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1.
Acta ortop. bras ; 27(4): 223-229, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1010972

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Complex trauma of the foot and ankle is characterized by fractures with severe soft tissue damage associated with neurovascular injury and joint involvement. These injuries are frequently present in the polytraumatized patient and are a predictor of unfavorable clinical outcome. In the initial approach to a patient with complex foot and ankle trauma, the decision between amputation and reconstruction is crucial. The various existing classification systems are of limited effectiveness and should serve as tools to assist and support a clinical decision rather than as determinants of conduct. In the emergency department, one of two treatment options must be adopted: early complete treatment or staged treatment. The former consists of definitive fixation and immediate skin coverage, using either primary closure (suturing) or flaps, and is usually reserved for less complex cases. Staged treatment is divided into initial and definitive. The objectives in the first phase are: prevention of the progression of ischemia, necrosis and infection. The principles of definitive treatment are: proximal-to-distal bone reconstruction, anatomic foot alignment, fusions in severe cartilage lesions or gross instabilities, stable internal fixation and adequate skin coverage. Level of evidence III, Systematic review of level III studies.


RESUMO O trauma complexo do pé e tornozelo, caracterizado por fraturas com dano grave aos tecidos moles, associado a lesões vasculares e nervosas e com acometimento articular, está presente com frequência no paciente politraumatizado e é preditor de desfecho clínico desfavorável. Na abordagem inicial de um paciente com trauma complexo do pé e tornozelo, a decisão entre amputação ou preservação do membro é crucial. Os diversos sistemas de classificação existentes são de eficácia limitada e devem servir como ferramentas que auxiliam e fortalecem uma decisão clínica, e não como determinantes de uma conduta. No atendimento de emergência, uma das duas opções de tratamento deve ser adotada: tratamento total precoce ou tratamento estagiado. O primeiro consiste na fixação definitiva e na cobertura cutânea imediata, seja por sutura primária ou por meio de retalhos, sendo geralmente reservado a casos menos complexos. O tratamento estagiado é dividido em inicial e definitivo, e o objetivo, na primeira fase, é a prevenção da progressão da isquemia, da necrose e da infecção. Os princípios do tratamento definitivo são: reconstrução óssea de proximal para distal, alinhamento anatômico do pé, fusões nas lesões graves da cartilagem ou nas instabilidades grosseiras, fixação interna estável e cobertura cutânea adequada. Nível de evidência III, Revisão sistemática de estudos de nível III.

2.
Rev. bras. ortop ; 54(1): 78-82, Jan.-Feb. 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1003601

RESUMO

Abstract Synovial chondromatosis is a rare condition characterized by benign chondrogenic metaplasia of extra-articular synovial tissue. It usually affects a single tendon sheath of the hand or foot. This report describes a rare case with extensive synovial chondromatosis affecting all flexor tendons in the tarsal tunnel, its radiological features, surgical treatment, and clinical outcome. The authors present a unique case of extensive synovial chondromatosis in a 48-year-old male involving the tendon sheaths of the flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, and posterior tibialis tendons, at the level of the tarsal tunnel, with extension into the plantar aspect of the foot. The patient initially presentedwith symptoms of tarsal tunnel compression and was found to have a 4-cm mass in the posteromedial aspect of the ankle. The presumptive diagnosis of synovial chondromatosiswasmadebased on radiographic and magnetic resonance imaging evidence. The patient underwent surgical resection of the tumor, aswell as tarsal tunnel releaseandgastrocnemius recession. The diagnosiswas confirmed postoperatively by surgical histopathology. The postoperative course of the patient was uncomplicated and his tarsal tunnel symptoms resolved. This represents a case of extensive synovial chondromatosis involving all flexor tendons in the tarsal tunnel that was correctly diagnosed by clinical and imaging findings, which required early surgical resection to avoid long-term neurovascular complications.


Resumo A condromatose sinovial é uma condição rara caracterizada por metaplasia condrogênica benigna do tecido sinovial extra-articular, que geralmente afeta uma única bainha tendínea da mão ou do pé. O objetivo é relatar o caso raro de um paciente com diagnóstico de condromatose sinovial extensa afetando todos os tendões flexores na topografia do túnel do tarso, suas características radiológicas, tratamento cirúrgico e desfecho clínico. Os autores apresentam um caso único de condromatose sinovial extensa em um homem de 48 anos envolvendo as bainhas dos tendões flexor longo do hálux, flexor longo dos dedos e tibial posterior, na topografia do túnel do tarso, com extensão para a região plantar do retropé. O sintoma inicial foi de compressão neurovascular (síndrome do túnel do tarso). A suspeita diagnóstica foi condromatose sinovial com base em evidências radiográficas e de ressonância magnética. O paciente foi submetido a ressecção cirúrgica do tumor, bem como a liberação do túnel tarsal e alongamento do tendão dos gastrocnêmios. O diagnóstico foi confirmado por exame histopatológico do espécime colhido no período intraoperatório. A evolução pósoperatória do paciente ocorreu sem complicações e os sintomas da síndrome do túnel do tarso cessaram. Os autores relatam um caso de condromatose sinovial extensa envolvendo todos os tendões flexores do túnel do tarso, corretamente diagnosticado por achados clínicos e radiológicos e que necessitou de ressecção cirúrgica precoce para evitar complicações neurovasculares em longo prazo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sinovite , Condromatose Sinovial/cirurgia , Condromatose Sinovial/patologia , Condromatose Sinovial/diagnóstico por imagem
3.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 2019 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of synthetic polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel (PVAH) implants for treatment of lesser toe metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) arthritis is promising and currently limited by the size of implants available. The primary objective of this cadaveric study was to investigate the maximum drilling size and largest PVAH implant dimension that could be safely introduced while still preserving an intact bone rim of the lesser metatarsal heads. METHODS: Height and width of all lesser metatarsals were measured on CT and during anatomic dissection. Sequential reaming of the second to fourth metatarsals was performed. Maximum reaming size, largest implant inserted, and failure of the metatarsal head were recorded. Metatarsal head sizes were compared and a multiple regression analysis evaluated measurements that influenced maximum drilling and implant size. RESULTS: CT and anatomical measurements demonstrated significant correlation (ICC range, 0.-0.85). Mean values for height and width of the metatarsal heads were respectively: second (14.9 mm and 9.9 mm), third (14.8 mm and 8.8 mm), fourth (14.0 mm and 8.7 mm) and fifth (12.3 mm and 9.3 mm). All the second, third and fourth metatarsal heads could be safely drilled up to 7.5 mm, preserving an intact bone rim. At 80% of the time, the heads could be safely drilled up to 8.0 mm. Height of the metatarsal heads was the only factor to significantly influence the size of maximum reaming and implant introduced. In respectively 20%, 40% and 50% of the second, third, and fourth metatarsal heads, neither 8 mm nor 10 mm PVAH implants could be used. CONCLUSIONS: Our cadaveric study found that the even though the majority of the lesser metatarsal heads could be safely drilled up to 8 mm, the smallest PVAH implant size currently available in most countries (8 mm) could be inserted in most of the second, but only in about half of the third and fourth metatarsal heads. The remaining bone rim around inserted implants was considerably thin, usually measuring less than 1 mm. In order to optimize the use PVAH in lesser metatarsal heads, smaller implant options are needed.

4.
Am J Sports Med ; 47(3): 721-728, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30640506

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:: Corticosteroid injections in or around tendons for the treatment of athletic injuries are a common practice among orthopaedic surgeons and are apparently efficacious in the short term, although controversies persist related to local complications. PURPOSE:: This study evaluated short-term (48 hours) biomechanical, biochemical, and histological alterations after a single injection of betamethasone into the normal tendons of rabbits. STUDY DESIGN:: Controlled laboratory study. METHODS:: A total of 72 New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups: the test group-in which 36 animals underwent 1 intratendinous injection of betamethasone (1.4 mg / 0.2 mL) in the right calcaneal tendon; the control group-in which the right calcaneal tendon of 36 animals was injected with saline (placebo control group) and the left calcaneal tendon was left untreated for normal standards (normal control). Forty-eight hours later, animals were euthanized and tendons were harvested. Metalloproteinase (MMP1 and MMP2) and interleukin (IL1 and IL6) expression levels, biomechanical resistance (load × elongation parameters), and histomorphometry (hematoxylin and eosin and picrosirius red stains for collagen fibers, tenocytes, and inflammatory cells) were analyzed in the tendons. RESULTS:: The test group had a significant reduction in MMP2 expression as compared with the control groups ( P = .027). Regarding the other parameters, there were no additional significant differences between the groups. CONCLUSION:: A single injection of corticosteroid into normal calcaneal tendons did not trigger acute local morphological, structural, or biomechanical injuries at 48 hours, but it did promote a significant decrease in MMP2 levels. Additional studies are needed with increased duration of follow-up, various doses, and multiple injections and in tendinopathic models. CLINICAL RELEVANCE:: Some previous studies demonstrated early structural changes in tendons after a single corticosteroid injection, which was not corroborated by the present study. Metalloproteinase decrease is usually associated with a reduction in collagen degradation, which would be protective for the healing process. More studies are necessary to confirm the possible beneficial effect of these results in the long term and for tendinopathies.

5.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 26(5): 309-313, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30464711

RESUMO

Objective: To identify independent risk factors, complications and early hospital readmission following total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Using the ACS-NSQIP database, we identified patients who underwent primary TKA from 2012-2015. The primary outcome was early hospital readmission. Patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities, laboratory data, operative characteristics, and postoperative complications were compared between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Logistic regression identified independent risk factors for 30-day readmission. Results: 137,209 patients underwent TKA; 3.4% were readmitted within 30 days. Advanced age, male sex, black ethnicity, morbid obesity, presence of preoperative comorbidities, high ASA classification, and increased operative time were independently related risk factors. Asian and no reported race were negative risk factors. Postoperative complications: acute myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, stroke, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis show positive associations. Conclusions: Advanced age, male sex, black ethnicity, morbid obesity, presence of comorbidities, high ASA classification and long operative time are independent risk factors for postoperative complications and early hospital readmission following total knee arthroplasty. Level of Evidence III, Case control study.

6.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(5): 309-313, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-973575

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To identify independent risk factors, complications and early hospital readmission following total knee arthroplasty. Methods: Using the ACS-NSQIP database, we identified patients who underwent primary TKA from 2012-2015. The primary outcome was early hospital readmission. Patient demographics, preoperative comorbidities, laboratory data, operative characteristics, and postoperative complications were compared between readmitted and non-readmitted patients. Logistic regression identified independent risk factors for 30-day readmission. Results: 137,209 patients underwent TKA; 3.4% were readmitted within 30 days. Advanced age, male sex, black ethnicity, morbid obesity, presence of preoperative comorbidities, high ASA classification, and increased operative time were independently related risk factors. Asian and no reported race were negative risk factors. Postoperative complications: acute myocardial infarction, acute renal failure, stroke, pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, and deep vein thrombosis show positive associations. Conclusions: Advanced age, male sex, black ethnicity, morbid obesity, presence of comorbidities, high ASA classification and long operative time are independent risk factors for postoperative complications and early hospital readmission following total knee arthroplasty. Level of Evidence III, Case control study.


RESUMO Objetivo: Identificar fatores de risco independentes, complicações e reinternação precoce após artroplastia total do joelho. Métodos: A partir de banco de dados ACS-NSQIP, identificamos pacientes submetidos à ATJ primária de 2012 a 2015. O desfecho primário foi a reinternação hospitalar precoce. Dados demográficos, comorbidades pré-operatórias, dados laboratoriais, características cirúrgicas e complicações pós-operatórias foram comparadas entre os pacientes reinternados e não reinternados. A regressão logística identificou fatores de risco independentes para a reinternação em 30 dias. Resultados: Foram identificados 137.209 pacientes submetidos à ATJ, sendo que 3,4% foram reinternados no período de 30 dias. A idade avançada, o sexo masculino, a raça negra, a obesidade mórbida, a presença de comorbidades pré-operatórias, a alta classificação ASA e o aumento do tempo cirúrgico foram fatores de risco relacionados independentemente. A raça asiática e as não relatadas foram fatores de risco negativos. As complicações pós-operatórias infarto agudo do miocardio, insuficiência renal aguda, acidente vascular cerebral, pneumonia, embolia pulmonar e trombose venosa profunda apresentaram associações positivas. Conclusões: Idade avançada, sexo masculino, raça negra, obesidade mórbida, presença de comorbidades, classificação ASA elevada e tempo cirúrgico prolongado são fatores de risco independentes de complicações pós-operatórias e reinternação precoce após artroplastia total do joelho. Nível de evidência III, Estudo de caso de controle.

7.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4351, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30208153

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze recent demographic and medical billing trends in treatment of femoral neck fracture of American elderly patients. METHODS: The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed from 2006 to 2015, for patients aged 65 years and older, using the Current Procedural Terminology codes 27130, 27125, 27235, and 27236. Patient demographics, postoperative complications, and frequency of codes were compared and analyzed over time. Our sample had 17,122 elderly patients, in that, 70% were female, mean age of 80.1 years (standard deviation±6.6 years). RESULTS: The number of cases increased, but age, gender, body mass index, rates of diabetes and smoking did not change over time. Open reduction internal fixation was the most commonly billed code, with 9,169 patients (53.6%), followed by hemiarthroplasty with 5,861 (34.2%) patients. Combined estimated probability of morbidity was 9.8% (standard deviation±5.2%), and did not change significantly over time. Postoperative complication rates were similar between treatments. CONCLUSION: Demographics and morbidity rates in femoral neck fractures of elderly patients did not change significantly from 2006 to 2015. Open reduction internal fixation was the most common treatment followed by hemiarthroplasty.


Assuntos
Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fixação de Fratura/estatística & dados numéricos , Hemiartroplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia de Quadril/tendências , Índice de Massa Corporal , Parafusos Ósseos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fixação de Fratura/tendências , Hemiartroplastia/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Injury ; 49(10): 1758-1762, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30115447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Precise diagnosis of distal tibiofibular syndesmotic injury is challenging, and a gold standard diagnostic test has still not been established. Tibiofibular clear space identified on radiographic imaging is considered the most reliable indicator of the injury. The Cotton test is the most widely used intraoperative technique to evaluate the syndesmotic integrity although it has its limitations. We advocate for a novel intra operative test using a 3.5 mm blunt cortical tap. METHODS: Tibiofibular clear space was assessed in nine cadaveric specimens using three sequential fluoroscopic images. The first image was taken prior to the application of the tap test (intact, non-stressed). Then, a 2.5 mm hole was drilled distally on the lateral fibula, and a 3.5 mm cortical tap was then threaded in the hole. The tap test involved gradually advancing the blunt tip against the lateral tibia, providing a tibiofibular separation force (intact, stressed). This same stress was then applied after all syndesmotic ligaments were released (injured, stressed). Measurements were compared by one-way ANOVA and paired Student's t-test. Intra and inter-observer agreements were evaluated by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). P-values <.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: We found excellent intra-observer (0.97) and inter-observer (0.98) agreement following the imaging assessment. Significant differences were found in the paired comparison between the groups (p < .05). When using an absolute value for TFCS >6 mm as diagnostic for coronal syndesmotic instability, the tap test demonstrated a 96.3% sensitivity and specificity, a 96.3% PPV and NPV and a 96.3% accuracy in diagnosing coronal syndesmotic instability. CONCLUSIONS: Our cadaveric study demonstrated that this novel coronal syndesmotic instability test using a 3.5 mm blunt cortical tap is a simple, accurate and reliable technique able to demonstrate significant differences in the tibiofibular clear space when injury was present. It could represent a more controlled and stable alternative to the most used Cotton test.

9.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 26(2): 135-139, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983632

RESUMO

Spatial understanding of osteoarticular deformities of the foot and ankle is vital to correct diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. Poor reproducibility in conventional standing radiography in three orthogonal views has driven the development of weight-bearing computed tomography (WBCT) technology over the last decade. We analyzed the available literature on WBCT imaging in patients with foot and ankle disorders by performing a literature review of relevant clinical studies in multiple databases including PubMed, MedLine, and Scopus from January 1999 to October 2017. WBCT imaging allows correct evaluation of foot and ankle anatomy with the patient in a standing position, providing images with high spatial resolution, short image acquisition time, low dose of radiation, and costs which are similar to other available imaging technologies. This diagnostic tool can be used for decision making in the treatment of deformities of the ankle, hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. Level of Evidence III; Systematic review of level III studies.

10.
HIV AIDS (Auckl) ; 10: 83-90, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29872352

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the presence of HIV in bone tissue of people living with HIV (PLWHIV) with osteonecrosis of femoral head and describe clinical and anatomopathological findings. Design: This is a case series which included 44 PLWHIV with osteonecrosis of femoral head who underwent total hip arthroplasty. Methods: Clinical data were obtained through analysis of the patients' medical records. Bone tissue obtained during total hip arthroplasty was retrieved and sent for conventional and immunohistochemical analysis. Monoclonal antibodies were used to mark the p24 (HIV), CD31 (vascular endothelial cells), CD68 (macrophages), and D240 (cells of the lymphatic endothelium) antigens. Results: Dyslipidemia was found in 48% of the patients and lipodystrophy in 31%. Histological analysis showed similar characteristics for the entire sample. Degeneration of joint cartilage was visualized with the presence of fissures and fibrillations, as well as subchondral sclerosis and necrosis of the subchondral cancellous bone tissue. Lymphoplasmocytic inflammatory reaction was observed, with the presence of macrophages containing a foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm, as well as the presence of ceroid pigment and occasional granulation tissue. The reaction with the monoclonal anti-p24 antibody was negative in the samples from all 44 PLWHIV undergoing hip arthroplasty. Reactions with the anti-CD31 and anti-D240 antibodies were negative. Staining with CD68 antibody confirmed that the cells visualized with foamy, vacuolated cytoplasm were macrophages. Conclusion: p24 HIV antigen was not detected in the bone tissue of PLWHIV and osteonecrosis. The most frequent anatomopathological findings were extensive necrosis of bone tissue, large vacuoles filled with fat cells, inflammatory lymphoplasmocytic reaction with macrophages containing vacuolated cytoplasm, and the presence of ceroid pigment.

11.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 26(2): 108-111, 2018 Mar-Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844733

RESUMO

Objectives: To report a case series of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the foot, describing previous risk factors, surgical treatment, histopathological findings, and functional and oncological results. Methods: Nine consecutive patients diagnosed with SCC of the foot were treated at a single institution and prospectively analyzed for risk factors related to the disease, surgical outcome, and histopathological, functional and oncological results. All patients had identifiable risk factors for SCC. Results: Definitive treatment consisted of partial (6 patients) or total (3 patients) amputation of the foot. The functional score was good or excellent in the surviving patients. Early identifiable risk factors are present in most patients. Biopsy when this diagnosis is suspected, in association with oncological principles, avoids diagnostic and treatment errors. Conclusion: Despite delayed diagnosis and surgical treatment with partial and total amputations of the foot in our series, we observed good oncological outcomes that avoided systemic spread of the disease and achieved expected functional results. Level of Evidence V; Case series.

12.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(2): 135-139, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-949723

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Spatial understanding of osteoarticular deformities of the foot and ankle is vital to correct diagnosis and therapeutic decision making. Poor reproducibility in conventional standing radiography in three orthogonal views has driven the development of weight-bearing computed tomography (WBCT) technology over the last decade. We analyzed the available literature on WBCT imaging in patients with foot and ankle disorders by performing a literature review of relevant clinical studies in multiple databases including PubMed, MedLine, and Scopus from January 1999 to October 2017. WBCT imaging allows correct evaluation of foot and ankle anatomy with the patient in a standing position, providing images with high spatial resolution, short image acquisition time, low dose of radiation, and costs which are similar to other available imaging technologies. This diagnostic tool can be used for decision making in the treatment of deformities of the ankle, hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. Level of Evidence III; Systematic review of level III studies.


RESUMO Na topografia do tornozelo e do pé é fundamental o entendimento espacial das deformidades osteoarticulares para correto diagnóstico e decisão terapêutica. A dificuldade de reprodução da avaliação com radiografias convencionais em posição ortostática em três dimensões impulsionou, na última década, o desenvolvimento da tecnologia de tomografia computadoriza com carga. Analisamos a literatura relacionada com o tema tomografia computadorizada com carga em pacientes com distúrbios do pé e do tornozelo. Para fazer isso, realizamos uma revisão da literatura de estudos clínicos relevantes nas bases de bancos eletrônicos, incluindo PubMed, MedLine e Scopus, de janeiro de 1999 a outubro de 2017. A tomografia computadorizada com carga permite a avaliação da anatomia na posição ortostática fisiológica, com imagens de alta resolução espacial, pequeno tempo de aquisição de imagens, baixa dose de radiação e custos similares a outras tecnologias atualmente disponíveis. Ela pode ser usada para tomada de decisão terapêutica em deformidades do tornozelo, retropé, mesopé e antepé. Nível de Evidência III; Revisão sistemática de estudos de nível III.

13.
Acta ortop. bras ; 26(2): 108-111, Mar.-Apr. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-949724

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: To report a case series of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the foot, describing previous risk factors, surgical treatment, histopathological findings, and functional and oncological results. Methods: Nine consecutive patients diagnosed with SCC of the foot were treated at a single institution and prospectively analyzed for risk factors related to the disease, surgical outcome, and histopathological, functional and oncological results. All patients had identifiable risk factors for SCC. Results: Definitive treatment consisted of partial (6 patients) or total (3 patients) amputation of the foot. The functional score was good or excellent in the surviving patients. Early identifiable risk factors are present in most patients. Biopsy when this diagnosis is suspected, in association with oncological principles, avoids diagnostic and treatment errors. Conclusion: Despite delayed diagnosis and surgical treatment with partial and total amputations of the foot in our series, we observed good oncological outcomes that avoided systemic spread of the disease and achieved expected functional results. Level of Evidence V; Case series.


RESUMO Objetivo . Relatar uma série de casos de carcinoma epidermoide no pé, descrever os fatores de risco prévios, os achados histopatológicos, o tratamento cirúrgico e os resultados funcionais e oncológicos. Métodos: Nove pacientes consecutivos com diagnóstico de CE na região do pé foram tratados em uma única instituição e analisados, prospectivamente com relação aos fatores de risco da doença, ao desfecho do tratamento cirúrgico e aos resultados histopatológicos, funcionais e oncológicos. Todos os pacientes apresentavam fatores de risco identificáveis. Resultados: O tratamento definitivo consistiu em amputação parcial (seis), amputação total (três). O escore funcional foi bom ou excelente nos pacientes sobreviventes. Fatores de risco identificáveis precocemente estão presentes na maioria dos pacientes. A biópsia na suspeita diagnóstica e o uso de princípios oncológicos evitam erros de diagnóstico e de tratamento. Conclusão: Em nossa série, apesar do diagnóstico tardio e do tratamento cirúrgico com amputações parciais e totais do pé, observamos bons resultados oncológicos que evitaram a disseminação sistêmica da doença e resultados funcionais esperados. Nível de Evidência V; Série de casos.

14.
Histol Histopathol ; 33(9): 929-936, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29532899

RESUMO

Posterior tibial tendinopathy (PTT) can lead to acquired flatfoot in adults. Many patients develop PTT without any identifiable risk factors. Molecular changes in extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) polymorphism may influence the risk of developing PTT. We aim to investigate the association between matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and (MMP-8) gene polymorphisms with changes in collagen I, III and V in PTT. A case-control study with 22 patients and 5 controls was performed. The MMP-1 (2G/2G) and MMP-8 (T/T) genotypes were determined by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Tendon specimens were evaluated by a histologic semiquantitative score, immunofluorescence and histomorphometry for collagen I, III and V. Tendon specimens from PTT demonstrated marked distortion of the architecture with necrosis, large basophilic areas with disruption of the normal linear orientation of collagen bundles, infiltration of inflammatory cells, dystrophic calcification and ossification. Under immunofluorescence, PTT tendon specimens showed weak green fluorescence and diffuse distribution of collagen I fibers, but strong fluorescence of collagen III and V. The collagen I fibers were significantly decreased whereas an increase of collagen III and V were found in PTT compared to control groups. In addition, PTT group presented a significant association with MMP-1 and MMP-8 gene polymorphisms. Patients with PTT matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and (MMP-8) gene polymorphisms presented an increase of the collagen III and V ratio, suggesting that the higher proportion in degenerated tendons could contribute to a decrease in the mechanical resistance of the tissue. Still, functional and association studies are needed to elucidate evident roles of MMPs in PTT.

15.
PLoS One ; 13(2): e0192769, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29438431

RESUMO

Our goal was to develop a novel technique for inducing Achilles tendinopathy in animal models which more accurately represents the progressive histological and biomechanical characteristic of chronic Achilles tendinopathy in humans. In this animal research study, forty-five rabbits were randomly assigned to three groups and given bilateral Achilles injections. Low dose (LD group) (n = 18) underwent a novel technique with three low-dose (0.1mg) injections of collagenase that were separated by two weeks, the high dose group (HD) (n = 18) underwent traditional single high-dose (0.3mg) injections, and the third group were controls (n = 9). Six rabbits were sacrificed from each experimental group (LD and HD) at 10, 12 and 16 weeks. Control animals were sacrificed after 16 weeks. Histological and biomechanical properties were then compared in all three groups. At 10 weeks, Bonar score and tendon cross sectional area was highest in HD group, with impaired biomechanical properties compared to LD group. At 12 weeks, Bonar score was higher in LD group, with similar biomechanical findings when compared to HD group. After 16 weeks, Bonar score was significantly increased for both LD group (11,8±2,28) and HD group (5,6±2,51), when compared to controls (2±0,76). LD group showed more pronounced histological and biomechanical findings, including cross sectional area of the tendon, Young's modulus, yield stress and ultimate tensile strength. In conclusion, Achilles tendinopathy in animal models that were induced by serial injections of low-dose collagenase showed more pronounced histological and biomechanical findings after 16 weeks than traditional techniques, mimicking better the progressive and chronic characteristic of the tendinopathy in humans.


Assuntos
Tendão do Calcâneo/patologia , Colagenases/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Tendinopatia/induzido quimicamente , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Coelhos , Tendinopatia/patologia
16.
Foot Ankle Surg ; 24(2): 99-106, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29409219

RESUMO

Foot and ankle injections are useful diagnostic and therapeutic tools, particularly when the pain etiology is uncertain. A variety of foot and ankle injuries and pathologies, including degenerative joint disease, plantar fasciitis and different tendinopathies are amenable to injections. Understanding the foot and ankle anatomical landmarks, a thorough physical exam and knowledge of the different injection techniques is key for a successful approach to different pathologies. The objective of this study is to review the use of foot and ankle injections in the orthopaedic literature, present the readers with the senior author's experience and provide a comprehensive clinical guideline to the most common foot and ankle diagnostic and therapeutic injections.


Assuntos
Articulação do Tornozelo , Tornozelo , Doenças do Pé/diagnóstico , Doenças do Pé/terapia , , Injeções/métodos , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Doenças do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Manejo da Dor
17.
Urology ; 113: 20-25, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29074337

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current evidence and to identify associated risk factors that increase the incidence of this complication. Fluoroquinolone (FQ) has been considered the first-line therapy for uncomplicated urinary infections. FQ has been associated with Achilles tendon disorders, especially during the first month of treatment. METHODS: Data sources searched included PubMed, MEDLINE, and Scopus from January 1988 to June 2017. RESULTS: A total of 79 articles were used, with ciprofloxacin representing the most common drug. CONCLUSION: We found that male gender, advanced age, normal body mass index, chronic renal failure, and concurrent use of corticosteroids increase the risk of Achilles tendon disorders.

18.
Foot Ankle Int ; 39(4): 500-505, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29254448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The objective of the study was to evaluate the accuracy of percutaneous Achilles tendon lengthening (TAL) using a triple hemisection technique and the improvement in ankle dorsiflexion. METHODS: Ten fresh-frozen above-knee cadaveric specimens were used. A percutaneous triple hemisection of the Achilles tendon (proximal, intermediate, and distal) was performed. Maximum ankle dorsiflexion was evaluated pre- and postprocedure with a digital goniometer. After proper dissection, the relative width of the cuts was noted. Following forced ankle dorsiflexion, displacement in the tensile gaps was measured in all 3 cuts with a precision digital caliper. RESULTS: The overall relative width of the percutaneous cut was 51.3% ± 16.3% of the Achilles tendon diameter, 44.3% ± 13.6% for the proximal cut, 50.3% ± 15.6% for the intermediate cut, and 59.3% ± 18.4% for the distal cut. Tendon excursion averaged 13.0 ± 3.8 mm for the proximal cuts, 12.5 ± 4.7 mm for the intermediate cuts, and 8.2 ± 3.7 mm for the distal cuts. One cadaver had a complete rupture of the Achilles tendon and was excluded from the excursion data analysis. The mean range of motion for ankle dorsiflexion was 8.1 ± 3.9 degrees preprocedure and 27.6 ± 5.3 degrees postprocedure. The dorsiflexion angle significantly increased ( P < .0001) at an average of 19.5 ± 5.0 degrees following TAL. CONCLUSION: Our cadaveric study demonstrated that the percutaneous triple hemisection of the Achilles was an accurate technique that provided successful lengthening of the tendon and increased ankle dorsiflexion. Complete ruptures are possible complications. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our cadaveric study showed that in a clinical situation, triple hemisections of the Achilles tendon can be performed reliably, with significant improvement of the ankle dorsiflexion, mainly through increased tendon excursion at the proximal and intermediate cuts, and with low risk of complete ruptures.

19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 16(3): eAO4351, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-953181

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To analyze recent demographic and medical billing trends in treatment of femoral neck fracture of American elderly patients. Methods The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was analyzed from 2006 to 2015, for patients aged 65 years and older, using the Current Procedural Terminology codes 27130, 27125, 27235, and 27236. Patient demographics, postoperative complications, and frequency of codes were compared and analyzed over time. Our sample had 17,122 elderly patients, in that, 70% were female, mean age of 80.1 years (standard deviation±6.6 years). Results The number of cases increased, but age, gender, body mass index, rates of diabetes and smoking did not change over time. Open reduction internal fixation was the most commonly billed code, with 9,169 patients (53.6%), followed by hemiarthroplasty with 5,861 (34.2%) patients. Combined estimated probability of morbidity was 9.8% (standard deviation±5.2%), and did not change significantly over time. Postoperative complication rates were similar between treatments. Conclusion Demographics and morbidity rates in femoral neck fractures of elderly patients did not change significantly from 2006 to 2015. Open reduction internal fixation was the most common treatment followed by hemiarthroplasty.


RESUMO Objetivo Analisar tendências recentes demográficas e de faturamento médico no tratamento de fraturas do colo do fêmur em idosos americanos. Métodos O banco de dados National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, do American College of Surgeons, foi analisado de 2006 a 2015, para pacientes com idade igual ou superior a 65 anos, usando os códigos de Current Procedural Terminology 27130, 27125, 27235 e 27236. Dados demográficos dos pacientes, complicações pós-operatórias e frequência de códigos foram comparados e analisados ao longo do tempo. A amostra teve 17.122 pacientes geriátricos, sendo 70% do sexo feminino, com média de idade de 80,1 anos (desvio padrão±6,6 anos). Resultados O número de casos aumentou no período, mas idade, gênero, índice de massa corporal e taxas de diabetes e tabagismo não mudaram ao longo do tempo. A fixação interna de redução aberta foi o código faturado mais comum, com 9.169 pacientes (53,6%), seguido por artroplastia parcial do quadril, com 5.861 (34,2%) pacientes. A probabilidade estimada combinada de morbidade foi de 9,8% (desvio padrão±5,2%) e não mudou significativamente ao longo do tempo. As taxas de complicações pós-operatórias foram semelhantes entre os tratamentos. Conclusão Os dados demográficos e as taxas de morbidade relacionadas às fraturas geriátricas do colo do fêmur não apresentaram mudança significativa entre 2006 e 2015. A redução aberta e a fixação interna foram as opções de tratamento mais comuns, seguidas da artroplastia parcial do quadril.

20.
Acta Ortop Bras ; 25(5): 183-187, 2017 Sep-Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29081701

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to compare union rates for isolated subtalar arthrodesis with and without the use of bone grafts or bone graft substitutes. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 135 subtalar fusions with a mean follow-up of 18 ± 14 months. The standard approach was used for all surgeries. Graft materials included b-tricalcium phosphate, demineralized bone matrix, iliac crest autograft and allograft, and allograft cancellous chips. Successful subtalar fusion was determined clinically and radiographically. RESULTS: There was an 88% (37/42) union rate without graft use and an 83% (78/93) union rate with bone graft use. Odds ratio of union for graft versus no graft was 0.703 (95% CI, 0.237-2.08). The average time to union in the graft group was 3 ± 0.73 months and 3 ± 0.86 in the non-graft group, with no statistically significant difference detected (p = 0.56). CONCLUSION: Graft use did not improve union rates for subtalar arthrodesis. Level of Evidence IV, Case Series.

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