Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 236
Filtrar
1.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602685

RESUMO

PURPOSE: PIK3CA mutations are common in breast cancer and promote tumor progression and treatment resistance. We conducted a phase I/II trial of alpelisib (α-specific PI3K inhibitor) plus nab-paclitaxel in patients with HER2-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Eligible patients had HER2-negative MBC with any number of prior chemotherapies. Phase I was 3+3 dose-escalation design with three dose levels of alpelisib (250mg-300mg-350mg) daily, plus nab-paclitaxel 100mg/m2 D1-8-15 every 28 days. Phase II was according to Simon's two-stage design. PIK3CA mutations in tumor/circulating-tumor DNA (ctDNA) were assessed. Primary endpoints were recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D) and objective response rate (ORR). Additional endpoints included safety, pharmacokinetics, PFS, association of PIK3CA mutation with outcomes. RESULTS: 43 patients enrolled (phase I=13, phase II=30). 84% had visceral disease, 84% had prior taxane. No dose-limiting toxicities occurred in phase I. RP2D was alpelisib 350mg daily +nab-paclitaxel 100mg/m2 D1-8-15. Hyperglycemia (G3:26%,G4:0%), neutropenia (G3:23%,G4:7%), diarrhea (G3:5%,G4:0%), and rash (G3:7%,G4:0%) were most common adverse events. Among 42 evaluable patients, ORR was 59% (CR=7%, PR=52%), 21% of whom had response lasting >12 months; median PFS was 8.7 months. 40% demonstrated tumor and/or ctDNA PIK3CA mutation; patients with tumor/ctDNA mutation demonstrated better PFS compared to those without mutation (11.9 vs 7.5 months, HR=0.44, p=0.027). Patients with normal metabolic status had longer PFS compared to prediabetic/diabetic patients (12.0 vs 7.5 months, p=0.014). No pharmacokinetic interactions were detected. CONCLUSIONS: Alpelisib plus nab-paclitaxel combination was well-tolerated and shows encouraging efficacy, especially in patients with PIK3CA-mutated tumor/ctDNA. Impact of metabolic status on response to this combination merits further investigation.

2.
Urol Oncol ; 2021 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33563536

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several biologic mechanisms, including inflammation and immune changes, have been proposed to explain the role of obesity in prostate cancer (CaP) progression. Compared to men of a healthy weight, overweight and obese men are more likely to have CaP recurrence post-prostatectomy. Obesity is related to inflammation and immune dysregulation; thus, weight loss may be an avenue to reduce inflammation and reverse these immune processes. OBJECTIVES: This study explores the reversibility of the biological mechanisms through intentional weight loss using a comprehensive weight management program in men undergoing prostatectomy. Outcomes include blood and tissue biomarkers, microtumor environment gene expression, inflammation markers and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores. METHODS: Twenty overweight men undergoing prostatectomy participated in this study. Fifteen men chose the intervention and 5 men chose the nonintervention group. The intervention consisted of a comprehensive weight loss program prior to prostatectomy and a weight maintenance program following surgery. Prostate tissue samples were obtained from diagnostic biopsies before the intervention and prostatectomy samples after weight loss. Blood samples and diet records were collected at baseline, pre-surgery after weight loss and at study end after weight maintenance. Immunohistochemistry and NanoString analysis were used to analyze the tissue samples. Flow cytometry was used to assess circulating immune markers. Inflammation markers were measured using Luminex panels. RESULTS: The intervention group lost >5% body weight prior to surgery. DII scores improved during the weight loss intervention from baseline to pre-surgery (P = 0.002); and between group differences were significant (P = 0.02). DII scores were not associated with IL-6 nor hsCRP. In the intervention, CXCL12, CXCR7, and CXCR4 (C-X-C motif chemokine ligand/receptor) and Ki67 expression decreased in the prostate tissue from biopsy to surgery (P = 0.06), yet plasma CXCL12 increased during the same timeframe (P = 0.009). The downregulation of several genes (FDR<0.001) was observed in the intervention compared to the non-intervention. Changes in immune cells were not significant in either group. CONCLUSION: This feasibility study demonstrates that in overweight men with localized CaP, weight loss alters blood, and tissue biomarkers, as well as tumor gene expression. More research is needed to determine the biological and clinical significance of these findings.

3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33291316

RESUMO

Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation eventually develop resistance to EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Treatment resistance remains the primary obstacle to the successful treatment of NSCLC. Although drug resistance mechanisms have been studied extensively in NSCLC, the regulation of these mechanisms has not been completely understood. Recently, increasing numbers of microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in EGFR-TKI resistance, indicating that miRNAs may serve as novel targets and may hold promise as predictive biomarkers for anti-EGFR therapy. MicroRNA-506 (miR-506) has been identified as a tumor suppressor in many cancers, including lung cancer; however, the role of miR-506 in lung cancer chemoresistance has not yet been addressed. Here we report that miR-506-3p expression was markedly reduced in erlotinib-resistant (ER) cells. We identified Sonic Hedgehog (SHH) as a novel target of miR-506-3p, aberrantly activated in ER cells. The ectopic overexpression of miR-506-3p in ER cells downregulates SHH signaling, increases E-cadherin expression, and inhibits the expression of vimentin, thus counteracting the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-mediated chemoresistance. Our results advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying EGFR-TKI resistance and indicated that the miR-506/SHH axis might represent a novel therapeutic target for future EGFR mutated lung cancer treatment.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33262282

RESUMO

Effective cancer prevention requires the discovery and intervention of a factor critical to cancer development. Here we show that ovarian progesterone is a crucial endogenous factor inducing the development of primary tumors progressing to metastatic ovarian cancer in a mouse model of high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), the most common and deadliest ovarian cancer type. Blocking progesterone signaling by the pharmacologic inhibitor mifepristone or by genetic deletion of the progesterone receptor (PR) effectively suppressed HGSC development and its peritoneal metastases. Strikingly, mifepristone treatment profoundly improved mouse survival (∼18 human years). Hence, targeting progesterone/PR signaling could offer an effective chemopreventive strategy, particularly in high-risk populations of women carrying a deleterious mutation in the BRCA gene.

5.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2020 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208340

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Addition of carboplatin (Cb) to anthracycline chemotherapy improves pathologic complete response(pCR), and carboplatin plus taxane regimens also yield encouraging pCR rates in TNBC. Aim of NeoSTOP multisite randomized phase II trial was to assess efficacy of anthracycline-free and anthracycline-containing neoadjuvant carboplatin regimens. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Patients aged ≥18 years with stage I-III TNBC were randomized(1:1) to receive either paclitaxel(P) weekly X12 plus Cb AUC6 Q21 days X4 followed by doxorubicin/cyclophosphamide(AC) Q14 days X4 (CbP->AC, Arm-A), or to Cb AUC6 + docetaxel(D) Q21 days X6 (CbD, Arm-B). Stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs) were assessed. Primary endpoint was pCR in breast and axilla. Other endpoints included RCB, toxicity, cost, and event-free and overall survival. RESULTS: 100 patients were randomized; Arm-A (N=48) or Arm-B (N=52). pCR was 54% (95% CI:40%-69%) in Arm-A and 54% (95% CI:40%-68%) in Arm-B. RCB 0+I rate was 67% in both arms. Median sTILs density was numerically higher in those with pCR compared with residual disease (20% vs 5%, P=0.25). At median follow-up of 38 months, event-free and overall survival were similar in two arms. Grade 3/4 adverse events were more common in Arm-A compared to Arm-B, with the most notable differences in neutropenia (60% vs 8%, P<0.001) and febrile neutropenia (19% vs 0%, P<0.001). There was one treatment-related death (Arm-A) due to acute leukemia. Mean treatment cost was lower for Arm-B compared to Arm-A (P=0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Two-drug CbD regimen yields pCR, RCB 0+I, and survival rates similar to the four-drug regimen of CbP->AC, but with a more favorable toxicity profile and lower treatment-associated cost.

6.
J Immunother Cancer ; 8(2)2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33037114

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL) therapy is a personalized cancer treatment which involves generating ex vivo cultures of tumor-reactive T cells from surgically resected tumors and administering the expanded TILs as a therapeutic infusion. Phase 1 of many TIL production protocols use aldesleukin (IL-2) alone to establish TIL cultures (termed "PreREP" (Pre-Rapid Expansion Protocol)); however, this fails to consistently produce TIL cultures from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in a timely manner. Adding mitogenic stimulation via anti-CD3/anti-CD28 beads along with IL-2 to the fresh tumor digest (FTD) during TIL generation (termed "FTD+ beads") increases successful TIL culture rates; however, T cells produced by this method may be suboptimal for adoptive transfer. We hypothesize that adherent cell depletion (ACD) before TIL expansion will produce a superior TIL product by removing the immunosuppressive signals originating from adherent tumor and stromal cells. Here we investigate if "panning," a technique for ACD prior to TIL expansion, will impact the phenotype, functionality and/or clonality of ex vivo expanded RCC TILs. METHODS: Tumor specimens from 55 patients who underwent radical or partial nephrectomy at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) were used to develop the panning method and an additional 19 specimens were used to validate the protocol. Next-generation sequencing, immunohistochemistry/immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry were used during method development. The phenotype, functionality and clonality of autologous TILs generated in parallel by panning, PreREP, and FTD+ beads were assessed by flow cytometry, in vitro co-culture assays, and TCRB CDR3 sequencing. RESULTS: TIL cultures were successfully generated using the panning protocol from 15/16 clear cell, 0/1 chromophobe, and 0/2 papillary RCC samples. Significantly fewer regulatory (CD4+/CD25+/FOXP3+) (p=0.049, p=0.005), tissue-resident memory (CD8+/CD103+) (p=0.027, p=0.009), PD-1+/TIM-3+ double-positive (p=0.009, p=0.011) and TIGIT+ T cells (p=0.049, p=0.026) are generated by panning relative to PreREP and FTD+ beads respectively. Critically, a subset of TILs generated by panning were able to degranulate and/or produce interferon gamma in response to autologous tumor cells and the average tumor-reactive TIL yield was greatest when using the panning protocol. CONCLUSIONS: Removing immunosuppressive adherent cells within an RCC digest prior to TIL expansion allow for the rapid production of tumor-reactive T cells with optimal characteristics for adoptive transfer.

7.
Cell Oncol (Dordr) ; 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910411

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Paracrine interactions with the stromal environment, including fibroblasts, may be important in the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. Here, we evaluated the effect of conditioned media derived from ovarian fibroblasts (fibroblast-CMs) and their major cytokines on the growth of ovarian cancer cells, as well as the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and AKT in mediating this effect. METHODS: Ovarian cancer cells were cultured in serum-free media (SF), or conditioned media of fibroblasts derived from normal ovary (CM1) and ovarian tumor tissue (CM2). Cell proliferation was measured by MTT assay. Phosphorylation of MAPKs and AKT was evaluated by Western blotting. Specific inhibitors of MAPKs and AKT were used to evaluate their respective involvement in mediating increased cell growth. Cytokine levels in fibroblast-CMs were measured using Luminex assays. Immunohistochemical staining was conducted for CXCL1, CXCR2 and phosphorylated p38 in primary ovarian tumors. RESULTS: CM1 and CM2 significantly increased the growth of ovarian cancer cells relative to SF. In OVCAR3 and OVCAR4 cells, p38 phosphorylation was strongly induced by fibroblast-CMs, and pre-treatment with a p38 inhibitor prevented the growth increase induced by fibroblast-CMs. Fibroblasts secreted high levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP1 and CXCL1. Treatment with only CXCL1 (1 µg/ml) increased cell growth and p38 phosphorylation. Treatment with a CXCR2 inhibitor effectively prevented p38 activation and cell growth induced by fibroblast-CMs. High expression of both CXCL1 and CXCR2 correlated with high expression of phosphorylated p38 in primary ovarian tumors. CONCLUSIONS: From our data, we conclude that CXCL1 is a key factor derived from ovarian fibroblasts that is responsible for increased ovarian cancer cell growth in part through p38 activation. Phosphorylated p38 can be used as a biomarker to predict CXCL1-CXCR2 interaction in vivo.

8.
Oncotarget ; 11(31): 2995-3012, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32821345

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Ewing Sarcoma Family of Tumors (ESFT), the second most common pediatric osseous malignancy, are characterized by the pathognomonic chromosomal EWS-ETS translocation. Outside of tumor biopsy, no clinically relevant ESFT biomarkers exist. Additionally, tumor burden assessment at diagnosis, monitoring of disease responsiveness to therapy, and detection of disease recurrence are limited to radiographic imaging. To identify new, clinically relevant biomarkers we evaluated the proteome of a subset of ESFT-derived small extracellular vesicles (sEVs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed the first high quality proteomic study of ESFT-derived sEVs from 5 ESFT cell lines representing the most common EWS-ETS fusion types and identified 619 proteins composing the core ESFT sEV proteome. We compared these core proteins to databases of common plasma-based proteins and sEV-associated proteins found within healthy plasma to identify proteins unique or enriched within ESFT. RESULTS: From these analyses, two membrane bound proteins with biomarker potential were selected, CD99/MIC2 and NGFR, to develop a liquid-based assay enriching of ESFT-associated sEVs and detection of sEV mRNA cargo (i.e., EWS-ETS transcripts). We employed this immuno-enrichment approach to diagnosis of ESFT utilizing plasma (250 µl) from both localized and metastatic ESFT pediatric patients and cancer-free controls, and showed significant diagnostic power [AUC = 0.92, p = 0.001 for sEV numeration, with a PPV = 1.00, 95% CI = (0.63, 1.00) and a NPV = 0.67, 95% CI = (0.30, 0.93)]. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we demonstrate utilization of circulating ESFT-associated sEVs in pediatric patients as a source of minimally invasive diagnostic and potentially prognostic biomarkers.

9.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 16(5): 979-991, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Because of their well-described immunosuppressive properties, allogeneic adult human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) derived from bone marrow have demonstrated safety and efficacy in steroid refractory acute graft versus host disease (SR aGVHD). Clinical trials have resulted in variable success and an optimal source of MSC has yet to be defined. Based on the importance of maternal-fetal interface immune tolerance, extraembryonic fetal tissues, such as the umbilical cord, may provide an superior tissue source of MSC to mediate immunomodulation in aGVHD. METHODS: A two-dose cohort trial allogeneic Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (WJMSC, referred to as MSCTC-0010, here) were tested in 10 patients with de novo high risk (HR) or SR aGVHD post allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). Following Good Manufacturing Practices isolation, expansion and cryostorage, WJMSC were thawed and administered via intravenous infusions on days 0 and 7 at one of two doses (low dose cohort, 2 × 106/kg, n = 5; high dose cohort, 10 × 106/kg, n = 5). To evaluate safety, patients were monitored for infusion related toxicity, Treatment Related Adverse Events (TRAE) til day 42, or ectopic tissue formation at day 90. Clinical responses were monitored at time points up to 180 days post infusion. Serum biomarkers ST2 and REG3α were acquired 1 day prior to first MSCTC-0010 infusion and on day 14. RESULTS: Safety was indicated, e.g., no infusion-related toxicity, no development of TRAE, nor ectopic tissue formation in either low or high dose cohort was observed. Clinical response was suggested at day 28: the overall response rate (ORR) was 70%, 4 of 10 patients had a complete response (CR) and 3 had a partial response (PR). By study day 90, the addition of escalated immunosuppressive therapy was necessary in 2 of 9 surviving patients. Day 100 and 180 post infusion survival was 90% and 60%, respectively. Serum biomarker REG3α decreased, particularly in the high dose cohort, and with REG3α decrease correlated with clinical response. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment of patients with de novo HR or SR aGVHD with low or high dose MSCTC-0010 was safe: the infusion was well-tolerated, and no TRAEs or ectopic tissue formation was observed. A clinical improvement was seen in about 70% patients, with 4 of 10 showing a complete response that may have been attributable to MSCTC-0010 infusions. These observations indicate safety of two different doses of MSCTC-0010, and suggest that the 10 × 106 cells/ kg dose be tested in an expanded randomized, controlled Phase 2 trial. Graphical abstract.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

11.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 9837, 2020 06 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32555344

RESUMO

Many high-grade serous carcinomas (HGSCs) likely originate in the distal region of the Fallopian tube's epithelium (TE) before metastasizing to the ovary. Unfortunately, molecular mechanisms promoting malignancy in the distal TE are obfuscated, largely due to limited primary human TE gene expression data. Here we report an in depth bioinformatic characterization of 34 primary TE mRNA-seq samples. These samples were prepared from proximal and distal TE regions of 12 normal Fallopian tubes. Samples were segregated based on their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Distal cells form organoids with higher frequency and larger size during serial organoid formation assays when compared to proximal cells. Consistent with enrichment for stem/progenitor cells, ALDH+ cells have greater WNT signaling. Comparative evaluation of proximal and distal TE cell population's shows heightened inflammatory signaling in distal differentiated (ALDH-) TE. Furthermore, comparisons of proximal and distal TE cell populations finds that the distal ALDH+ TE cells exhibit pronounced expression of gene sets characteristic of HGSC sub-types. Overall, our study indicates increased organoid forming capacity, WNT/inflammatory signaling, and HGSC signatures underlie differences between distal and proximal regions of the human TE. These findings provide the basis for further mechanistic studies of distal TE susceptibility to the malignant transformation.

12.
NPJ Breast Cancer ; 6: 12, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352029

RESUMO

The molecular processes by which some human ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions advance to the more aggressive form, while others remain indolent, are largely unknown. Experiments utilizing a patient-derived (PDX) DCIS Mouse INtraDuctal (MIND) animal model combined with ChIP-exo and RNA sequencing revealed that the formation of protein complexes between B Cell Lymphoma-9 (BCL9), phosphoserine 727 STAT3 (PS-727-STAT3) and non-STAT3 transcription factors on chromatin enhancers lead to subsequent transcription of key drivers of DCIS malignancy. Downregulation of two such targets, integrin ß3 and its associated metalloproteinase, MMP16, resulted in a significant inhibition of DCIS invasive progression. Finally, in vivo targeting of BCL9, using rosemary extract, resulted in significant inhibition of DCIS malignancy in both cell line and PDX DCIS MIND animal models. As such, our studies provide compelling evidence for future testing of rosemary extract as a chemopreventive agent in breast cancer.

13.
Cancer Prev Res (Phila) ; 13(3): 241-252, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32132118

RESUMO

More than two-thirds of all women diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) will die from the disease (>14,000 deaths annually), a fact that has not changed considerably in the last three decades. Although the 5-year survival rates for most other solid tumors have improved steadily, ovarian cancer remains an exception, making it the deadliest of all gynecologic cancers and five times deadlier than breast cancer. When diagnosed early, treatment is more effective, with a 5-year survival rate of up to 90%. Unfortunately, most cases are not detected until after the cancer has spread, resulting in a dismal 5-year survival rate of less than 30%. Current screening methods for ovarian cancer typically use a combination of a pelvic examination, transvaginal ultrasonography, and serum cancer antigen 125 (CA125), but these have made minimal impact on improving mortality. Thus, there is a compelling unmet need to develop new molecular tools that can be used to diagnose early-stage EOC and/or assist in the clinical management of the disease after a diagnosis, given that more than 220,000 women are living with ovarian cancer in the United States and are at risk of recurrence. Here, we discuss the state of advancing liquid-based approaches for improving the early detection of ovarian cancer.See all articles in this Special Collection Honoring Paul F. Engstrom, MD, Champion of Cancer Prevention.

14.
Oncol Lett ; 19(4): 2629-2638, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218813

RESUMO

The promise of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors (PARPis) in the management of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is hampered by the limited clinical activity against BRCA wild-type or homologous recombination-proficient EOC. In order to decrease the resistance and increase the efficacy of PARPis, combination treatments of pharmacological ascorbate and PARPis in preclinical BRCA wild-type EOC models were investigated. The cytotoxicity of pharmacological ascorbate, olaparib and veliparib in a panel of BRCA1/2 wild-type EOC cell lines were measured using MTT assays. Poly(ADP-ribose) levels were quantified using chemiluminescent ELISA. The expression of proteins involved in DNA damage and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair pathways were assessed by western blotting. The in vivo efficacy of pharmacological ascorbate, olaparib and their combination was evaluated in an intraperitoneal xenograft mouse model of BRCA1/2 wild-type EOC. Pharmacological ascorbate induced H2O2-dependent cytotoxicity in BRCA1/2 wild-type EOC cells. SHIN3 and OVCAR5 cells were resistant to olaparib and veliparib treatment; however, the combination of ascorbate with olaparib or veliparib significantly enhanced cell death. Pharmacological ascorbate enhanced the effects olaparib or veliparib by downregulating the expression of BRCA1, BRCA2 and RAD51. Consequently, the combination of pharmacological ascorbate and olaparib potently enhanced DNA DSBs and significantly decreased tumor burden, ascites volume and the number of tumor cells in ascites in mice bearing BRCA1/2 wild-type ovarian cancer xenografts. The combination of pharmacological ascorbate and PARPis may be a promising therapeutic approach worth clinical investigation in patients with BRCA wild-type or PARPi-resistant EOC.

15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 26(8): 1977-1984, 2020 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31919134

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) of pre- and posttreatment cancer tissues to assess the somatic mutation landscape of tumors before and after neoadjuvant taxane and anthracycline chemotherapy with or without bevacizumab. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Twenty-nine pretreatment biopsies from the SWOG S0800 trial were subjected to WES to identify mutational patterns associated with response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Nine matching samples with residual cancer after therapy were also analyzed to assess changes in mutational patterns in response to therapy. RESULTS: In pretreatment samples, a higher proportion of mutation signature 3, a BRCA-mediated DNA repair deficiency mutational signature, was associated with higher rate of pathologic complete response (pCR; median signature weight 24%, range 0%-38% in pCR vs. median weight 0%, range 0%-19% in residual disease, Wilcoxon rank sum, Bonferroni P = 0.007). We found no biological pathway level mutations associated with pCR or enriched in posttreatment samples. We observed statistically significant enrichment of high functional impact mutations in the "E2F targets" and "G2-M checkpoint" pathways in residual cancer samples implicating these pathways in resistance to therapy and a significant depletion of mutations in the "myogenesis pathway" suggesting the cells harboring these variants were effectively eradicated by therapy. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that genomic disturbances in BRCA-related DNA repair mechanisms, reflected by a dominant mutational signature 3, confer increased chemotherapy sensitivity. Cancers that survive neoadjuvant chemotherapy frequently have alterations in cell-cycle-regulating genes but different genes of the same pathways are affected in different patients.

16.
Cancer Inform ; 18: 1176935119886831, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31798300

RESUMO

To fully support their role in translational and personalized medicine, biorepositories and biobanks must continue to advance the annotation of their biospecimens with robust clinical and laboratory data. Translational research and personalized medicine require well-documented and up-to-date information, but the infrastructure used to support biorepositories and biobanks can easily be out of sync with the host institution. To assist researchers and provide them with accurate pathological, epidemiological, and bio-molecular data, the Biospecimen Repository Core Facility (BRCF) at the University of Kansas Medical Center (KUMC) merges data from medical records, the tumor registry, and pathology reports using the Curated Cancer Clinical Outcomes Database (C3OD). In this report, we describe the utilization of C3OD to optimally retrieve and dispense biospecimen samples using these 3 data sources and demonstrate how C3OD greatly increases the efficiency of obtaining biospecimen samples for the researchers.

17.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 19(12): 1079-1088, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31687863

RESUMO

Introduction: Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has ushered in a new era of cancer therapeutics. The standard for determining which patients might benefit from ICB-based therapies is through the assessment of tumor mutational burden using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tumor tissue samples; however, this strategy is imperfect. The discovery of exosomal PD-L1 has placed these nano-vesicles to the forefront of immunotherapy biomarker development. Exosomes and other extracellular vesicles contain proteins and nucleic acids specific to their cell of origin and their production is increased in disease state such as cancer and can be isolated from most types of liquid biopsy. Given this opportunity, a large-scale bioengineering effort has centered on developing technologies capable of isolating distinct subsets of exosomes and interrogating their content for biomarker discovery.Areas covered: This review investigates the current state of small extracellular vesicles (sEVs), focusing on exosomes, as they relate to biomarkers of IBC. We will discuss technologies being developed to both capture and evaluate exosomal cargo and as some of the challenges they face.Expert opinion: The advancement of microfluidic technologies, along with rapidly evolving methodologies in RNAseq and proteomics, are making the potential of utilizing exosomes as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of ICB into a likely reality.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Exossomos/genética , Imunoterapia , Acúmulo de Mutações , Neoplasias/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Exossomos/metabolismo , Genômica/métodos , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(36): 3484-3492, 2019 12 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657982

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To independently validate two biomarkers, a 44-gene DNA damage immune response (DDIR) signature and stromal tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (sTILs), as prognostic markers in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with adjuvant doxorubicin (A) and cyclophosphamide (C) in SWOG 9313. METHODS: Four hundred twenty-five centrally determined patient cases with TNBC from S9313 were identified. DDIR signature was performed on RNA isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissue, and samples were classified as DDIR negative or positive using predefined cutoffs. Evaluation of sTILs was performed as described previously. Markers were tested for prognostic value for disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) using Cox regression models adjusted for treatment assignment, nodal status, and tumor size. RESULTS: Among 425 patients with TNBC, 33% were node positive. DDIR was tested successfully in 90% of patients (381 of 425), 62% of which were DDIR signature positive. DDIR signature positivity was associated with improved DFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.67; 95% CI, 0.48 to 0.92; P = .015) and OS (HR, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.89; P = .010). sTILs density assessment was available in 99% of patients and was associated with improved DFS (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.96; P = .026 for sTILs density ≥ 20% v < 20%) and OS (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.85; P = .004 for sTILs density ≥ 20% v < 20%). DDIR signature score and sTILs density were moderately correlated (r = 0.60), which precluded statistical significance for DFS in a joint model. Three-year DFS and OS in a subgroup of patients with DDIR positivity and T1c/T2N0 disease were 88% and 94%, respectively. CONCLUSION: The prognostic role of sTILs and DDIR in early-stage TNBC was confirmed. DDIR signature conferred improved prognosis in two thirds of patients with TNBC treated with adjuvant AC. DDIR signature has the potential to stratify outcome and to identify patients with less projected benefit after AC chemotherapy.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores Tumorais/imunologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Ciclofosfamida/uso terapêutico , Dano ao DNA , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Doxorrubicina/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Transcriptoma , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/mortalidade
19.
Cancer Causes Control ; 30(10): 1113-1126, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined associations of inflammation with breast density, a marker of breast cancer risk, among female Chinese immigrants and explored whether associations varied by neighborhood environment. METHODS: Assessments of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), and breast density were performed among 401 Chinese immigrants across the Philadelphia region. Participant addresses were geocoded, with the majority residing in areas representing traditional urban enclaves (i.e., Chinatown and South Philadelphia) or an emerging enclave with a smaller, but rapidly growing Chinese immigrant population (i.e., the Near Northeast). The remainder was classified as residing in non-enclaves. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted regression models, CRP was inversely associated with dense breast area (p = 0.01). Levels of sTNFR2 were also inversely associated with dense breast area, but these associations varied by neighborhood (interaction p = 0.01); specifically, inverse associations were observed among women residing in the emerging enclave (p = 0.03), but not other neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese immigrant women, aggregate analyses that do not take neighborhood context into consideration can mask potential variations in association of inflammatory markers with breast density. Future studies should consider how neighborhood contextual factors may contribute to differential risk pathways.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Densidade da Mama , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Inflamação/sangue , Características de Residência , Adulto , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/sangue
20.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(6): 438-451, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123323

RESUMO

The performance of current microfluidic methods for exosome detection is constrained by boundary conditions, as well as fundamental limits to microscale mass transfer and interfacial exosome binding. Here, we show that a microfluidic chip designed with self-assembled three-dimensional herringbone nanopatterns can detect low levels of tumour-associated exosomes in plasma (10 exosomes µl-1, or approximately 200 vesicles per 20 µl of spiked sample) that would otherwise be undetectable by standard microfluidic systems for biosensing. The nanopatterns promote microscale mass transfer, increase surface area and probe density to enhance the efficiency and speed of exosome binding, and permit drainage of the boundary fluid to reduce near-surface hydrodynamic resistance, thus promoting particle-surface interactions for exosome binding. We used the device for the detection-in 2 µl plasma samples from 20 ovarian cancer patients and 10 age-matched controls-of exosome subpopulations expressing CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and folate receptor alpha proteins, and suggest exosomal folate receptor alpha as a potential biomarker for early detection and progression monitoring of ovarian cancer. The nanolithography-free nanopatterned device should facilitate the use of liquid biopsies for cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Exossomos/metabolismo , Imageamento Tridimensional , Microfluídica/métodos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...