updated as needed. The reporting system highlights epidemiologic variations in the field and allows verification of compliance with the protocols within the organization. The diagnostic protocols are revised annually to increase system efficiency and to address stakeholder requests.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/diagnóstico , Patologia Veterinária/instrumentação , Animais , Itália
11.
Microorganisms ; 9(2)2021 Jan 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499060

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the most frequent foodborne zoonotic bacteria worldwide, with chicken meat being overwhelmingly the most important reservoir for human infections. Control measures implemented at the farm level (i.e., biosecurity or vaccination), which have been successfully applied to limit other pathogens, such as Salmonella, have not been effective in reducing Campylobacter occurrence. Thus, new approaches are needed to fully understand the ecological interactions of Campylobacter with host animals to effectively comprehend its epidemiology. The objective of this study was to analyse longitudinally the gut microbiota composition of Campylobacter-infected and non-infected farms to identify any difference that could potentially be indicative of gut colonization by Campylobacter spp. Differences in the colonization rate and timing were observed at the farms that became positive for Campylobacter jejuni over the investigated time points, even though in positive tests, the occurrence of Campylobacter jejuni gut colonization was not observed before the second week of the life of the birds. Significant differences were observed in the abundances of specific bacterial taxa between the microbiota of individuals belonging to farms that became Campylobacter positive during the study and those who remained negative with particular reference to Bacteroidales and Clostridiales, respectively. Moreover, Campylobacter colonization dramatically influenced the microbiota richness, although to a different extent depending on the infection timing. Finally, a key role of Faecalibacterium and Lactobacillus genera on the Campylobacter microbial network was observed. Understanding the ecology of the Campylobacter interaction with host microbiota during infection could support novel approaches for broiler microbial barrier restoration. Therefore, evidence obtained through this study can be used to identify options to reduce the incidence of infection at a primary production level based on the targeted influence of the intestinal microbiota, thus helping develop new control strategies in order to mitigate the risk of human exposure to Campylobacter by chicken meat consumption.

12.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 886-888, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32312185

RESUMO

Since 2013, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) subtype H5N6 (clade 2.3.4.4) has been reported in wild birds and poultry in Asia as well as in other parts of the globe. In Africa, information on the presence of this virus subtype is lacking. This study reports the first detection of a HPAI (H5N6) virus (clade 2.3.4.4b) in a duck from a live bird market in Nigeria, whose genome is closely related to the European 2017-2018 H5N6 viruses, indricating a recent virus introduction into the African continent.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Patos/virologia , Genoma Viral , Vírus da Influenza A/classificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia
13.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224903, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31697761

RESUMO

Mycoplasma synoviae (MS) is a highly prevalent bacterial species in poultry causing disease and severe economic losses. Antibiotic treatment is one of the control strategies that can be applied to contain clinical outbreaks in MS-free flocks, especially because this bacterium can be transmitted in ovo. It becomes, then, very important for veterinarians to know the antibiotic susceptibility of the circulating strains in order to choose the most appropriate first-line antibiotic molecule as a proactive role in fighting antibiotic resistance. We evaluated the Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline, doxycycline, erythromycin, tylosin, tilmicosin, spiramycin, tiamulin, florfenicol and lincomycin for MS isolates collected between 2012 and 2017 in Italy. A total of 154 MS isolates from different poultry commercial categories (broiler, layer, and turkey sectors) was tested using commercial MIC plates. All MS isolates showed very high MIC values of erythromycin (MIC90 ≥8 µg/mL) and enrofloxacin (MIC90 ≥16 µg/mL). MIC values of doxycycline and oxytetracycline obtained were superimposable to each other with only a one-fold dilution difference. Discrepancies between MIC values of tylosin and tilmicosin were observed. Interestingly, seven isolates showed very high MIC values of lincomycin and tilmicosin, but not all of them showed very high MIC values of tylosin. Most of the MS isolates showed low MIC values of spiramycin, but seven strains showed a MIC ≥16 µg/mL. In the observation period, the frequency of the different MIC classes varied dependently on the tested antibiotic. Interestingly, tilmicosin MICs clearly showed a time-dependent progressive shift towards high-concentration classes, indicative of an on-going selection process among MS isolates. Until standardized breakpoints become available to facilitate data interpretation, it will be fundamental to continue studying MIC value fluctuations in the meantime in order to create a significant database that would facilitate veterinarians in selecting the proper drug for treating this impactful Mycoplasma.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Lectinas/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/efeitos dos fármacos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Animais , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Doxiciclina/farmacologia , Enrofloxacina/farmacologia , Eritromicina/farmacologia , Itália , Lincomicina/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Espiramicina/farmacologia , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Tianfenicol/farmacologia , Tilosina/análogos & derivados , Tilosina/farmacologia
14.
Vet Res ; 49(1): 83, 2018 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30157967

RESUMO

Since 1997, G1-lineage H9N2 avian influenza viruses have been circulating in Asia and later on in the Middle East, and they have been associated to mild respiratory disease, drops in egg production and moderate mortality in chickens, in particular in the presence of concurrent infections. In this study, we investigated the importance of the G1-lineage H9N2 A/chicken/Israel/1163/2011 virus as a primary pathogen in layers, analyzing its tropism and binding affinity for the oviduct tissues, and investigating the long-term impact on egg production. Besides causing a mild respiratory infection, the virus replicated in the oviduct of 60% of the hens causing different degrees of salpingitis throughout the organ, in particular at the level of the infundibulum, where the detection of the virus was associated with severe heterophilic infiltrate, and necrosis of the epithelium. Binding affinity assays confirmed that the infundibulum was the most receptive region of the oviduct. The drop in egg production was at its peek at 2 weeks post-infection (pi) (60% decrease) and continued up to 80 days pi (35% decrease). On day 80 pi, non-laying birds showed egg yolk peritonitis, and histopathological analyses described profound alteration of the infundibulum architecture, duct ectasia and thinning of the epithelium, while the rest of the oviduct and ovary appeared normal. Our results show that this H9N2 virus is a primary pathogen in layer hens, and that its replication in the infundibulum is responsible for acute and chronic lesions that limits the effective functionality of the oviduct, compromising the commercial life of birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/fisiologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Oviductos/virologia , Hipófise/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Reprodução , Animais , Feminino , Influenza Aviária/patologia , Influenza Aviária/fisiopatologia , Óvulo , Hipófise/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/fisiopatologia , Tropismo
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 65(18): 3767-3774, 2017 May 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28437606

RESUMO

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are of interest due to their antimicrobial activity and are seen as potential candidates to replace antibiotics in animal husbandry. A few studies have focused on this new application, but they lack any considerations about residual accumulation of AgNPs in edible animal tissues and animal products. In this research, a 22 day in vivo study was carried out by oral administration of 20 nm spherical PVP coated AgNPs to hens. Six doses of approximately 1 mg kg-1 of AgNPs-PVP each were administered to animals throughout the experimentation. Atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) was used for quantitative determination of residual total Ag in different organs and matrices. The analyses showed that Ag accumulates in livers (concentration ranging from 141 µg kg-1 to 269 µg kg-1) and yolks (concentration ranging from 20 µg kg-1 to 49 µg kg-1) but not in muscles, kidneys, and albumen belonging to hens of the treated group (tG2). Ag was not detected in animals of the control group (uG1) (i.e., total Ag < LOD = 10 µg kg-1). Single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray detection (SEM-EDX) were employed to elucidate the presence of AgNPs in livers and yolks belonging to tG2 animals. spICP-MS highlighted that part of residual Ag found in livers (about 5-20%) is in NP form with an average dimension of approximately 20 nm. SEM-EDX technique confirmed the presence of AgNPs only in livers of treated animals. The results show that feeding AgNPs to hens may become a source of consumer exposure to AgNPs. As far as we know this is the first study showing transfer of AgNPs or reaction products thereof from animal feed to animal products.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Ovos/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/análise , Prata/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Galinhas , Feminino , Fígado/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Prata/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Atômica
16.
Avian Dis ; 61(4): 531-535, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29337622

RESUMO

Poxvirus was the causative agent of two unusual outbreaks of proliferative glossitis in canary ( Serinus canaria forma domestica) breeders in the Northern Italy. A total of 45, 7-9-mo-old canaries were submitted in fair postmortem conditions to the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie at the beginning of November 2005 for diagnostic investigation. Birds belonged to two unrelated and geographically distant aviaries in northern Italy, herein identified as Aviary A and Aviary B. The two breeder flocks had both attended the same bird exposition held at the beginning of October and started experiencing an onset of high mortality 3 wk after the show. Twelve red factor-melanin canaries from Aviary A (Mantua) and 33 dominant white and recessive white canaries from Aviary B (Vicenza) were submitted for laboratory investigations. Clinical signs were unspecific and consisted of depression, ruffling of the feathers, epistaxis, and anorexia due to decreased feed and water intake. Postmortem findings revealed a severe increase in volume, thickening, and hardening of the tongue, which had turned pinkish to dark brown. No apparent gross lesions were noticed in integumentary, respiratory, and digestive systems or other internal organs. Histopathologic evaluation of the tongue revealed severe proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium containing numerous large eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies (Bollinger bodies) displacing the nuclei of the cells peripherally. Severe ulceration of the surface epithelium, fibrinoheterophilic plaque formation, and moderate basal lymphoplasmacytic infiltrations were also associated with the proliferative lesion. Poxvirus was successfully isolated from the lesions in tissue cultures but not in specific-pathogen-free chicken embryonated eggs. Typical large, brick-shaped viral particles of 300-450 nm were also observed in affected tongues by transmission electron microscopy. This is the first report of multiple outbreaks of "poxvirus glossitis" in canaries.


Assuntos
Avipoxvirus/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Canários , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Glossite/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/veterinária , Animais , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Glossite/patologia , Glossite/virologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/patologia , Infecções por Poxviridae/virologia
18.
BMC Vet Res ; 12: 52, 2016 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26968657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of wild birds in the transmission and spread of mycoplasmas is not clear. Up to now different Mycoplasma species have been isolated from wild birds many of which are not considered pathogens sensu stricto for domestic flocks. This report describes the first isolation of Mycoplasma synoviae in a captive lesser flamingo (Phoeniconaias minor) held in a zoo in Italy and the laboratory investigations performed to elucidate its origin. Results showed that the strain was similar to the MS-H vaccine strain using the vlhA methods although no vaccination with this product was used in the zoo. CASE PRESENTATION: This paper describes investigations into a case in which 10 of 12 adult lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) died after having recently been moved from the Netherlands to a new zoo in Northern Italy. While most of the birds appeared to have died from the stress of movement and poor adaptation to their new environment, Mycoplasma synoviae, an important poultry pathogen in the layer and meat industry, was isolated for the first time from the trachea of one animal presenting catarrhal tracheitis and fibrinous airsacculitis. Genetic analysis of the conserved region of the vlhA was not able to differentiate the flamingo strain from the MS-H vaccine strain. However differences in the sequences of the obg gene of the flamingo and vaccine strain were detected. A test for temperature-sensitivity (ts) gave a ts (-) phenotype for the flamingo strain, in contrast to the ts (+) status of the MS-H strain. Based on this information and knowing that the flamingos were not vaccinated against M. synoviae, it is highly likely that the flamingo was infected with a genetically similar wild strain by contact with infected birds. CONCLUSIONS: This case provides evidence for the potential role of international trade of ornamental birds as a possible route of introduction of new mycoplasma strains between countries, and moreover highlight that vlhA gene sequencing was not sufficient to discriminate the wild strain isolated from the flamingo from the MS-H vaccine strain.


Assuntos
Animais de Zoológico/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma synoviae/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves , Evolução Fatal , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Itália , Lectinas/genética , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Mycoplasma/diagnóstico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia , Mycoplasma synoviae/classificação , Mycoplasma synoviae/genética , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Países Baixos , Filogenia , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura , Traqueia/microbiologia
19.
Avian Dis ; 54(2): 961-4, 2010 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20608549

RESUMO

Eggshell abnormalities were seen in the apex of eggs in two of three flocks of multi-age, Hy-Line layer chickens housed on a farm in Northern Italy. Approximately 1.3% to 1.8% of eggs in one flock were affected, amounting to 300-400 eggs per day; the abnormalities resulted in a great deal of breakage and spoilage of healthy eggs. The mean weight of eggs was also reduced. Egg abnormalities in a second flock were less severe. Mycoplasma synoviae was detected in birds from both of the affected flocks by serologic, cultural, and molecular techniques, but not in a third, adjacent flock where no eggshell abnormalities were seen. Treatment with tylosin, administered in the drinking water for 5 days, resulted in an immediate improvement of eggshell quality and egg weight. There was no evidence of infectious bronchitis virus in the flocks.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Casca de Ovo/patologia , Infecções por Mycoplasma/veterinária , Mycoplasma synoviae/isolamento & purificação , Oviposição , Tilosina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Infecções por Mycoplasma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Mycoplasma/patologia
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