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1.
J Hypertens ; 2021 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853103

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In children aged 8--9 years, we examined the associations of linear and abdominal circumference growth during critical stages of prenatal and postnatal development with six vascular measurements commonly used as early markers of atherosclerosis and later cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. METHODS: In 724 children from the UK Southampton Women's Survey mother--offspring cohort, offspring length/height and abdominal circumference measurements were collected at 10 ages between 11 weeks' gestation and age 8--9 years. Using residual growth modelling and linear regression, we examined the independent associations between growth and detailed vascular measures made at 8--9 years. RESULTS: Postnatal linear and abdominal circumference growth were associated with higher childhood SBP and carotid--femoral pulse wave velocity, whereas prenatal growth was not. For example, 1SD faster abdominal circumference gain between ages 3 and 6 years was associated with 2.27 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.56--2.98] mmHg higher SBP. In contrast, faster abdominal circumference gain before 19 weeks' gestation was associated with greater carotid intima--media thickness [0.009 mm (0.004--0.015) per 1SD larger 19-week abdominal circumference), whereas later growth was not. We found no strong associations between prenatal or postnatal growth and DBP or measures of endothelial function. CONCLUSION: Higher postnatal linear growth and adiposity gain are related to higher SBP and carotid--femoral pulse wave velocity in childhood. In contrast, faster growth in early gestation is associated with greater childhood carotid intima--media thickness, perhaps resulting from subtle changes in vascular structure that reflect physiological adaptations rather than subclinical atherosclerosis.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33888539

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To determine if variations in the neonatal amygdala mediate the association between maternal antenatal glycemia and offspring adiposity in early childhood. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: 123 non-obese pregnant women with no pregnancy complications aside from gestational diabetes underwent a 75 g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the neonatal amygdala (5-17 days old) were measured by MRI. The Body Mass Index (BMI) z-scores and sum of skinfold thickness (subscapular and triceps) of these children were tracked up to 60 months of age (18, 24, 36, 48, 54 and 60 months). RESULTS: Maternal fasting glucose levels were positively associated with the offspring's sum of skinfold thickness at age 48 months (ß=3.12, 95% CI 0.18 to 6.06 mm) and 60 months (ß=4.14, 95% CI 0.46 to 7.82 mm) and BMI z-scores at 48 months (ß=0.94, 95% CI 0.03 to 1.85), 54 months (ß=0.74, 95% CI 0.12 to 1.36) and 60 months (ß=0.74, 95% CI 0.08 to 1.39). Maternal fasting glucose was negatively associated with the offspring's FA of the right amygdala (ß=-0.019, 95% CI -0.036 to -0.003). Right amygdala FA was negatively associated with the sum of skinfold thickness in the offspring at age 48 months (ß=-56.95, 95% CI -98.43 to -15.47 mm), 54 months (ß=-46.18, 95% CI -88.57 to -3.78 mm), and 60 months (ß=-53.69, 95% CI -105.74 to -1.64 mm). The effect sizes mediated by right amygdala FA between fasting glucose and sum of skinfolds were estimated at ß=5.14 (95% CI 0.74 to 9.53) mm (p=0.022), ß=4.40 (95% CI 0.08 to 8.72) (p=0.049) mm and ß=4.56 (95% CI -0.17 to 9.29) mm (p=0.059) at 48, 54 and 60 months, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In the offspring of non-obese mothers, gestational fasting glucose concentration is negatively associated with neonatal right amygdala FA and positively associated with childhood adiposity. Neonatal right amygdala FA may be a potential mediator between maternal glycemia and childhood adiposity.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901668

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Rapid, high throughput diagnostics are a valuable tool, allowing the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in populations, in order to identify and isolate people with asymptomatic and symptomatic infections. Reagent shortages and restricted access to high throughput testing solutions have limited the effectiveness of conventional assays such as reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), particularly throughout the first months of the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated the use of LamPORE, where loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is coupled to nanopore sequencing technology, for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in symptomatic and asymptomatic populations. METHODS: In an asymptomatic prospective cohort, for three weeks in September 2020 health care workers across four sites (Birmingham, Southampton, Basingstoke and Manchester) self-swabbed with nasopharyngeal swabs weekly and supplied a saliva specimen daily. These samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using the Oxford Nanopore LamPORE system and a reference RT-qPCR assay on extracted sample RNA. A second retrospective cohort of 848 patients with influenza like illness from March 2020 - June 2020, were similarly tested from nasopharyngeal swabs. RESULTS: In the asymptomatic cohort a total of 1200 participants supplied 23,427 samples (3,966 swab, 19,461 saliva) over a three-week period. The incidence of SARS-CoV-2 detection using LamPORE was 0.95%. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of LamPORE was >99.5% (reducing to ∼ 98% when clustered estimation was used) in both swab and saliva asymptomatic samples when compared to the reference RT-qPCR test. In the retrospective symptomatic cohort, the incidence was 13.4% and the sensitivity and specificity were 100%. CONCLUSIONS: LamPORE is a highly accurate methodology for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in both symptomatic and asymptomatic population settings and can be used as an alternative to RT-qPCR.

5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 5021, 2021 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658531

RESUMO

We examined the associations of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and women's weight status from pre-pregnancy through post-delivery with the risk of developing dysglycaemia [impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes (T2D)] 4-6 years post-delivery. Using Poisson regression with confounder adjustments, we assessed associations of standard categorisations of prospectively ascertained pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity (OWOB), gestational weight gain (GWG) and substantial post-delivery weight retention (PDWR) with post-delivery dysglycaemia (n = 692). Women with GDM had a higher risk of later T2D [relative risk (95% CI) 12.07 (4.55, 32.02)] and dysglycaemia [3.02 (2.19, 4.16)] compared with non-GDM women. Independent of GDM, women with pre-pregnancy OWOB also had a higher risk of post-delivery dysglycaemia. Women with GDM who were OWOB pre-pregnancy and had subsequent PDWR (≥ 5 kg) had 2.38 times (1.29, 4.41) the risk of post-delivery dysglycaemia compared with pre-pregnancy lean GDM women without PDWR. No consistent associations were observed between GWG and later dysglycaemia risk. In conclusion, women with GDM have a higher risk of T2D 4-6 years after the index pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy OWOB and PDWR exacerbate the risk of post-delivery dysglycaemia. Weight management during preconception and post-delivery represent early windows of opportunity for improving long-term health, especially in those with GDM.

6.
Diabetes Care ; 2021 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33782086

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Better preconception metabolic and nutritional health are hypothesized to promote gestational normoglycemia and reduce preterm birth, but evidence supporting improved outcomes with nutritional supplementation starting preconception is limited. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: This double-blind randomized controlled trial recruited from the community 1,729 U.K., Singapore, and New Zealand women aged 18-38 years planning conception. We investigated whether a nutritional formulation containing myo-inositol, probiotics, and multiple micronutrients (intervention), compared with a standard micronutrient supplement (control), taken preconception and throughout pregnancy could improve pregnancy outcomes. The primary outcome was combined fasting, 1-h, and 2-h postload glycemia (28 weeks gestation oral glucose tolerance test). RESULTS: Between 2015 and 2017, participants were randomized to control (n = 859) or intervention (n = 870); 585 conceived within 1 year and completed the primary outcome (295 intervention, 290 control). In an intention-to-treat analysis adjusting for site, ethnicity, and preconception glycemia with prespecified P < 0.017 for multiplicity, there were no differences in gestational fasting, 1-h, and 2-h glycemia between groups (ß [95% CI] loge mmol/L intervention vs. control -0.004 [-0.018 to 0.011], 0.025 [-0.014 to 0.064], 0.040 [0.004-0.077], respectively). Between the intervention and control groups there were no significant differences in gestational diabetes mellitus (24.8% vs. 22.6%, adjusted risk ratio [aRR] 1.22 [0.92-1.62]), birth weight (adjusted ß = 0.05 kg [-0.03 to 0.13]), or gestational age at birth (mean 39.3 vs. 39.2 weeks, adjusted ß = 0.20 [-0.06 to 0.46]), but there were fewer preterm births (5.8% vs. 9.2%, aRR 0.43 [0.22-0.82]), adjusting for prespecified covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with myo-inositol, probiotics, and micronutrients preconception and in pregnancy did not lower gestational glycemia but did reduce preterm birth.

7.
Allergy ; 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751595

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Western countries, Asian children have higher food allergy risk than Caucasian children. The early-life environmental exposures for this discrepancy are unclear. We aimed to compare prevalence of food allergy and associated risk factors between Asian children in Singapore and Australia. METHODS: We studied children in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort (n = 878) and children of Asian ancestry in the HealthNuts cohort (n = 314). Food allergy was defined as a positive SPT ≥3 mm to egg or peanut AND either a convincing history of IgE-mediated reaction at 18 months (GUSTO) or a positive oral food challenge at 14-18 months (HealthNuts). Eczema was defined as parent-reported doctor diagnosis. RESULTS: Food allergy prevalence was 1.1% in Singapore and 15.0% in Australia (P<0.001). Egg introduction was more often delayed (>10 months) in Singapore (63.5%) than Australia (16.3%; P<0.001). Prevalence of early-onset eczema (<6 months) was lower in Singapore (8.4%) than Australia (30.5%) (P<0.001). Children with early-onset eczema were more likely to have food allergy than those without eczema in Australia [aOR 5.11 (2.34-11.14); P<0.001] and Singapore [aOR4.00 (0.62-25.8); P = 0.145]. CONCLUSIONS: Among Asian children, prevalence of early-onset eczema and food allergy was higher in Australia than Singapore. Further research with larger sample sizes and harmonized definitions of food allergy between cohorts is required to confirm and extend these findings. Research on environmental factors influencing eczema onset in Australia and Singapore may aid understanding of food allergy pathogenesis in different parts of the world.

8.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-10, 2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33745499

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify a posteriori dietary patterns among women planning pregnancy and assess the reproducibility of these patterns in a subsample using two dietary assessment methods. DESIGN: A semi-quantitative FFQ was administered to women enrolled in the Singapore PREconception Study of long-Term maternal and child Outcomes study. Dietary patterns from the FFQ were identified using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). In a subsample of women (n 289), 3-d food diaries (3DFD) were also completed and analysed. Reproducibility of the identified patterns was assessed using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in the subsample, and goodness of fit of the CFA models was examined using several fit indices. Subsequently, EFA was conducted in the subsample and dietary patterns of the FFQ and the 3DFD were compared. SETTING: Singapore. PARTICIPANTS: 1007 women planning pregnancy (18-45 years). RESULTS: Three dietary patterns were identified from the FFQ: the 'Fish, Poultry/Meat and Noodles' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fish, poultry/meat and noodles in soup; 'Fast Food and Sweetened Beverages' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of fast food, sweetened beverages and fried snacks; 'Bread, Legumes and Dairy' pattern was characterised by higher intakes of buns/ethnic breads, nuts/legumes and dairy products. The comparative fit indices from the CFA models were 0·79 and 0·34 for the FFQ and 3DFD of the subsample, respectively. In the subsample, three similar patterns were identified in the FFQ while only two for the 3DFD. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary patterns from the FFQ are reproducible within this cohort, providing a basis for future investigations on diet and health outcomes.

9.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 107, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542173

RESUMO

While maternal mental health strongly influences neurodevelopment and health in the offspring, little is known about the determinants of inter-individual variation in the mental health of mothers. Likewise, the in utero biological pathways by which variation in maternal mental health affects offspring development remain to be defined. Previous studies implicate lipids, consistent with a known influence on cognitive and emotional function, but the relevance for maternal mental health and offspring neurodevelopment is unclear. This study characterizes the placental and circulatory lipids in antenatal depression, as well as socio-emotional outcomes in the offspring. Targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry covering 470 lipid species was performed on placenta from 186 women with low (n = 70) or high (n = 116) levels of antenatal depressive symptoms assessed using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale at 26 weeks' gestation. Child socio-emotional outcomes were assessed from the Child Behavior Check List (CBCL) at 48 months. Seventeen placental lipid species showed an inverse association with antenatal EPDS scores. Specifically, lower levels of phospholipids containing LC-PUFAs: omega-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-6 arachidonic acid (AA) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Additional measurement of LC-PUFA in antenatal plasma samples at mid-gestation confirmed the reduced circulation of these specific fatty acids in mothers. Reduced concentration of the placental phospholipids also predicted poorer socio-emotional outcomes in the offspring. This study provides new insights into the role of the materno-fetal lipid cross-talk as a mechanism linking maternal mental health to that of the offspring. These findings show the potential utility of nutritional approaches among pregnant women with depressive symptoms to reduce offspring risk for later socio-emotional problems.

10.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 33, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33612114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence suggests that maternal diet influences pregnancy and birth outcomes, but its contribution to the global epidemic of childhood obesity has not as yet been definitively characterized. We investigated whether maternal whole diet quality and inflammatory potential influence childhood adiposity. METHODS: We harmonized and pooled individual participant data from 16,295 mother-child pairs in seven European birth cohorts. Maternal pre-, early-, late-, and whole-pregnancy (any time during pregnancy) dietary quality and inflammatory potential assessed with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the energy-adjusted Dietary Inflammatory Index (E-DII™) score, respectively. Primary outcome was childhood overweight and obesity (OWOB) (age-and-sex-specific BMI z-score > 85th percentile). Secondary outcomes were sum of skinfold thickness (SST), fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI). We used multivariable regression analyses (adjusting for maternal lifestyle and sociodemographic factors) to assess the associations of maternal DASH and E-DII scores with offspring adiposity outcomes in cohort-specific analyses, with subsequent random-effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: The study mothers had a mean (SD) age of 30.2 (4.6) years and a mean BMI of 23.4 (4.2) kg/m2. Higher early-pregnancy E-DII scores (more pro-inflammatory diet) tended to be associated with a higher odds of late-childhood [10.6 (1.2) years] OWOB [OR (95% CI) 1.09 (1.00, 1.19) per 1-SD E-DII score increase], whereas an inverse association was observed for late-pregnancy E-DII score and early-childhood [2.8 (0.3) years] OWOB [0.91 (0.83, 1.00)]. Higher maternal whole pregnancy DASH score (higher dietary quality) was associated with a lower odds of late-childhood OWOB [OR (95% CI) 0.92 (0.87, 0.98) per 1-SD DASH score increase]; associations were of similar magnitude for early and late-pregnancy [0.86 (0.72, 1.04) and 0.91 (0.85, 0.98), respectively]. These associations were robust in several sensitivity analyses and further adjustment for birth weight and childhood diet did not meaningfully alter the associations and conclusions. In two cohorts with available data, a higher whole pregnancy E-DII and lower DASH scores were associated with a lower late-childhood FFMI in males and a higher mid-childhood FMI in females (P interactions < 0.10). CONCLUSIONS: A pro-inflammatory, low-quality maternal antenatal diet may adversely influence offspring body composition and OWOB risk, especially during late-childhood. Promoting an overall healthy and anti-inflammatory maternal dietary pattern may contribute to the prevention of childhood obesity, a complex health issue requiring multifaceted strategy.

11.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525398

RESUMO

(1) Background: Breastfeeding has been shown to support glucose homeostasis in women after a pregnancy complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and is potentially effective at reducing long-term diabetes risk. (2) Methods: Data from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) study were analyzed to understand the influence of breastfeeding duration on long-term dysglycemia (prediabetes and diabetes) risk in women who had GDM in the index pregnancy. GDM and dysglycemia four to seven years postpartum were determined by the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). A Poisson regression model with a robust error variance was used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for dysglycemia four to seven years post-delivery according to groupings of the duration of any breastfeeding (<1, ≥1 to <6, and ≥6 months). (3) Results: Women who had GDM during the index pregnancy and complete breastfeeding information and OGTT four to seven years postpartum were included in this study (n = 116). Fifty-one women (44%) had postpartum dysglycemia. Unadjusted IRRs showed an inverse association between dysglycemia risk and ≥1 month to <6 months (IRR 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57, 1.43; p = 0.68) and ≥6 months (IRR 0.50; 95% CI 0.27, 0.91; p = 0.02) breastfeeding compared to <1 month of any breastfeeding. After adjusting for key confounders, the IRR for the ≥6 months group remained significant (IRR 0.42; 95% CI 0.22, 0.80; p = 0.008). (4) Conclusions: Our results suggest that any breastfeeding of six months or longer may reduce long-term dysglycemia risk in women with a history of GDM in an Asian setting. Breastfeeding has benefits for mothers beyond weight loss, particularly for those with GDM.

12.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 106(5): e2015-e2024, 2021 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33524127

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Cardiometabolic profiles of different body composition phenotypes are poorly characterized in young children, where it is well established that high adiposity is unfavorable, but the role of lean mass is unclear. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that higher lean mass attenuates cardiometabolic risk in children with high fat mass. METHODS: In 6-year-old children (n = 377) from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) prospective birth cohort, whole-body composition was measured by quantitative magnetic resonance, a novel validated technology. Based on fat mass index (FMI) and lean mass index (LMI), 4 body composition phenotypes were derived: low FMI-low LMI (LF-LL), low FMI-high LMI (LF-HL), high FMI-low LMI (HF-LL), high FMI-high LMI (HF-HL). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Body mass index (BMI) z-score, fasting plasma glucose, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome risk score, fatty liver index, and blood pressure. RESULTS: Compared with the LF-HL group, children in both high FMI groups had increased BMI z-score (HF-HL: 1.43 units 95% CI [1.11,1.76]; HF-LL: 0.61 units [0.25,0.96]) and metabolic syndrome risk score (HF-HL: 1.64 [0.77,2.50]; HF-LL: 1.28 [0.34,2.21]). The HF-HL group also had increased fatty liver index (1.15 [0.54,1.77]). Girls in HF-HL group had lower fasting plasma glucose (-0.29 mmol/L [-0.55,-0.04]) and diastolic blood pressure (-3.22 mmHg [-6.03,-0.41]) than girls in the HF-LL group. No similar associations were observed in boys. CONCLUSION: In a multi-ethnic Asian cohort, lean mass seemed to protect against some cardiometabolic risk markers linked with adiposity, but only in girls. The FMI seemed more important than lean mass index in relation to cardiometabolic profiles of young children.

13.
Clin Epigenetics ; 13(1): 8, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High early postnatal weight gain has been associated with childhood adiposity; however, the mechanism remains unknown. DNA methylation is a hypothesised mechanism linking early life exposures and subsequent disease. However, epigenetic changes associated with high early weight gain have not previously been investigated. Our aim was to investigate the associations between early weight gain, peripheral blood DNA methylation, and subsequent overweight/obese. Data from the UK Avon Longitudinal study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were used to estimate associations between early postnatal weight gain and epigenome-wide DNA CpG site methylation (Illumina 450 K Methylation Beadchip) in blood in childhood (n = 125) and late adolescence (n = 96). High weight gain in the first year (a change in weight z-scores > 0.67), both unconditional (rapid weight gain) and conditional on birthweight (rapid thrive), was related to individual CpG site methylation and across regions using the meffil pipeline, with and without adjustment for cell type proportions, and with 5% false discovery rate correction. Variation in methylation at high weight gain-associated CpG sites was then examined with regard to body composition measures in childhood and adolescence. Replication of the differentially methylated CpG sites was sought using whole-blood DNA samples from 104 children from the UK Southampton Women's Survey. RESULTS: Rapid infant weight gain was associated with small (+ 1% change) increases in childhood methylation (age 7) for two distinct CpG sites (cg01379158 (NT5M) and cg11531579 (CHFR)). Childhood methylation at one of these CpGs (cg11531579) was also higher in those who experienced rapid weight gain and were subsequently overweight/obese in adolescence (age 17). Rapid weight gain was not associated with differential DNA methylation in adolescence. Childhood methylation at the cg11531579 site was also suggestively associated with rapid weight gain in the replication cohort. CONCLUSIONS: This study identified associations between rapid weight gain in infancy and small increases in childhood methylation at two CpG sites, one of which was replicated and was also associated with subsequent overweight/obese. It will be important to determine whether loci are markers of early rapid weight gain across different, larger populations. The mechanistic relevance of these differentially methylated sites requires further investigation.

15.
J Virol Methods ; 289: 114048, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358911

RESUMO

We describe the optimisation of a simplified sample preparation method which permits rapid and direct detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA within saliva, using reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP). Treatment of saliva samples prior to RT-LAMP by dilution 1:1 in Mucolyse™, followed by dilution in 10 % (w/v) Chelex© 100 Resin and a 98 °C heat step for 2 min enabled detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in positive saliva samples. Using RT-LAMP, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in as little as 05:43 min, with no amplification detected in 3097 real-time reverse transcription PCR (rRT-PCR) negative saliva samples from staff tested within a service evaluation study, or for other respiratory pathogens tested (n = 22). Saliva samples can be collected non-invasively, without the need for skilled staff and can be obtained from both healthcare and home settings. Critically, this approach overcomes the requirement for, and validation of, different swabs and the global bottleneck in obtaining access to extraction robots and reagents to enable molecular testing by rRT-PCR. Such testing opens the possibility of public health approaches for effective intervention during the COVID-19 pandemic through regular SARS-CoV-2 testing at a population scale, combined with isolation and contact tracing.


Assuntos
/métodos , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos , Saliva/virologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Humanos , RNA Viral/análise
16.
Clin Exp Allergy ; 2020 Dec 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278848

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The natural history of childhood rhinitis is not well described. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify different rhinitis trajectories in early childhood and their predictors and allergic associations. METHODS: Rhinitis symptoms were ascertained prospectively from birth until 6 years using standardized questionnaires in 772 participants. Rhinitis was defined as one or more episodes of sneezing, runny and/or blocked nose >2 weeks duration. Latent trajectories were identified using group-based modelling and their predictive risk factors and allergic associations were examined. RESULTS: Three rhinitis trajectory groups were identified: 7.6 % (n=59) were termed early transient rhinitis, 8.6 % (n=66) late transient rhinitis and 6.6 % (n=51) persistent rhinitis. The remaining 77.2 % (n=596) were classified as non-rhinitis/reference group. Early transient rhinitis subjects were more likely of Indian ethnicity, had siblings, reported childcare attendance, early wheezing and eczema in the first 3 years of life. Late transient rhinitis was associated with antenatal exposure to smoking, higher maternal education levels, and wheezing at age 36-72 months. Persistent rhinitis was associated with male gender, paternal and maternal history of atopy, eczema and house dust mite sensitization. CONCLUSIONS & CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Risk factors for early transient rhinitis involve a combination of genetic and early environmental exposures, whereas late transient rhinitis may relate to maternal factors and early respiratory infections independent of atopy. In contrast, persistent rhinitis is strongly associated with atopic risk and likely represents the typical trajectory associated with allergic disorders. Allergic rhinitis symptoms may commence as early as the first year of life and may inform development of early interventive strategies.

17.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 2020 Nov 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222050

RESUMO

The Singapore Preconception Study of Long-Term Maternal and Child Outcomes (S-PRESTO) is a preconception, longitudinal cohort study that aims to study the effects of nutrition, lifestyle, and maternal mood prior to and during pregnancy on the epigenome of the offspring and clinically important outcomes including duration of gestation, fetal growth, metabolic and neural phenotypes in the offspring. Between February 2015 and October 2017, the S-PRESTO study recruited 1039 Chinese, Malay or Indian (or any combinations thereof) women aged 18-45 years and who intended to get pregnant and deliver in Singapore, resulting in 1032 unique participants and 373 children born in the cohort. The participants were followed up for 3 visits during the preconception phase and censored at 12 months of follow up if pregnancy was not achieved (N = 557 censored). Women who successfully conceived (N = 475) were characterised at gestational weeks 6-8, 11-13, 18-21, 24-26, 27-28 and 34-36. Follow up of their index offspring (N = 373 singletons) is on-going at birth, 1, 3 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months and beyond. Women are also being followed up post-delivery. Data is collected via interviewer-administered questionnaires, metabolic imaging (magnetic resonance imaging), standardized anthropometric measurements and collection of diverse specimens, i.e. blood, urine, buccal smear, stool, skin tapes, epithelial swabs at numerous timepoints. S-PRESTO has extensive repeated data collected which include genetic and epigenetic sampling from preconception which is unique in mother-offspring epidemiological cohorts. This enables prospective assessment of a wide array of potential determinants of future health outcomes in women from preconception to post-delivery and in their offspring across the earliest development from embryonic stages into early childhood. In addition, the S-PRESTO study draws from the three major Asian ethnic groups that represent 50% of the global population, increasing the relevance of its findings to global efforts to address non-communicable diseases.

18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33165596

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Perturbed inositol physiology in insulin resistant conditions has led to proposals of inositol supplementation for gestational diabetes (GDM) prevention, but placental inositol biology is poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: Investigate associations of maternal glycemia with placental inositol content, determine glucose effects on placental expression of inositol enzymes and transporters, and examine relations with birthweight. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Case-control study of placentae from term singleton pregnancies (GDM n=24, non-GDM n=26), and culture of another 9 placentae in different concentrations of glucose and myo-inositol for 48h. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental inositol was quantified by the Megazyme® assay. Relative expression of enzymes involved in myo-inositol metabolism and plasma membrane inositol transport was determined by quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting. Linear regression analyses adjusted for maternal age, BMI, ethnicity, gestational age and sex. RESULTS: Placental inositol content was 17% lower in GDM compared with non-GDM. Higher maternal mid-gestation glycemia were associated with lower placental inositol. Increasing fasting glycemia was associated with lower protein levels of the myo-inositol synthesis enzyme, IMPA1, and the inositol transporters, SLC5A11 and SLC2A13, the expression of which also correlated with placental inositol content. In vitro, higher glucose concentrations reduced IMPA1 and SLC5A11 mRNA expression. Increasing fasting glycemia positively associated with customized birthweight percentile as expected in cases with low placental inositol, but this association was attenuated with high placental inositol. CONCLUSION: Glycemia-induced dysregulation of placental inositol synthesis and transport may be implicated in reduced placental inositol content in GDM, and this may in turn be permissive to accelerated fetal growth.

19.
Eur J Clin Nutr ; 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33184453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Iodine is essential for foetal neurodevelopment and growth. Requirements increase in pregnancy to support increased thyroid hormone synthesis for maternal and foetal requirements, and for foetal transfer. Iodine deficiency in pregnancy is widely reported, and obesity has been associated with sub-optimal thyroid function. We evaluated iodine status and its relation with birthweight in a secondary analysis of pregnant women with obesity from multi-ethnic inner-city settings who participated in the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity trial (UPBEAT). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Iodine and creatinine concentrations were evaluated in spot urine samples in the second (15+0-18+6 weeks, n = 954) trimester of pregnancy. We assessed iodine status as urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and urinary iodine-to-creatinine ratio (UI/Cr) and applied WHO/UNICEF/IGN population threshold of median UIC > 150 µg/L for iodine sufficiency. Relationships between iodine status and birthweight were determined using linear and logistic regression with appropriate adjustment, including for maternal BMI and gestational age. RESULTS: Median (IQR) UIC and UI/Cr in the second trimester of pregnancy were 147 µg/L (99-257) and 97 µg/g (59-165), respectively. An UI/Cr <150 µg/g was observed in 70% of women. Compared to women with UI/Cr >150 µg/g, there was a trend for women with UI/Cr <150 µg/g to deliver infants with a lower birthweight (ß = -60.0 g; 95% CI -120.9 to -1.01, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Iodine status of pregnant women with obesity from this cohort of UK women was suboptimal. Lower iodine status was associated with lower birthweight.

20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33143153

RESUMO

Maternal smoking during pregnancy has established associations with poor perinatal outcomes. Among continuing pregnant smokers, harm-reduction strategies have been suggested, including temporary cessation of smoking during pregnancy, also known as partial quitting. Support for this strategy, however, remains limited. Six hundred and ninety-seven women in the Southampton Women's Survey who smoked at their last menstrual period were categorised into sustained quitters, partial quitters (quit in either the first or third trimester but not both) or sustained smokers (continued to smoke throughout pregnancy). In regression models, compared with infants born to sustained smokers, infants born to sustained quitters and partial quitters were heavier at birth by ß = 0.64 standard deviations (SD) (WHO z-score) (95% CI: 0.47-0.80) and 0.48 SD (WHO z-score) (95% CI: 0.24-0.72) respectively, adjusted for confounders, with similar patterns seen for other anthropometric measures (head circumference and crown-heel length). Sustained quitters had longer gestations by ß = 3.5 days (95% CI: 1.8-5.2) compared with sustained smokers, but no difference was seen for partial quitters. While sustained quitting remains the most desired outcome for pregnant smokers, partial quitting should be explored as a strategy to reduce some of the harmful effects of smoking on offspring in those who cannot achieve sustained quitting.

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