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1.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-25, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477198

RESUMO

Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study examined associations between SSB intakes at ages 18 months and 5 years with adiposity measures at age 6 years. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at ages 18 months (n=555) and 5 years (n=767). The median (interquartile range) for SSB intakes is 28(5.5-98) ml at age 18 months and 111 (57-198) ml at age 5 years. Associations between SSB intakes (100 ml/day increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (s.d. unit), sum of skinfolds (SSFs)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intakes at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intakes when modelled as 100ml/day increments were associated with higher BMI by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) s.d. unit, higher SSF thickness by 0.68 (0.06, 1.44) mm, and increased risk for overweight/obesity by 1.2 times (1.07, 1.23) at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intakes modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and risk for overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programs targeted at young children.

2.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 70, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Integrated 24-Hour Movement Guidelines provide specific recommendations on screen viewing (SV), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep to improve health of children and youth. However, few studies have examined whether these guidelines are met in young children, particularly in Asia. We evaluated adherence to integrated and individual guidelines and its predictors in 5.5-year-old Singaporean children. METHODS: Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) is a mother-offspring birth cohort study. At age 5.5 years, child SV was reported by parents. Movement behaviours (MBs) were measured continuously using wrist-worn accelerometers over 7 consecutive days and nights. For accelerometer data including ≥3 days with ≥16 h/day we estimated mean (±SD) daily MVPA, SV and nighttime sleep duration across the week. Adherence to integrated (Canadian/Australian) guidelines was defined as meeting all individual guidelines: ≥60 min of MVPA/day, ≤2 h of screen time/day, and 9-11 h of sleep/night. Socio-demographic and maternal predictors collected at pregnancy enrolment and at 26-28 weeks' gestation were examined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 864 children followed up age 5.5 years, 547 (63.3%) had both valid ActiGraph and questionnaire data (51.7% boys and 58.3% Chinese ethnicity). Children averaged 101.9 (± 88.7) min/day SV, 67.3 (± 23.7) min/day MVPA and 480.6 (± 57.2) min/night sleep. Few children met integrated guidelines. Specifically, the proportions of children who met none, SV, MVPA, sleep and integrated guidelines were 11.2, 70.2, 59.6, 13.7 and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that maternal activity and television (TV) viewing were associated with meeting integrated guidelines (insufficiently vs. highly active (OR [95% CI]): 0.11 [0.01, 0.95]; 2-3 vs. ≥ 3 h TV: 3.52 [1.02, 12.22]). Examining higher adherence to individual guidelines, Chinese ethnicity, younger maternal age and lower maternal TV and sleep time were associated with greater SV; male sex, Malay ethnicity, higher birth order and higher maternal activity level were associated with greater MVPA; and older maternal age was associated with adherence to sleep guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond individual behaviours, consideration of the full spectrum of MBs may be important to improve children's health. However, few Singaporean children adhere to integrated 24-h movement guidelines. Maternal behaviours as early as during pregnancy could be important targets for future interventions aiming to promote these MBs in children.

3.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Accumulation of lipid droplets inside skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular lipids or IMCL) with increasing obesity has been linked to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes in both adults and prepubertal children. We aimed to evaluate the associations of race, genotype, prenatal factors, and postnatal factors with IMCL in early childhood. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis performed on the GUSTO birth cohort. Soleus muscle IMCL of 392 children at 4.5 years of age was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, of which usable imaging data were obtained from 277 children (137 Chinese, 87 Malays, and 53 Indians). Metabolic assessments (fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) were performed at age 6. RESULTS: The mean IMCL level at 4.5 years was 0.481 ± 0.279% of water resonance (mean ± sd). Corroborating with results from adults, Indian children had the highest IMCL levels compared with Malay and Chinese children. Among the prenatal factors, the rate of gestational weight gain (GWG rate) was associated with offspring IMCL (B = 0.396 (0.069, 0.724); p = 0.018). Both race and GWG rate continued to be associated with offspring IMCL even after accounting for current offspring BMI. Postnatally, IMCL was associated with shorter breastfeeding duration (B = 0.065 (0.001, 0.128); p = 0.045) and conditional relative weight gain between ages 2 and 3 (B = 0.052 (0.012, 0.093); p = 0.012). The associations with postnatal factors were attenuated after adjusting for current offspring BMI. IMCL was positively associated with offspring BMI (B = 0.028 (0.012, 0.044); p = 0.001). IMCL levels were not associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR at age 6. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that IMCL accumulation occurs in early childhood and that developmental factors and race are associated with it. We also show that early childhood IMCL accumulation is well tolerated, suggesting that the adverse associations between IMCL and insulin resistance may emerge at older ages.

4.
J Endocrinol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404911

RESUMO

We postulate that myo-inositol, a proposed intervention for gestational-diabetes, affects transplacental lipid supply to the fetus. We investigated the effect of myo-inositol on fatty-acid processing in human placental-explants from uncomplicated pregnancies. Explants were incubated with 13C-labeled palmitic-acid, 13C-oleic-acid and 13C-docosahexaenoic-acid across a range of myo-inositol concentrations for 24 h and 48 h. The incorporation of labeled-fatty-acids into individual lipids was quantified by liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. At 24 h, myo-inositol increased the amount of 13C-palmitic-acid and 13C-oleic-acid labeled lipids (median fold-change relative to control=1). Significant effects were seen with 30 µM myo-inositol (physiological) for 13C-palmitic-acid-lysophosphatidylcholines (1.26) and 13C-palmitic-acid-phosphatidylethanolamines (1.17). At 48 h, myo-inositol addition increased 13C-oleic-acid-lipids but decreased 13C-palmitic-acid and 13C-docosahexaenoic-acid lipids. Significant effects were seen with 30 µM myo-inositol for 13C-oleic-acid-phosphatidylcholines (1.25), 13C-oleic-acid-phosphatidylethanolamines (1.37) and 13C-oleic-acid-triacylglycerols (1.32) and with 100 µM myo-inositol for 13C-docosahexaenoic-acid-triacylglycerols (0.78). Lipids labeled with the same 13C-fatty-acid showed similar responses when tested at the same time-point, suggesting myo-inositol alters upstream processes such as fatty-acid uptake or activation. Myo-inositol supplementation may alter placental lipid physiology with unknown clinical consequences.

5.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390765

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of newborn death and a risk factor for short and long-term adverse health outcomes. Most cases are of unknown cause. Although the mechanisms triggering PTB remain unclear, an inappropriate increase in net inflammatory load seems to be key. To date, interventions that reduce the risk of PTB are effective only in specific groups of women, probably due to the heterogeneity of its etiopathogenesis. Use of progesterone is the most effective, but only in singleton pregnancies with history of PTB. Thus, primary prevention is greatly needed and nutritional and bioactive solutions are a promising alternative. Among these, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most promising to reduce the risk for early PTB. Other potential nutrient interventions include the administration of zinc (possibly limited to populations with low nutritional status or poor zinc status) and vitamin D; additional preliminary evidence exists for vitamin A, calcium, iron, folic acid, combined iron-folate, magnesium, multiple micronutrients, and probiotics. Considering the public health relevance of PTB, promising interventions should be studied in large and well-designed clinical trials. The objective of this review is to describe, summarize, and discuss the existing evidence on nutritional and bioactive solutions for reducing the risk of PTB.

6.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331255

RESUMO

Objectives: Minerals deficiencies during pregnancy have been shown to be associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in offspring. This study aimed to investigate associations of maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations with cognitive development in 4-year old children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcome cohort. Methods: Maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks' gestation. The Lollipop test of school readiness, tests of working memory, number knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were performed in children at 4 years. Associations were examined in 715 mother-offspring pairs using linear regressions adjusted for key confounders. Results: Maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations were 812 ± 144 µg/L and 19.9 ± 1.8 mg/L (mean±SD); 19% and 71% of mothers were zinc deficient and magnesium insufficient, respectively. After adjustment for multiple testing, higher maternal zinc concentrations (per SD increment) were associated with 0.35 higher scores in Lollipop subtest 2 of picture description and spatial identification (95% CI: 0.13, 0.58); higher maternal magnesium concentrations (per SD increment) were associated with 0.65 higher scores in Lollipop subtest 4 of letters and writing identification (95% CI: 0.23, 1.07). Discussion: No significant associations were observed for other tests, suggesting little long term influences of maternal zinc and magnesium on child's cognitive development.

7.
Appetite ; 142: 104371, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323246

RESUMO

Parents' feeding practices have been shown to be associated with children's food intake and weight status, but little is known about feeding practices in Asian countries. This study used behavioral observation to explore the feeding practices of 201 mothers of 4.5 year-old children in Singapore during an ad libitum buffet lunch. Feeding practices were coded from videos, focusing on behaviors used to prompt the child to eat more food (autonomy-supportive and coercive-controlling prompts to eat, suggesting items from buffet), those to reduce intake (restriction, questioning food choice), and those related to eating rate (hurrying or slowing child eating). Child outcome measures included energy consumed, variety of food items selected, and BMI. Maternal restriction and trying to slow child eating rate were associated with higher energy consumed by the child (r = 0.19 and 0.13, respectively; p < 0.05). Maternal autonomy-supportive prompts and restriction were associated with a greater variety of items selected by children (r = 0.19 and 0.15, respectively; p < 0.05). The frequency of maternal feeding practice use differed across ethnic groups, with Malay mothers using the most prompts to eat (p < 0.05), Chinese mothers most likely to question a child's food choice (p < 0.01), and Indian mothers the last likely to tell the child to eat faster (p < 0.001). There were no differences between ethnic groups for other feeding practices. No associations were found between feeding practices and child BMI. It is possible that feeding practices related to restriction and slowing child eating are adopted in response to children who consume larger portions, although longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to confirm the direction of this relationship and create local recommendations.

8.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(10): e12537, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity has been implicated in the origins of childhood obesity through a suboptimal environment in-utero. OBJECTIVE: We examined relationships of maternal early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), overweight/obesity, and plasma biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, and placental function with measures of childhood BMI and adiposity. METHODS: BMI z-score, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SST), body fat percentage (BFP, by bioelectrical impedance), and waist, arm, and hip circumferences were measured in 1173 6-year-old children of nulliparous pregnant women in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study, New Zealand. Relationships of maternal early pregnancy (15 weeks' gestation) BMI and biomarkers with these childhood anthropometric measures were assessed by linear regression, with appropriate adjustment. RESULTS: 28.1% of mothers were classified as overweight and 10.1% with obesity; compared with normal weight mothers, the BFP of their children were 5.3% higher (0.16 SD [95% CI, 0.04-0.29] p = .01) and 7.8% higher (0.27 [0.08-0.47] p = .006) with comparable values for BMI z-score and arm, waist, and hip circumferences. Early pregnancy maternal BMI and plasma placental growth factor (PlGF) were associated with higher child's SST, BMI z-score, hip circumference, and BFP. None of the metabolic or inflammatory maternal biomarkers were associated with childhood obesity. CONCLUSION: In this contemporary large prospective cohort study with extensive maternal/childhood phenotyping and a high prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity, we found independent relationships of maternal early pregnancy BMI with childhood BMI and adiposity; similar associations were observed with PlGF, which may imply a role for placenta function in the developmental programming of childhood obesity risk.

9.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(11): 1990-2000, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of toddlers has been of growing interest due to its long-term consequences on health. However, previous works have focused largely on Caucasian populations and less is known about Asian toddlers. We aimed to validate a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to assess dietary intakes of 18-month-old toddlers in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. DESIGN: An FFQ of ninety-four food items, identified based on food records of 12-month-old GUSTO children, the Southampton Women's Survey 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire and inputs from paediatric dietitians, was filled out two weeks before the 18th-month clinic visit. As the reference method, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls (24HR) were administered during and two weeks after the clinic visit. FFQ nutrient intakes were validated against averaged 24HR nutrient intakes, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman's rank-order correlation, cross-classification and the Bland-Altman method. SETTING: Data from the Singapore Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring birth cohort.ParticipantsToddlers (n 188) aged 18 months. RESULTS: Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ were significantly higher than from the 24HR, except for vitamin A. After energy adjustments, r range was 0·56-0·78 (macronutrients) and 0·40-0·54 (micronutrients). De-attenuation increased r to 0·58-0·96 and 0·45-0·65 for macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Of participants, ≥82·4 % (macronutrients) and ≥77·7 % (micronutrients) were classified in the same and adjacent quartiles. No clear systematic increase in intake differences with increasing mean intake was observed in Bland-Altman plots. CONCLUSIONS: This FFQ can provide a satisfactory assessment of toddlers' energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, as well as accurately rank them in a group.

10.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(7): 1334-1343, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Screen-viewing in late childhood has been associated with adiposity and blood pressure (BP), but evidence is lacking at younger ages. To investigate the prospective associations of total and device-specific screen-viewing at age 2-3 years with BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and BP among Singaporean children at age 3-5 years. METHODS: As part of the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort, mothers/caregivers reported the time per day their 2 and 3-year-old children watched/used television, handheld devices and computers. Average screen-viewing time (total, television and handheld-devices) at ages 2 and 3 years was used in the analyses. Height; weight; triceps, biceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and systolic and diastolic BP were measured at ages 3, 4 and 5. Associations of screen-viewing with BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and BP in 956 children were investigated using repeated-measures linear regression models. Analyses were further stratified by sex as we found significant interaction. RESULTS: Among boys and girls combined, screen-viewing was positively associated with sum of skinfold thicknesses, but not with BMI or BP. Sex-specific analyses showed significant associations with both BMI and sum of skinfold thicknesses in boys, but not in girls. Screen-viewing was not associated with BP in boys or girls. The increases in mean (95% CI) BMI per hour increase in daily total, television and handheld-devices screen-viewing among boys were 0.12 (0.03, 0.21), 0.18 (0.06, 0.30) and 0.11 (-0.07, 0.29) kg/m2, respectively. The corresponding increases in mean sum of skinfold thicknesses were 0.68 (0.29, 1.07), 0.79 (0.26, 1.32) and 1.18 (0.38, 1.99) mm. CONCLUSIONS: Greater screen-viewing at age 2-3 years was associated with later adiposity at 3-5 years in boys, but not in girls. In light of the increasing use of screen devices and cardiometabolic risk in young children, these findings may have important public health implications.

11.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 397, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency and the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. Because of the increased iron requirements during pregnancy, iron deficiency can lead to maternal anaemia and reduced newborn iron stores. We examined the proportion and risk factors of iron deficiency among pregnant women in a developed Asian country. METHODS: Within a prospective cohort in Singapore, 985 Asian women were assessed for iron status at 26-28 weeks' gestation, with plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) measurements. Iron status was determined according to plasma ferritin concentrations at ≥30 µg/L (iron sufficiency), 15 to < 30 µg/L (modest iron depletion) and < 15 µg/L (severe iron depletion). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for modest and severe iron depletion. RESULTS: The median (25-75th percentile) plasma ferritin concentration was 24.2 (19.9-30.6) µg/L. Overall, 660 (67.0%) and 67 (6.8%) women had modest and severe iron depletion, respectively. Higher plasma sTfR was observed in women with severe iron depletion than among those with iron sufficiency (median 17.6 versus 15.5 nmol/L; p < 0.001). Age < 25 years (odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval 1.15-4.84), Malay (2.05; 1.30-3.24) and Indian (1.98; 1.14-3.44) ethnicities (versus Chinese), university qualification (1.64; 1.13-2.38), multiparity (1.73; 1.23-2.44) and lack of iron-containing supplementation (3.37; 1.25-8.53) were associated with increased odds of modest and severe iron depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly three-quarters of Singaporean women were iron deficient in the early third trimester of pregnancy. These results suggest universal screening and supplementation of at-risk pregnancies may be evaluated as a preventive strategy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01174875 . Registered 1 July 2010 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
12.
Br J Nutr ; 121(11): 1303-1312, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935438

RESUMO

Evidence on long-term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-month-old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks' gestation; infant cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III at 24 months, for 443 mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. Linear regressions adjusted for key confounders examined associations of maternal vitamin B12 with cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor subscales. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamin B12 with folate or vitamin B6 insufficiencies on child's cognition was explored. Average maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations was 220·5 ± 80·5 pmol/l; 15 % and 41 % of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/l) and insufficient (148-220·9 pmol/l), respectively. Infants of mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency had 0·42 (95 % CI -0·70, -0·14) sd lower cognitive scores, compared with infants of mothers with sufficient vitamin B12. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamins B12 and B6 insufficiencies was associated with 0·37 (95 % CI -0·69, -0·06) sd lower cognitive scores in infants compared with infants of mothers sufficient in both vitamins. No significant associations were observed with other subscales. Study findings suggest the possible need to ensure adequate vitamin B12 during pregnancy. The impact of co-occurrence of maternal B-vitamins insufficiencies on early cognitive development warrants further investigation.

13.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(7): e12576, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020763

RESUMO

The amygdala and hippocampus undergo rapid development in early life. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the establishment of their developmental trajectories has yet to be examined. We performed imaging on neonates and examined how the observed variation in volume and microstructure of the amygdala and hippocampus varied by genotype, and compared with prenatal maternal mental health and socioeconomic status. Gene × Environment models outcompeted models containing genotype or environment only to best explain the majority of measures but some, especially of the amygdaloid microstructure, were best explained by genotype only. Models including DNA methylation measured in the neonate umbilical cords outcompeted the Gene and Gene × Environment models for the majority of amygdaloid measures and minority of hippocampal measures. This study identified brain region-specific gene networks associated with individual differences in fetal brain development. In particular, genetic and epigenetic variation within CUX1 was highlighted.

14.
Endocrinology ; 160(6): 1394-1408, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920585

RESUMO

Placental lipid transport and metabolism are poorly understood despite the importance for fetal development and lifelong health. We aimed to explore fatty acid (FA) processing in human villous placental explants from seven uncomplicated term singleton pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section. Explants were treated with stable isotope-labeled palmitic acid (13C-PA), oleic acid (13C-OA), or docosahexaenoic acid (13C-DHA) for 3, 24, or 48 hours. Stable isotope-labeled lipids synthesized by placental explants from labeled FA were quantified, alongside endogenous unlabeled placental lipids, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Labeled phosphatidylcholines (PCs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and phosphatidylethanolamines were detected in explants, whereas labeled lysophosphatidylcholines were found in both explants and conditioned media. 13C-PA was primarily directed into PC synthesis (74% of 13C-PA-labeled lipids), whereas 13C-OA was directed almost equally into PC and TAG synthesis (45% and 53%, respectively, of 13C-OA-labeled lipids). 13C-DHA was only detectable in TAGs. TAGs demonstrated the highest isotopic enrichment for all 13C-FAs with 13C-OA-TAGs comprising >50% of total OA-TAGs (unlabeled and labeled), consistent with TAGs being a labile and accessible reservoir for FA storage. Variations in lipid incorporation were correlated to maternal glycemia and body mass index, suggesting that this experimental model could be used to investigate the effect of maternal factors on placental lipid metabolism. We conclude that lipid metabolic partitioning of freshly imported FAs into labile and less labile lipid reservoirs in placenta is FA dependent. This process may partly mediate the physiological preferential transplacental transfer of particular FAs to the fetus, but may also be implicated in the fetoplacental pathophysiology of maternal metabolic dysfunction.

15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(7): 1344-1353, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower inhibitory control has been associated with obesity. One prediction is that lower inhibitory control underlies eating behaviours that promote increased energy intakes. This study examined the relationships between children's inhibitory control measured using the Stop Signal Task (SST), body composition and eating behaviours, which included self-served portion size, number of servings, eating rate, and energy intake at lunch and in an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) task. METHODS: The sample included 255 6-year-old children from an Asian cohort. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was used as an index of inhibitory control. Children participated in a recorded self-served lunchtime meal, followed by the EAH task where they were exposed to energy-dense snacks. Behavioural coding of oral processing was used to estimate eating rates (g/min). BMI, waist circumference and skinfolds were used as indices of adiposity. RESULTS: Children with lower inhibitory control tended to self-serve larger food portions (p = 0.054), had multiple food servings (p = 0.006) and significantly faster eating rates (p = 0.041). Inhibitory control did not predict energy intake at lunch (p = 0.17) or during the EAH task (p = 0.45), and was unrelated to measures of adiposity (p > 0.32). Twenty percent of the children in the sample had problems focusing on the SST and were described as 'restless'. Post-hoc analysis revealed that these children had lower inhibitory control (p < 0.001) and consumed more energy during the EAH task (p = 0.01), but did not differ in any other key outcomes from the rest of the sample (p > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Children with lower inhibitory control showed a trend to select larger food portions, had multiple food servings and faster eating rates, but were equally as responsive to snacks served in the absence of hunger as children with better inhibitory control. Inhibitory control may impact a number of eating behaviours, not limited to energy-dense snacks.

16.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832217

RESUMO

Early childhood diet may have lifelong influences on health outcomes, yet development of indices to assess diet quality is scarce in toddlers, especially in Asian countries. We aimed to develop and evaluate a Diet Quality Index (DQI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother⁻offspring cohort and identify perinatal correlates of early childhood diet. Based primarily on the Singapore dietary guidelines, the DQI includes seven food components: rice, bread and alternatives; fruit; vegetables; meat and alternatives; milk and dairy products; whole grains; and foods high in sugar. The DQI was developed using parental report of Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) data for 18-month-old toddlers (n = 561). The mean ± SD of DQI for the study toddlers was 44.2 ± 8.9 (theoretical range: 0⁻65). A higher DQI (better diet quality) was associated with higher intakes of several nutrients and food groups (e.g., vegetables, dietary fibre, and beta-carotene; all p < 0.001). Further construct validity was demonstrated by substantial agreement between the FFQ-DQI and 24-hour-recall-DQI (Intraclass-correlation-coefficient: 0.70). Independent predictors of lower DQI included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI [ß(95% CI): -0.23(-0.39, -0.07)], Malay ethnicity [-1.88(-3.67, -0.09)], lower household income [-1.97(-3.91, -0.03)], lower education level [-2.57(-4.85, -0.28)] and never breastfeeding [-6.17(-11.06, -1.28)]. We developed a valid DQI for assessing the overall quality of the diets of Asian toddlers.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios/análise , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Carne/análise , Política Nutricional , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura , Verduras , Grãos Integrais
17.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809702

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To explore the associations between type of milk feeding (the "nutrients") and mode of breast milk feeding (the "nursing") with child cognition. METHODS: Healthy children from the GUSTO (Growing Up in Singapore Toward healthy Outcomes) cohort participated in repeated neurodevelopmental assessments between 6 and 54 months. For "nutrients", we compared children exclusively bottle-fed according to type of milk received: formula only (n = 296) vs some/all breast milk (n = 73). For "nursing", we included only children who were fully fed breast milk, comparing those fed directly at the breast (n = 59) vs those fed partially/completely by bottle (n = 63). RESULTS: Compared to infants fed formula only, those who were bottle-fed breast milk demonstrated significantly better cognitive performance on both the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (Third Edition) at 2 years [adjusted mean difference (95% CI) 1.36 (0.32, 2.40)], and on the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (Second Edition) at 4.5 years [7.59 (1.20, 13.99)]. Children bottle-fed breast milk also demonstrated better gross motor skills at 2 years than those fed formula [1.60 (0.09, 3.10)]. Among infants fully fed breast milk, those fed directly at the breast scored higher on several memory tasks compared to children bottle-fed breast milk, including the deferred imitation task at 6 months [0.67 (0.02, 1.32)] and relational binding tasks at 6 [0.41 (0.07, 0.74)], 41 [0.67 (0.04, 1.29)] and 54 [0.12 (0.01, 0.22)] months. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that nutrients in breast milk may improve general child cognition, while nursing infants directly at the breast may influence memory.

18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(7): 3012-3024, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785999

RESUMO

CONTEXT: "Accelerated aging," assessed by adult DNA methylation, predicts cardiovascular disease (CVD). Adolescent accelerated aging might predict CVD earlier. We investigated whether epigenetic age acceleration (assessed age, 17 years) was associated with adiposity/CVD risk measured (ages 17, 20, and 22 years) and projected CVD by middle age. DESIGN: DNA methylation measured in peripheral blood provided two estimates of epigenetic age acceleration: intrinsic (IEAA; preserved across cell types) and extrinsic (EEAA; dependent on cell admixture and methylation levels within each cell type). Adiposity was assessed by anthropometry, ultrasound, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (ages 17, 20, and 22 years). CVD risk factors [lipids, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), blood pressure, inflammatory markers] were assessed at age 17 years. CVD development by age 47 years was calculated by Framingham algorithms. Results are presented as regression coefficients per 5-year epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA/EEAA) for adiposity, CVD risk factors, and CVD development. RESULTS: In 995 participants (49.6% female; age, 17.3 ± 0.6 years), EEAA (per 5 years) was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) of 2.4% (95% CI, 1.2% to 3.6%) and 2.4% (0.8% to 3.9%) at 17 and 22 years, respectively. EEAA was associated with increases of 23% (3% to 33%) in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, 10% (4% to 17%) in interferon-γ-inducible protein of 10 kDa, and 4% (2% to 6%) in soluble TNF receptor 2, adjusted for BMI and HOMA-IR. EEAA (per 5 years) results in a 4% increase in hard endpoints of CVD by 47 years of age and a 3% increase, after adjustment for conventional risk factors. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated epigenetic age in adolescence was associated with inflammation, BMI measured 5 years later, and probability of middle age CVD. Irrespective of whether this is cause or effect, assessing epigenetic age might refine disease prediction.

19.
Obesity (Silver Spring) ; 27(3): 470-478, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30707510

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the independent associations between age-specific annual weight gain from birth to age 4 years and fat deposition in metabolically distinct compartments at age 4.5 years in a South Asian longitudinal birth cohort. METHODS: Volumetric abdominal magnetic resonance imaging with comprehensive segmentation of deep and superficial subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and visceral adipose tissues (VAT) was performed in 316 children (150 boys and 166 girls in three ethnic groups; 158 Chinese, 94 Malay, and 64 Indian) aged 4.5 years. Associations between fat volumes and annual relative weight gain conditional on past growth were assessed overall and stratified by sex and ethnicity. RESULTS: Conditional relative weight gain had stronger associations with greater SAT and VAT at age 4.5 years in girls than boys and in Indians compared with Malay and Chinese. Overall, the magnitude of association was the largest during 2 to 3 years for SAT and 1 to 2 years for VAT. Despite similar body weight, Indian children and girls had the highest deep and superficial SAT volumes at age 4.5 years (all interactions P < 0.05). No significant sex or ethnic differences were observed in VAT. With increasing BMI, Indian children had the highest tendency to accumulate VAT, and girls accumulated more fat than boys in all depots (all interactions P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Indian ethnicity and female sex predisposed children to accumulate more fat in the VAT depot with increasing conditional relative weight gain in the second year of life. Thus, 1 to 2 years of age may be a critical window for interventions to reduce visceral fat accumulation.

20.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 23, 2019 02 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30786904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical activity decreases through childhood, adolescence and into adulthood: parents of young children are particularly inactive, potentially negatively impacting their children's activity levels. This study aimed to determine the association between objectively measured maternal and 6-year-old children's physical activity; explore how this association differed by demographic and temporal factors; and identify change during the transition to school (from age 4-6). METHODS: Data were from the UK Southampton Women's Survey. Physical activity of 530 6-year-olds and their mothers was measured concurrently using accelerometry for ≤7 days. Cross-sectionally, two-level mixed-effects linear regression was used to model the association between maternal-child daily activity behaviour at age 6 [minutes sedentary (SED); in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA)]. Interactions with demographic factors and time of the week were tested; how the association differed across the day was also explored. Change in the association between maternal-child physical activity (from age 4-6) was assessed in a subset (n = 170) [outcomes: SED, MVPA and light physical activity (LPA)]. RESULTS: Mother-child daily activity levels were positively associated (SED: ß = 0.23 [0.20, 0.26] minutes/day; MVPA: 0.53 [0.43, 0.64] minutes/day). The association was stronger at weekends (vs. weekdays) (interaction term: SED: ßi = 0.07 [0.02, 0.12]; MVPA: 0.44 [0.24, 0.64]). For SED, the association was stronger for those children with older siblings (vs. none); for MVPA, a stronger association was observed for those who had both younger and older siblings (vs. none) and a weaker relationship existed in spring compared to winter. Longitudinally, the association between mother-child activity levels did not change for SED and LPA. At age 6 (vs. age 4) the association between mother-child MVPA was weaker across the whole day (ßi: - 0.16 [- 0.31, - 0.01]), but remained similar at both ages between 3 and 11 pm. CONCLUSIONS: More active mothers have more active 6-year-olds; this association was similar for boys and girls but differed by time of week, season and by age of siblings at home. Longitudinally, the association weakened for MVPA between 4 and 6 years, likely reflecting the differing activities children engage in during school hours and increased independence. Family-based physical activity remains an important element of children's activity behaviour regardless of age. This could be exploited in interventions to increase physical activity within families.


Assuntos
Comportamento Infantil , Exercício , Mães , Estudantes , Acelerometria , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Humanos , Relações Mãe-Filho , Estudos Prospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas
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