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1.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(9): 4224-4235, 2021 09 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34387990

RESUMO

With the rapidly evolving SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, there is an urgent need for the discovery of further treatments for the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Drug repurposing is one of the most rapid strategies for addressing this need, and numerous compounds have already been selected for in vitro testing by several groups. These have led to a growing database of molecules with in vitro activity against the virus. Machine learning models can assist drug discovery through prediction of the best compounds based on previously published data. Herein, we have implemented several machine learning methods to develop predictive models from recent SARS-CoV-2 in vitro inhibition data and used them to prioritize additional FDA-approved compounds for in vitro testing selected from our in-house compound library. From the compounds predicted with a Bayesian machine learning model, lumefantrine, an antimalarial was selected for testing and showed limited antiviral activity in cell-based assays while demonstrating binding (Kd 259 nM) to the spike protein using microscale thermophoresis. Several other compounds which we prioritized have since been tested by others and were also found to be active in vitro. This combined machine learning and in vitro testing approach can be expanded to virtually screen available molecules with predicted activity against SARS-CoV-2 reference WIV04 strain and circulating variants of concern. In the process of this work, we have created multiple iterations of machine learning models that can be used as a prioritization tool for SARS-CoV-2 antiviral drug discovery programs. The very latest model for SARS-CoV-2 with over 500 compounds is now freely available at www.assaycentral.org.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular
2.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443484

RESUMO

The COVID-19 outbreak has rapidly spread on a global scale, affecting the economy and public health systems throughout the world. In recent years, peptide-based therapeutics have been widely studied and developed to treat infectious diseases, including viral infections. Herein, the antiviral effects of the lysine linked dimer des-Cys11, Lys12,Lys13-(pBthTX-I)2K ((pBthTX-I)2K)) and derivatives against SARS-CoV-2 are reported. The lead peptide (pBthTX-I)2K and derivatives showed attractive inhibitory activities against SARS-CoV-2 (EC50 = 28-65 µM) and mostly low cytotoxic effect (CC50 > 100 µM). To shed light on the mechanism of action underlying the peptides' antiviral activity, the Main Protease (Mpro) and Papain-Like protease (PLpro) inhibitory activities of the peptides were assessed. The synthetic peptides showed PLpro inhibition potencies (IC50s = 1.0-3.5 µM) and binding affinities (Kd = 0.9-7 µM) at the low micromolar range but poor inhibitory activity against Mpro (IC50 > 10 µM). The modeled binding mode of a representative peptide of the series indicated that the compound blocked the entry of the PLpro substrate toward the protease catalytic cleft. Our findings indicated that non-toxic dimeric peptides derived from the Bothropstoxin-I have attractive cellular and enzymatic inhibitory activities, thereby suggesting that they are promising prototypes for the discovery and development of new drugs against SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/química , Dimerização , Papaína/antagonistas & inibidores , Peptídeos/química , Peptídeos/farmacologia , SARS-CoV-2/enzimologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/metabolismo , Antivirais/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Papaína/química , Papaína/metabolismo , Peptídeos/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/química , Inibidores de Proteases/metabolismo , Inibidores de Proteases/farmacologia , Conformação Proteica , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos
3.
J Chem Inf Model ; 61(8): 3804-3813, 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286575

RESUMO

Yellow fever (YF) is an acute viral hemorrhagic disease transmitted by infected mosquitoes. Large epidemics of YF occur when the virus is introduced into heavily populated areas with high mosquito density and low vaccination coverage. The lack of a specific small molecule drug treatment against YF as well as for homologous infections, such as zika and dengue, highlights the importance of these flaviviruses as a public health concern. With the advancement in computer hardware and bioactivity data availability, new tools based on machine learning methods have been introduced into drug discovery, as a means to utilize the growing high throughput screening (HTS) data generated to reduce costs and increase the speed of drug development. The use of predictive machine learning models using previously published data from HTS campaigns or data available in public databases, can enable the selection of compounds with desirable bioactivity and absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion profiles. In this study, we have collated cell-based assay data for yellow fever virus from the literature and public databases. The data were used to build predictive models with several machine learning methods that could prioritize compounds for in vitro testing. Five molecules were prioritized and tested in vitro from which we have identified a new pyrazolesulfonamide derivative with EC50 3.2 µM and CC50 24 µM, which represents a new scaffold suitable for hit-to-lead optimization that can expand the available drug discovery candidates for YF.

4.
J Mol Biol ; 433(15): 167096, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116125

RESUMO

In order to form functional filaments, human septins must assemble into hetero-oligomeric rod-like particles which polymerize end-to-end. The rules governing the assembly of these particles and the subsequent filaments are incompletely understood. Although crystallographic approaches have been successful in studying the separate components of the system, there has been difficulty in obtaining high resolution structures of the full particle. Here we report a first cryo-EM structure for a hexameric rod composed of human septins 2, 6 and 7 with a global resolution of ~3.6 Å and a local resolution of between ~3.0 Å and ~5.0 Å. By fitting the previously determined high-resolution crystal structures of the component subunits into the cryo-EM map, we are able to provide an essentially complete model for the particle. This exposes SEPT2 NC-interfaces at the termini of the hexamer and leaves internal cavities between the SEPT6-SEPT7 pairs. The floor of the cavity is formed by the two α0 helices including their polybasic regions. These are locked into place between the two subunits by interactions made with the α5 and α6 helices of the neighbouring monomer together with its polyacidic region. The cavity may serve to provide space allowing the subunits to move with respect to one another. The elongated particle shows a tendency to bend at its centre where two copies of SEPT7 form a homodimeric G-interface. Such bending is almost certainly related to the ability of septin filaments to recognize and even induce membrane curvature.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/química , Septinas/química , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Cristalografia por Raios X , Humanos , Ligação Proteica , Conformação Proteica em alfa-Hélice , Multimerização Proteica , Septinas/metabolismo
5.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32486283

RESUMO

Single-stranded positive RNA ((+) ssRNA) viruses include several important human pathogens. Some members are responsible for large outbreaks, such as Zika virus, West Nile virus, SARS-CoV, and SARS-CoV-2, while others are endemic, causing an enormous global health burden. Since vaccines or specific treatments are not available for most viral infections, the discovery of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) is an urgent need. Still, the low-throughput nature of and biosafety concerns related to traditional antiviral assays hinders the discovery of new inhibitors. With the advances of reverse genetics, reporter replicon systems have become an alternative tool for the screening of DAAs. Herein, we review decades of the use of (+) ssRNA viruses replicon systems for the discovery of antiviral agents. We summarize different strategies used to develop those systems, as well as highlight some of the most promising inhibitors identified by the method. Despite the genetic alterations introduced, reporter replicons have been shown to be reliable systems for screening and identification of viral replication inhibitors and, therefore, an important tool for the discovery of new DAAs.


Assuntos
Antivirais/farmacologia , Descoberta de Drogas/métodos , Genes Reporter/fisiologia , Vírus de RNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicon/fisiologia , Animais , Antivirais/química , Linhagem Celular , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Humanos , Vírus de RNA/genética , Transfecção , Células Vero
6.
ACS Chem Biol ; 15(6): 1505-1516, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32383857

RESUMO

Calcium and integrin binding protein 1 (CIB1) is an EF-hand-containing, small intracellular protein that has recently been implicated in cancer cell survival and proliferation. In particular, CIB1 depletion significantly impairs tumor growth in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Thus, CIB1 is a potentially attractive target for cancer chemotherapy that has yet to be validated by a chemical probe. To produce a probe molecule to the CIB1 helix 10 (H10) pocket and demonstrate that it is a viable target for molecular intervention, we employed random peptide phage display to screen and select CIB1-binding peptides. The top peptide sequence selected, UNC10245092, was produced synthetically, and binding to CIB1 was confirmed by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and a time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET) assay. Both assays showed that the peptide bound to CIB1 with low nanomolar affinity. CIB1 was cocrystallized with UNC10245092, and the 2.1 Å resolution structure revealed that the peptide binds as an α-helix in the H10 pocket, displacing the CIB1 C-terminal H10 helix and causing conformational changes in H7 and H8. UNC10245092 was further derivatized with a C-terminal Tat-derived cell penetrating peptide (CPP) to demonstrate its effects on TNBC cells in culture, which are consistent with results of CIB1 depletion. These studies provide a first-in-class chemical tool for CIB1 inhibition in cell culture and validate the CIB1 H10 pocket for future probe and drug discovery efforts.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Calorimetria/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Descoberta de Drogas , Humanos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Conformação Proteica
7.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1863(6): 1015-1026, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898558

RESUMO

Cellulases from glycoside hydrolase family 7 (GH7) play crucial roles in plant lignocellulose deconstruction by fungi, but structural information available for GH7 fungal endoglucanases is limited when compared to the number of known sequences in the family. Here, we report the X-ray structure of the glycosylated catalytic domain (CD) of Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase, ThCel7B, solved and refined at 2.9 Šresolution. Additionally, our extensive molecular dynamics simulations of this enzyme in complex with a variety of oligosaccharides provide a better understanding of its promiscuous hydrolytic activities on plant cell wall polysaccharides. The simulations demonstrate the importance of the hydrogen bond between substrate O2 hydroxyl in the subsite -1 and a side chain of catalytic Glu196 which renders ThCel7B capable to catalytically cleave cello and xylooligosaccharides, but not mannooligosaccharides. Moreover, detailed structural analyses and MD simulations revealed an additional binding pocket, suitable for accommodation of oligosaccharide decorations and/or substrates with mixed glycoside bonds that abuts onto the binding cleft close to subsite +2.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/química , Celulase/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Oligossacarídeos/química , Células Vegetais/química , Trichoderma/enzimologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 3678, 2018 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487297

RESUMO

The glycoside hydrolase family 45 (GH45) of carbohydrate modifying enzymes is mostly comprised of ß-1,4-endoglucanases. Significant diversity between the GH45 members has prompted the division of this family into three subfamilies: A, B and C, which may differ in terms of the mechanism, general architecture, substrate binding and cleavage. Here, we use a combination of X-ray crystallography, bioinformatics, enzymatic assays, molecular dynamics simulations and site-directed mutagenesis experiments to characterize the structure, substrate binding and enzymatic specificity of the GH45 subfamily C endoglucanase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium (PcCel45A). We investigated the role played by different residues in the binding of the enzyme to cellulose oligomers of different lengths and examined the structural characteristics and dynamics of PcCel45A that make subfamily C so dissimilar to other members of the GH45 family. Due to the structural similarity shared between PcCel45A and domain I of expansins, comparative analysis of their substrate binding was also carried out. Our bioinformatics sequence analyses revealed that the hydrolysis mechanisms in GH45 subfamily C is not restricted to use of the imidic asparagine as a general base in the "Newton's cradle" catalytic mechanism recently proposed for this subfamily.


Assuntos
Celulase/química , Celulase/metabolismo , Phanerochaete/enzimologia , Catálise , Biologia Computacional , Cristalografia por Raios X , Ensaios Enzimáticos , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular
9.
Mol Biochem Parasitol ; 221: 23-31, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477861

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma which have a complex life cycle characterized by an asexual multiplication phase in the snail intermediate host and a sexual reproduction phase in the mammalian definitive host. The initial steps of the human host infection involve the secretion of proteins contained in the acetabular glands of cercariae that promote parasite adhesion and proteolysis of the skin layers. Herein, we performed a functional analysis of SmVAL18, identified as one of the three SCP/TAPS proteins constituent of cercarial secretions. We evaluated the SmVAL18 binding to immobilized macromolecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to plasma components. Recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli, was found to maintain an ordered secondary structure typical of the SCP/TAPS domain after purification. Expression of native SmVAL18 protein was verified to be restricted to cercariae and 3-h schistosomula stages; furthermore, the protein was observed in the corresponding secretions, confirming that SmVAL18 is secreted during the first 3 h of in vitro culture. rSmVAL18 was able to interact specifically with plasminogen (PLG) and enhance its conversion into plasmin in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Protein homology modelling suggested that the PLG-rSmVAL18 interaction was mediated by lysine residues of the protein. This was supported by in vitro data using the lysine analogue, 6-aminocaproic acid (ACA), which abolished the interaction. Finally, our results showed that both cercariae and 3-h schistosomula, as well as their corresponding secretions, exhibited the capacity to bind PLG and enhance its conversion into plasmin in vitro in the same way as observed for the recombinant protein. In conclusion, our findings show that SmVAL18 is a novel PLG-binding protein secreted during the early stages of the mammalian-host infection.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Helminto/metabolismo , Plasminogênio/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/metabolismo , Esquistossomose mansoni/parasitologia , Alérgenos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte , Clonagem Molecular , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Fibrinolíticos , Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Helminto/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ligação Proteica , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Schistosoma mansoni/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Mol Biochem Parasitol, v. 221, p. 23-31, abr. 2018
Artigo em Inglês | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: bud-2493

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma which have a complex life cycle characterized by an asexual multiplication phase in the snail intermediate host and a sexual reproduction phase in the mammalian definitive host. The initial steps of the human host infection involve the secretion of proteins contained in the acetabular glands of cercariae that promote parasite adhesion and proteolysis of the skin layers. Herein, we performed a functional analysis of SmVAL18, identified as one of the three SCP/TAPS proteins constituent of cercarial secretions. We evaluated the SmVAL18 binding to immobilized macromolecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to plasma components. Recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli, was found to maintain an ordered secondary structure typical of the SCP/TAPS domain after purification. Expression of native SmVAL18 protein was verified to be restricted to cercariae and 3-h schistosomula stages; furthermore, the protein was observed in the corresponding secretions, confirming that SmVAL18 is secreted during the first 3 h of in vitro culture. rSmVAL18 was able to interact specifically with plasminogen (PLG) and enhance its conversion into plasmin in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Protein homology modelling suggested that the PLG-rSmVAL18 interaction was mediated by lysine residues of the protein. This was supported by in vitro data using the lysine analogue, 6-aminocaproic acid (ACA), which abolished the interaction. Finally, our results showed that both cercariae and 3-h schistosomula, as well as their corresponding secretions, exhibited the capacity to bind PLG and enhance its conversion into plasmin in vitro in the same way as observed for the recombinant protein. In conclusion, our findings show that SmVAL18 is a novel PLG-binding protein secreted during the early stages of the mammalian-host infection.

11.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. ; 221: p. 23-31, 2018.
Artigo | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IBPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: but-ib15224

RESUMO

Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma which have a complex life cycle characterized by an asexual multiplication phase in the snail intermediate host and a sexual reproduction phase in the mammalian definitive host. The initial steps of the human host infection involve the secretion of proteins contained in the acetabular glands of cercariae that promote parasite adhesion and proteolysis of the skin layers. Herein, we performed a functional analysis of SmVAL18, identified as one of the three SCP/TAPS proteins constituent of cercarial secretions. We evaluated the SmVAL18 binding to immobilized macromolecules of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and to plasma components. Recombinant protein, expressed in E. coli, was found to maintain an ordered secondary structure typical of the SCP/TAPS domain after purification. Expression of native SmVAL18 protein was verified to be restricted to cercariae and 3-h schistosomula stages; furthermore, the protein was observed in the corresponding secretions, confirming that SmVAL18 is secreted during the first 3 h of in vitro culture. rSmVAL18 was able to interact specifically with plasminogen (PLG) and enhance its conversion into plasmin in the presence of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). Protein homology modelling suggested that the PLG-rSmVAL18 interaction was mediated by lysine residues of the protein. This was supported by in vitro data using the lysine analogue, 6-aminocaproic acid (ACA), which abolished the interaction. Finally, our results showed that both cercariae and 3-h schistosomula, as well as their corresponding secretions, exhibited the capacity to bind PLG and enhance its conversion into plasmin in vitro in the same way as observed for the recombinant protein. In conclusion, our findings show that SmVAL18 is a novel PLG-binding protein secreted during the early stages of the mammalian-host infection.

12.
Nat Commun ; 8: 14764, 2017 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345596

RESUMO

The current Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak became a global health threat of complex epidemiology and devastating neurological impacts, therefore requiring urgent efforts towards the development of novel efficacious and safe antiviral drugs. Due to its central role in RNA viral replication, the non-structural protein 5 (NS5) RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) is a prime target for drug discovery. Here we describe the crystal structure of the recombinant ZIKV NS5 RdRp domain at 1.9 Å resolution as a platform for structure-based drug design strategy. The overall structure is similar to other flaviviral homologues. However, the priming loop target site, which is suitable for non-nucleoside polymerase inhibitor design, shows significant differences in comparison with the dengue virus structures, including a tighter pocket and a modified local charge distribution.


Assuntos
RNA Polimerase Dependente de RNA/química , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/química , Zika virus/enzimologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Domínio Catalítico , Cristalografia por Raios X , Descoberta de Drogas , Conformação Proteica , Recombinação Genética , Zika virus/efeitos dos fármacos , Zika virus/genética
13.
Acta Crystallogr F Struct Biol Commun ; 72(Pt 4): 288-93, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27050262

RESUMO

Given the current interest in second-generation biofuels, carbohydrate-active enzymes have become the most important tool to overcome the structural recalcitrance of the plant cell wall. While some glycoside hydrolase families have been exhaustively described, others remain poorly characterized, especially with regard to structural information. The family 43 glycoside hydrolases are a diverse group of inverting enzymes; the available structure information on these enzymes is mainly from xylosidases and arabinofuranosidase. Currently, only one structure of an exo-ß-1,3-galactanase is available. Here, the production, crystallization and structure determination of a putative exo-ß-1,3-galactanase from Bifidobacterium bifidum S17 (BbGal43A) are described. BbGal43A was successfully produced and showed activity towards synthetic galactosides. BbGal43A was subsequently crystallized and data were collected to 1.4 Šresolution. The structure shows a single-domain molecule, differing from known homologues, and crystal contact analysis predicts the formation of a dimer in solution. Further biochemical studies are necessary to elucidate the differences between BbGal43A and its characterized homologues.


Assuntos
Bifidobacterium bifidum/enzimologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Galactanos/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Clonagem Molecular , Cristalografia por Raios X , Enzimas/química , Conformação Proteica , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
14.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 99(22): 9591-604, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26156238

RESUMO

Trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. Previous studies demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. However, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from T. harzianum are scarce. This work reports biochemical characterization of the recombinant endoglucanase I from T. harzianum, ThCel7B, and its catalytic core domain. The constructs display optimum activity at 55 °C and a surprisingly acidic pH optimum of 3.0. The full-length enzyme is able to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, with high specific activity: 75 U/mg for ß-glucan, 46 U/mg toward xyloglucan, 39 U/mg for lichenan, 26 U/mg for carboxymethyl cellulose, 18 U/mg for 4-nitrophenyl ß-D-cellobioside, 16 U/mg for rye arabinoxylan, and 12 U/mg toward xylan. The enzyme also hydrolyzed filter paper, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Sigmacell 20, Avicel PH-101, and cellulose, albeit with lower efficiency. The ThCel7B catalytic domain displays similar substrate diversity. Fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that thermal stability is highest at pH 5.0. We determined kinetic parameters and analyzed a pattern of oligosaccharide substrates hydrolysis, revealing cellobiose as a final product of C6 degradation. Finally, we visualized effects of ThCel7B on oat spelt using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrating the morphological changes of the substrate during the hydrolysis. The acidic behavior of ThCel7B and its considerable thermostability hold a promise of its industrial applications and other biotechnological uses under extremely acidic conditions.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Celulases/genética , Celulases/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Trichoderma/enzimologia , Celulases/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Cinética , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Especificidade por Substrato , Temperatura , Trichoderma/genética
15.
J Mol Biol ; 425(16): 2878-93, 2013 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23707408

RESUMO

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a superfamily of nuclear transcription factors. They are involved in mediating numerous physiological effects in humans, including glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARα ligands effectively treat dyslipidemia and have significant antiinflammatory and anti-atherosclerotic activities. These effects and their ligand-dependent activity make nuclear receptors obvious targets for drug design. Here, we present the structure of the human PPARα in complex with WY14643, a member of fibrate class of drug, and a widely used PPAR activator. The crystal structure of this complex suggests that WY14643 induces activation of PPARα in an unusual bipartite mechanism involving conventional direct helix 12 stabilization and an alternative mode that involves a second ligand in the pocket. We present structural observations, molecular dynamics and activity assays that support the importance of the second site in WY14643 action. The unique binding mode of WY14643 reveals a new pattern of nuclear receptor ligand recognition and suggests a novel basis for ligand design, offering clues for improving the binding affinity and selectivity of ligand. We show that binding of WY14643 to PPARα was associated with antiinflammatory disease in a human corneal cell model, suggesting possible applications for PPARα ligands.


Assuntos
PPAR alfa/agonistas , PPAR alfa/química , Pirimidinas/química , Pirimidinas/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Cristalografia por Raios X , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Interleucina-8/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Conformação Proteica
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