Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 274
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Nutrients ; 11(11)2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31698715

RESUMO

Besides food quantity and quality, food timing and frequency may contribute to weight regulation. It is unclear if these factors during pregnancy can influence maternal weight retention after childbirth. We thus aimed to examine the associations of maternal circadian eating pattern and diet quality in pregnancy with substantial postpartum weight retention (PPWR) at 18 months in an Asian cohort. We assessed circadian eating pattern and diet quality of 687 women using 24-h dietary recalls at 26-28 weeks' gestation. We calculated PPWR by subtracting maternal weight in the first trimester from weight at 18-month postpartum and defined substantial PPWR as ≥5 kg weight retention. Multivariable binary logistic regression was performed. Overall, 16% of women had substantial PPWR. After the confounders adjustment, night eating, defined by greater night-time caloric intake (odds ratio 1.95; 95% confidence interval 1.05, 3.62), and lower diet quality, classified by median score of the Healthy Eating Index (1.91; 1.17, 3.10), were independently associated with higher odds of substantial PPWR. No associations with substantial PPWR were observed for night fasting duration and number of eating episodes. In conclusion, alignment of eating time with day-night cycles and diet quality during pregnancy may play a role in PPWR, with possible implications for long-term obesity risk.

2.
Clin Nutr ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493922

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal metabolic disturbance arising from inappropriate meal timing or sleep deprivation may disrupt circadian rhythm, potentially inducing pregnancy complications. We examined the associations of maternal night-time eating and sleep duration during pregnancy with gestation length and preterm birth. METHODS: We studied 673 pregnant women from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort. Maternal energy intake by time of day and nightly sleep duration were assessed at 26-28 weeks' gestation. Based on 24-h dietary recall, night-eating was defined as consuming >50% of total energy intake from 1900 to 0659 h. Short sleep duration was defined as <6 h night sleep. Night-eating and short sleep were simultaneously analyzed to examine for associations with a) gestation length using multiple linear regression, and b) preterm birth (<37 weeks' gestation) using logistic regression. RESULTS: Overall, 15.6% women engaged in night-eating, 12.3% had short sleep and 6.8% delivered preterm. Adjusting for confounding factors, night-eating was associated with 0.45 weeks shortening of gestation length (95% CI -0.75, -0.16) and 2.19-fold higher odds of delivering preterm (1.01, 4.72). Short sleep was associated with 0.33 weeks shortening of gestation length (-0.66, -0.01), but its association with preterm birth did not reach statistical significance (1.81; 0.76, 4.30). CONCLUSIONS: During pregnancy, women with higher energy consumption at night than during the day had shorter gestation and greater likelihood of delivering preterm. Misalignment of eating time with day-night cycles may be a contributing factor to preterm birth. This points to a potential target for intervention to reduce the risk of preterm birth. Observations for nightly sleep deprivation in relation to gestation length and PTB warrant further confirmation.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(9): e1910915, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539074

RESUMO

Importance: Observational studies have shown associations of birth weight with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and glycemic traits, but it remains unclear whether these associations represent causal associations. Objective: To test the association of birth weight with T2D and glycemic traits using a mendelian randomization analysis. Design, Setting, and Participants: This mendelian randomization study used a genetic risk score for birth weight that was constructed with 7 genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphisms. The associations of this score with birth weight and T2D were tested in a mendelian randomization analysis using study-level data. The association of birth weight with T2D was tested using both study-level data (7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable) and summary-level data from the consortia (43 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were used as an instrumental variable). Data from 180 056 participants from 49 studies were included. Main Outcomes and Measures: Type 2 diabetes and glycemic traits. Results: This mendelian randomization analysis included 49 studies with 41 155 patients with T2D and 80 008 control participants from study-level data and 34 840 patients with T2D and 114 981 control participants from summary-level data. Study-level data showed that a 1-SD decrease in birth weight due to the genetic risk score was associated with higher risk of T2D among all participants (odds ratio [OR], 2.10; 95% CI, 1.69-2.61; P = 4.03 × 10-5), among European participants (OR, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.42-2.71; P = .04), and among East Asian participants (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.18-1.62; P = .04). Similar results were observed from summary-level analyses. In addition, each 1-SD lower birth weight was associated with 0.189 SD higher fasting glucose concentration (ß = 0.189; SE = 0.060; P = .002), but not with fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose, or hemoglobin A1c concentration. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a genetic predisposition to lower birth weight was associated with increased risk of T2D and higher fasting glucose concentration, suggesting genetic effects on retarded fetal growth and increased diabetes risk that either are independent of each other or operate through alterations of integrated biological mechanisms.

5.
Br J Nutr ; : 1-25, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477198

RESUMO

Consumption of sugar sweetened beverages (SSBs) in infants and young children are less explored in Asian populations. The Growing in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort study examined associations between SSB intakes at ages 18 months and 5 years with adiposity measures at age 6 years. We studied Singaporean infants/children with SSB intake assessed by food frequency questionnaires (FFQ) at ages 18 months (n=555) and 5 years (n=767). The median (interquartile range) for SSB intakes is 28(5.5-98) ml at age 18 months and 111 (57-198) ml at age 5 years. Associations between SSB intakes (100 ml/day increments and tertile categories) and adiposity measures (BMI standard deviation scores (s.d. unit), sum of skinfolds (SSFs)) and overweight/obesity status were examined using multivariable linear and Poisson regression models, respectively. After adjusting for confounders and additionally for energy intake, SSB intakes at age 18 months were not significantly associated with later adiposity measures and overweight/obesity outcomes. In contrast, at age 5 years, SSB intakes when modelled as 100ml/day increments were associated with higher BMI by 0.09 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.16) s.d. unit, higher SSF thickness by 0.68 (0.06, 1.44) mm, and increased risk for overweight/obesity by 1.2 times (1.07, 1.23) at age 6 years. Trends were consistent with SSB intakes modelled as categorical tertiles. In summary, SSB intake in young childhood is associated with higher risks of adiposity and risk for overweight/obesity. Public health policies working to reduce SSB consumption need to focus on prevention programs targeted at young children.

6.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390765

RESUMO

Preterm birth (PTB) (<37 weeks of gestation) is the leading cause of newborn death and a risk factor for short and long-term adverse health outcomes. Most cases are of unknown cause. Although the mechanisms triggering PTB remain unclear, an inappropriate increase in net inflammatory load seems to be key. To date, interventions that reduce the risk of PTB are effective only in specific groups of women, probably due to the heterogeneity of its etiopathogenesis. Use of progesterone is the most effective, but only in singleton pregnancies with history of PTB. Thus, primary prevention is greatly needed and nutritional and bioactive solutions are a promising alternative. Among these, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is the most promising to reduce the risk for early PTB. Other potential nutrient interventions include the administration of zinc (possibly limited to populations with low nutritional status or poor zinc status) and vitamin D; additional preliminary evidence exists for vitamin A, calcium, iron, folic acid, combined iron-folate, magnesium, multiple micronutrients, and probiotics. Considering the public health relevance of PTB, promising interventions should be studied in large and well-designed clinical trials. The objective of this review is to describe, summarize, and discuss the existing evidence on nutritional and bioactive solutions for reducing the risk of PTB.

7.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 16(1): 70, 2019 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438965

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Integrated 24-Hour Movement Guidelines provide specific recommendations on screen viewing (SV), moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sleep to improve health of children and youth. However, few studies have examined whether these guidelines are met in young children, particularly in Asia. We evaluated adherence to integrated and individual guidelines and its predictors in 5.5-year-old Singaporean children. METHODS: Growing Up in Singapore towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) is a mother-offspring birth cohort study. At age 5.5 years, child SV was reported by parents. Movement behaviours (MBs) were measured continuously using wrist-worn accelerometers over 7 consecutive days and nights. For accelerometer data including ≥3 days with ≥16 h/day we estimated mean (±SD) daily MVPA, SV and nighttime sleep duration across the week. Adherence to integrated (Canadian/Australian) guidelines was defined as meeting all individual guidelines: ≥60 min of MVPA/day, ≤2 h of screen time/day, and 9-11 h of sleep/night. Socio-demographic and maternal predictors collected at pregnancy enrolment and at 26-28 weeks' gestation were examined by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 864 children followed up age 5.5 years, 547 (63.3%) had both valid ActiGraph and questionnaire data (51.7% boys and 58.3% Chinese ethnicity). Children averaged 101.9 (± 88.7) min/day SV, 67.3 (± 23.7) min/day MVPA and 480.6 (± 57.2) min/night sleep. Few children met integrated guidelines. Specifically, the proportions of children who met none, SV, MVPA, sleep and integrated guidelines were 11.2, 70.2, 59.6, 13.7 and 5.5%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed that maternal activity and television (TV) viewing were associated with meeting integrated guidelines (insufficiently vs. highly active (OR [95% CI]): 0.11 [0.01, 0.95]; 2-3 vs. ≥ 3 h TV: 3.52 [1.02, 12.22]). Examining higher adherence to individual guidelines, Chinese ethnicity, younger maternal age and lower maternal TV and sleep time were associated with greater SV; male sex, Malay ethnicity, higher birth order and higher maternal activity level were associated with greater MVPA; and older maternal age was associated with adherence to sleep guideline. CONCLUSIONS: Beyond individual behaviours, consideration of the full spectrum of MBs may be important to improve children's health. However, few Singaporean children adhere to integrated 24-h movement guidelines. Maternal behaviours as early as during pregnancy could be important targets for future interventions aiming to promote these MBs in children.

8.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462692

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Accumulation of lipid droplets inside skeletal muscle fibers (intramyocellular lipids or IMCL) with increasing obesity has been linked to skeletal muscle insulin resistance and risk of type 2 diabetes in both adults and prepubertal children. We aimed to evaluate the associations of race, genotype, prenatal factors, and postnatal factors with IMCL in early childhood. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This study was a secondary analysis performed on the GUSTO birth cohort. Soleus muscle IMCL of 392 children at 4.5 years of age was measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy, of which usable imaging data were obtained from 277 children (137 Chinese, 87 Malays, and 53 Indians). Metabolic assessments (fasting glucose, insulin, and HOMA-IR) were performed at age 6. RESULTS: The mean IMCL level at 4.5 years was 0.481 ± 0.279% of water resonance (mean ± sd). Corroborating with results from adults, Indian children had the highest IMCL levels compared with Malay and Chinese children. Among the prenatal factors, the rate of gestational weight gain (GWG rate) was associated with offspring IMCL (B = 0.396 (0.069, 0.724); p = 0.018). Both race and GWG rate continued to be associated with offspring IMCL even after accounting for current offspring BMI. Postnatally, IMCL was associated with shorter breastfeeding duration (B = 0.065 (0.001, 0.128); p = 0.045) and conditional relative weight gain between ages 2 and 3 (B = 0.052 (0.012, 0.093); p = 0.012). The associations with postnatal factors were attenuated after adjusting for current offspring BMI. IMCL was positively associated with offspring BMI (B = 0.028 (0.012, 0.044); p = 0.001). IMCL levels were not associated with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR at age 6. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that IMCL accumulation occurs in early childhood and that developmental factors and race are associated with it. We also show that early childhood IMCL accumulation is well tolerated, suggesting that the adverse associations between IMCL and insulin resistance may emerge at older ages.

9.
J Endocrinol ; 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404911

RESUMO

We postulate that myo-inositol, a proposed intervention for gestational-diabetes, affects transplacental lipid supply to the fetus. We investigated the effect of myo-inositol on fatty-acid processing in human placental-explants from uncomplicated pregnancies. Explants were incubated with 13C-labeled palmitic-acid, 13C-oleic-acid and 13C-docosahexaenoic-acid across a range of myo-inositol concentrations for 24 h and 48 h. The incorporation of labeled-fatty-acids into individual lipids was quantified by liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry. At 24 h, myo-inositol increased the amount of 13C-palmitic-acid and 13C-oleic-acid labeled lipids (median fold-change relative to control=1). Significant effects were seen with 30 µM myo-inositol (physiological) for 13C-palmitic-acid-lysophosphatidylcholines (1.26) and 13C-palmitic-acid-phosphatidylethanolamines (1.17). At 48 h, myo-inositol addition increased 13C-oleic-acid-lipids but decreased 13C-palmitic-acid and 13C-docosahexaenoic-acid lipids. Significant effects were seen with 30 µM myo-inositol for 13C-oleic-acid-phosphatidylcholines (1.25), 13C-oleic-acid-phosphatidylethanolamines (1.37) and 13C-oleic-acid-triacylglycerols (1.32) and with 100 µM myo-inositol for 13C-docosahexaenoic-acid-triacylglycerols (0.78). Lipids labeled with the same 13C-fatty-acid showed similar responses when tested at the same time-point, suggesting myo-inositol alters upstream processes such as fatty-acid uptake or activation. Myo-inositol supplementation may alter placental lipid physiology with unknown clinical consequences.

10.
Appetite ; 142: 104371, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323246

RESUMO

Parents' feeding practices have been shown to be associated with children's food intake and weight status, but little is known about feeding practices in Asian countries. This study used behavioral observation to explore the feeding practices of 201 mothers of 4.5 year-old children in Singapore during an ad libitum buffet lunch. Feeding practices were coded from videos, focusing on behaviors used to prompt the child to eat more food (autonomy-supportive and coercive-controlling prompts to eat, suggesting items from buffet), those to reduce intake (restriction, questioning food choice), and those related to eating rate (hurrying or slowing child eating). Child outcome measures included energy consumed, variety of food items selected, and BMI. Maternal restriction and trying to slow child eating rate were associated with higher energy consumed by the child (r = 0.19 and 0.13, respectively; p < 0.05). Maternal autonomy-supportive prompts and restriction were associated with a greater variety of items selected by children (r = 0.19 and 0.15, respectively; p < 0.05). The frequency of maternal feeding practice use differed across ethnic groups, with Malay mothers using the most prompts to eat (p < 0.05), Chinese mothers most likely to question a child's food choice (p < 0.01), and Indian mothers the last likely to tell the child to eat faster (p < 0.001). There were no differences between ethnic groups for other feeding practices. No associations were found between feeding practices and child BMI. It is possible that feeding practices related to restriction and slowing child eating are adopted in response to children who consume larger portions, although longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to confirm the direction of this relationship and create local recommendations.

11.
Nutr Neurosci ; : 1-10, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331255

RESUMO

Objectives: Minerals deficiencies during pregnancy have been shown to be associated with poorer cognitive outcomes in offspring. This study aimed to investigate associations of maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations with cognitive development in 4-year old children from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcome cohort. Methods: Maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks' gestation. The Lollipop test of school readiness, tests of working memory, number knowledge, receptive vocabulary, and phonological awareness were performed in children at 4 years. Associations were examined in 715 mother-offspring pairs using linear regressions adjusted for key confounders. Results: Maternal plasma zinc and magnesium concentrations were 812 ± 144 µg/L and 19.9 ± 1.8 mg/L (mean±SD); 19% and 71% of mothers were zinc deficient and magnesium insufficient, respectively. After adjustment for multiple testing, higher maternal zinc concentrations (per SD increment) were associated with 0.35 higher scores in Lollipop subtest 2 of picture description and spatial identification (95% CI: 0.13, 0.58); higher maternal magnesium concentrations (per SD increment) were associated with 0.65 higher scores in Lollipop subtest 4 of letters and writing identification (95% CI: 0.23, 1.07). Discussion: No significant associations were observed for other tests, suggesting little long term influences of maternal zinc and magnesium on child's cognitive development.

12.
Pediatr Obes ; 14(10): e12537, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232532

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity has been implicated in the origins of childhood obesity through a suboptimal environment in-utero. OBJECTIVE: We examined relationships of maternal early pregnancy body mass index (BMI), overweight/obesity, and plasma biomarkers of obesity, inflammation, insulin resistance, and placental function with measures of childhood BMI and adiposity. METHODS: BMI z-score, sum of skinfold thicknesses (SST), body fat percentage (BFP, by bioelectrical impedance), and waist, arm, and hip circumferences were measured in 1173 6-year-old children of nulliparous pregnant women in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE) study, New Zealand. Relationships of maternal early pregnancy (15 weeks' gestation) BMI and biomarkers with these childhood anthropometric measures were assessed by linear regression, with appropriate adjustment. RESULTS: 28.1% of mothers were classified as overweight and 10.1% with obesity; compared with normal weight mothers, the BFP of their children were 5.3% higher (0.16 SD [95% CI, 0.04-0.29] p = .01) and 7.8% higher (0.27 [0.08-0.47] p = .006) with comparable values for BMI z-score and arm, waist, and hip circumferences. Early pregnancy maternal BMI and plasma placental growth factor (PlGF) were associated with higher child's SST, BMI z-score, hip circumference, and BFP. None of the metabolic or inflammatory maternal biomarkers were associated with childhood obesity. CONCLUSION: In this contemporary large prospective cohort study with extensive maternal/childhood phenotyping and a high prevalence of maternal overweight/obesity, we found independent relationships of maternal early pregnancy BMI with childhood BMI and adiposity; similar associations were observed with PlGF, which may imply a role for placenta function in the developmental programming of childhood obesity risk.

13.
Br J Nutr ; 121(11): 1303-1312, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30935438

RESUMO

Evidence on long-term influences of maternal vitamin B12 deficiency or concentrations on infant cognition is limited. We examined associations between maternal plasma vitamin B12 and cognitive development in 24-month-old infants. Maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations were measured at 26-28 weeks' gestation; infant cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development-III at 24 months, for 443 mother-infant pairs from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes cohort. Linear regressions adjusted for key confounders examined associations of maternal vitamin B12 with cognitive, receptive and expressive language, fine and gross motor subscales. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamin B12 with folate or vitamin B6 insufficiencies on child's cognition was explored. Average maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentrations was 220·5 ± 80·5 pmol/l; 15 % and 41 % of mothers were vitamin B12 deficient (<148 pmol/l) and insufficient (148-220·9 pmol/l), respectively. Infants of mothers with vitamin B12 deficiency had 0·42 (95 % CI -0·70, -0·14) sd lower cognitive scores, compared with infants of mothers with sufficient vitamin B12. Co-occurrence of maternal vitamins B12 and B6 insufficiencies was associated with 0·37 (95 % CI -0·69, -0·06) sd lower cognitive scores in infants compared with infants of mothers sufficient in both vitamins. No significant associations were observed with other subscales. Study findings suggest the possible need to ensure adequate vitamin B12 during pregnancy. The impact of co-occurrence of maternal B-vitamins insufficiencies on early cognitive development warrants further investigation.

14.
Public Health Nutr ; 22(11): 1990-2000, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940257

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dietary intake of toddlers has been of growing interest due to its long-term consequences on health. However, previous works have focused largely on Caucasian populations and less is known about Asian toddlers. We aimed to validate a semi-quantitative FFQ designed to assess dietary intakes of 18-month-old toddlers in a multi-ethnic Asian cohort. DESIGN: An FFQ of ninety-four food items, identified based on food records of 12-month-old GUSTO children, the Southampton Women's Survey 12 Month Infancy Questionnaire and inputs from paediatric dietitians, was filled out two weeks before the 18th-month clinic visit. As the reference method, two non-consecutive 24 h recalls (24HR) were administered during and two weeks after the clinic visit. FFQ nutrient intakes were validated against averaged 24HR nutrient intakes, using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, Spearman's rank-order correlation, cross-classification and the Bland-Altman method. SETTING: Data from the Singapore Growing Up in Singapore Towards Healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring birth cohort.ParticipantsToddlers (n 188) aged 18 months. RESULTS: Absolute nutrient intakes from the FFQ were significantly higher than from the 24HR, except for vitamin A. After energy adjustments, r range was 0·56-0·78 (macronutrients) and 0·40-0·54 (micronutrients). De-attenuation increased r to 0·58-0·96 and 0·45-0·65 for macro- and micronutrients, respectively. Of participants, ≥82·4 % (macronutrients) and ≥77·7 % (micronutrients) were classified in the same and adjacent quartiles. No clear systematic increase in intake differences with increasing mean intake was observed in Bland-Altman plots. CONCLUSIONS: This FFQ can provide a satisfactory assessment of toddlers' energy-adjusted nutrient intakes, as well as accurately rank them in a group.

15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(7): 1334-1343, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940915

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Screen-viewing in late childhood has been associated with adiposity and blood pressure (BP), but evidence is lacking at younger ages. To investigate the prospective associations of total and device-specific screen-viewing at age 2-3 years with BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and BP among Singaporean children at age 3-5 years. METHODS: As part of the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) cohort, mothers/caregivers reported the time per day their 2 and 3-year-old children watched/used television, handheld devices and computers. Average screen-viewing time (total, television and handheld-devices) at ages 2 and 3 years was used in the analyses. Height; weight; triceps, biceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses; and systolic and diastolic BP were measured at ages 3, 4 and 5. Associations of screen-viewing with BMI, sum of skinfold thicknesses and BP in 956 children were investigated using repeated-measures linear regression models. Analyses were further stratified by sex as we found significant interaction. RESULTS: Among boys and girls combined, screen-viewing was positively associated with sum of skinfold thicknesses, but not with BMI or BP. Sex-specific analyses showed significant associations with both BMI and sum of skinfold thicknesses in boys, but not in girls. Screen-viewing was not associated with BP in boys or girls. The increases in mean (95% CI) BMI per hour increase in daily total, television and handheld-devices screen-viewing among boys were 0.12 (0.03, 0.21), 0.18 (0.06, 0.30) and 0.11 (-0.07, 0.29) kg/m2, respectively. The corresponding increases in mean sum of skinfold thicknesses were 0.68 (0.29, 1.07), 0.79 (0.26, 1.32) and 1.18 (0.38, 1.99) mm. CONCLUSIONS: Greater screen-viewing at age 2-3 years was associated with later adiposity at 3-5 years in boys, but not in girls. In light of the increasing use of screen devices and cardiometabolic risk in young children, these findings may have important public health implications.

16.
Genes Brain Behav ; 18(7): e12576, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020763

RESUMO

The amygdala and hippocampus undergo rapid development in early life. The relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the establishment of their developmental trajectories has yet to be examined. We performed imaging on neonates and examined how the observed variation in volume and microstructure of the amygdala and hippocampus varied by genotype, and compared with prenatal maternal mental health and socioeconomic status. Gene × Environment models outcompeted models containing genotype or environment only to best explain the majority of measures but some, especially of the amygdaloid microstructure, were best explained by genotype only. Models including DNA methylation measured in the neonate umbilical cords outcompeted the Gene and Gene × Environment models for the majority of amygdaloid measures and minority of hippocampal measures. This study identified brain region-specific gene networks associated with individual differences in fetal brain development. In particular, genetic and epigenetic variation within CUX1 was highlighted.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 397, 2019 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Iron deficiency is the most prevalent nutrient deficiency and the most common cause of anaemia worldwide. Because of the increased iron requirements during pregnancy, iron deficiency can lead to maternal anaemia and reduced newborn iron stores. We examined the proportion and risk factors of iron deficiency among pregnant women in a developed Asian country. METHODS: Within a prospective cohort in Singapore, 985 Asian women were assessed for iron status at 26-28 weeks' gestation, with plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR) measurements. Iron status was determined according to plasma ferritin concentrations at ≥30 µg/L (iron sufficiency), 15 to < 30 µg/L (modest iron depletion) and < 15 µg/L (severe iron depletion). Multivariable ordinal logistic regression was used to analyze risk factors for modest and severe iron depletion. RESULTS: The median (25-75th percentile) plasma ferritin concentration was 24.2 (19.9-30.6) µg/L. Overall, 660 (67.0%) and 67 (6.8%) women had modest and severe iron depletion, respectively. Higher plasma sTfR was observed in women with severe iron depletion than among those with iron sufficiency (median 17.6 versus 15.5 nmol/L; p < 0.001). Age < 25 years (odds ratio 2.36; 95% confidence interval 1.15-4.84), Malay (2.05; 1.30-3.24) and Indian (1.98; 1.14-3.44) ethnicities (versus Chinese), university qualification (1.64; 1.13-2.38), multiparity (1.73; 1.23-2.44) and lack of iron-containing supplementation (3.37; 1.25-8.53) were associated with increased odds of modest and severe iron depletion. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly three-quarters of Singaporean women were iron deficient in the early third trimester of pregnancy. These results suggest universal screening and supplementation of at-risk pregnancies may be evaluated as a preventive strategy. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01174875 . Registered 1 July 2010 (retrospectively registered).


Assuntos
Anemia Ferropriva/epidemiologia , Ferritinas/sangue , Ferro na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Anemia Ferropriva/sangue , Anemia Ferropriva/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Ferro/sangue , Gravidez , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/sangue , Complicações Hematológicas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores da Transferrina/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Singapura , Adulto Jovem
18.
Endocrinology ; 160(6): 1394-1408, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30920585

RESUMO

Placental lipid transport and metabolism are poorly understood despite the importance for fetal development and lifelong health. We aimed to explore fatty acid (FA) processing in human villous placental explants from seven uncomplicated term singleton pregnancies delivered by elective cesarean section. Explants were treated with stable isotope-labeled palmitic acid (13C-PA), oleic acid (13C-OA), or docosahexaenoic acid (13C-DHA) for 3, 24, or 48 hours. Stable isotope-labeled lipids synthesized by placental explants from labeled FA were quantified, alongside endogenous unlabeled placental lipids, by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Labeled phosphatidylcholines (PCs), triacylglycerols (TAGs), and phosphatidylethanolamines were detected in explants, whereas labeled lysophosphatidylcholines were found in both explants and conditioned media. 13C-PA was primarily directed into PC synthesis (74% of 13C-PA-labeled lipids), whereas 13C-OA was directed almost equally into PC and TAG synthesis (45% and 53%, respectively, of 13C-OA-labeled lipids). 13C-DHA was only detectable in TAGs. TAGs demonstrated the highest isotopic enrichment for all 13C-FAs with 13C-OA-TAGs comprising >50% of total OA-TAGs (unlabeled and labeled), consistent with TAGs being a labile and accessible reservoir for FA storage. Variations in lipid incorporation were correlated to maternal glycemia and body mass index, suggesting that this experimental model could be used to investigate the effect of maternal factors on placental lipid metabolism. We conclude that lipid metabolic partitioning of freshly imported FAs into labile and less labile lipid reservoirs in placenta is FA dependent. This process may partly mediate the physiological preferential transplacental transfer of particular FAs to the fetus, but may also be implicated in the fetoplacental pathophysiology of maternal metabolic dysfunction.

19.
Nutrients ; 11(3)2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30832217

RESUMO

Early childhood diet may have lifelong influences on health outcomes, yet development of indices to assess diet quality is scarce in toddlers, especially in Asian countries. We aimed to develop and evaluate a Diet Quality Index (DQI) in a multi-ethnic Asian mother⁻offspring cohort and identify perinatal correlates of early childhood diet. Based primarily on the Singapore dietary guidelines, the DQI includes seven food components: rice, bread and alternatives; fruit; vegetables; meat and alternatives; milk and dairy products; whole grains; and foods high in sugar. The DQI was developed using parental report of Food Frequency Questionnaires (FFQ) data for 18-month-old toddlers (n = 561). The mean ± SD of DQI for the study toddlers was 44.2 ± 8.9 (theoretical range: 0⁻65). A higher DQI (better diet quality) was associated with higher intakes of several nutrients and food groups (e.g., vegetables, dietary fibre, and beta-carotene; all p < 0.001). Further construct validity was demonstrated by substantial agreement between the FFQ-DQI and 24-hour-recall-DQI (Intraclass-correlation-coefficient: 0.70). Independent predictors of lower DQI included higher maternal pre-pregnancy BMI [ß(95% CI): -0.23(-0.39, -0.07)], Malay ethnicity [-1.88(-3.67, -0.09)], lower household income [-1.97(-3.91, -0.03)], lower education level [-2.57(-4.85, -0.28)] and never breastfeeding [-6.17(-11.06, -1.28)]. We developed a valid DQI for assessing the overall quality of the diets of Asian toddlers.


Assuntos
Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta Saudável/métodos , Avaliação Nutricional , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Laticínios/análise , Dieta/métodos , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Carne/análise , Política Nutricional , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Singapura , Verduras , Grãos Integrais
20.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(7): 1344-1353, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lower inhibitory control has been associated with obesity. One prediction is that lower inhibitory control underlies eating behaviours that promote increased energy intakes. This study examined the relationships between children's inhibitory control measured using the Stop Signal Task (SST), body composition and eating behaviours, which included self-served portion size, number of servings, eating rate, and energy intake at lunch and in an eating in the absence of hunger (EAH) task. METHODS: The sample included 255 6-year-old children from an Asian cohort. Stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) was used as an index of inhibitory control. Children participated in a recorded self-served lunchtime meal, followed by the EAH task where they were exposed to energy-dense snacks. Behavioural coding of oral processing was used to estimate eating rates (g/min). BMI, waist circumference and skinfolds were used as indices of adiposity. RESULTS: Children with lower inhibitory control tended to self-serve larger food portions (p = 0.054), had multiple food servings (p = 0.006) and significantly faster eating rates (p = 0.041). Inhibitory control did not predict energy intake at lunch (p = 0.17) or during the EAH task (p = 0.45), and was unrelated to measures of adiposity (p > 0.32). Twenty percent of the children in the sample had problems focusing on the SST and were described as 'restless'. Post-hoc analysis revealed that these children had lower inhibitory control (p < 0.001) and consumed more energy during the EAH task (p = 0.01), but did not differ in any other key outcomes from the rest of the sample (p > 0.1). CONCLUSIONS: Children with lower inhibitory control showed a trend to select larger food portions, had multiple food servings and faster eating rates, but were equally as responsive to snacks served in the absence of hunger as children with better inhibitory control. Inhibitory control may impact a number of eating behaviours, not limited to energy-dense snacks.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA