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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392546

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We examined associations of inflammation with breast density, a marker of breast cancer risk, among female Chinese immigrants and explored whether associations varied by neighborhood environment. METHODS: Assessments of serum C-reactive protein (CRP), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNFR2), and breast density were performed among 401 Chinese immigrants across the Philadelphia region. Participant addresses were geocoded, with the majority residing in areas representing traditional urban enclaves (i.e., Chinatown and South Philadelphia) or an emerging enclave with a smaller, but rapidly growing Chinese immigrant population (i.e., the Near Northeast). The remainder was classified as residing in non-enclaves. RESULTS: In multivariable adjusted regression models, CRP was inversely associated with dense breast area (p = 0.01). Levels of sTNFR2 were also inversely associated with dense breast area, but these associations varied by neighborhood (interaction p = 0.01); specifically, inverse associations were observed among women residing in the emerging enclave (p = 0.03), but not other neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: Among Chinese immigrant women, aggregate analyses that do not take neighborhood context into consideration can mask potential variations in association of inflammatory markers with breast density. Future studies should consider how neighborhood contextual factors may contribute to differential risk pathways.

2.
Nat Biomed Eng ; 3(6): 438-451, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31123323

RESUMO

The performance of current microfluidic methods for exosome detection is constrained by boundary conditions, as well as fundamental limits to microscale mass transfer and interfacial exosome binding. Here, we show that a microfluidic chip designed with self-assembled three-dimensional herringbone nanopatterns can detect low levels of tumour-associated exosomes in plasma (10 exosomes µl-1, or approximately 200 vesicles per 20 µl of spiked sample) that would otherwise be undetectable by standard microfluidic systems for biosensing. The nanopatterns promote microscale mass transfer, increase surface area and probe density to enhance the efficiency and speed of exosome binding, and permit drainage of the boundary fluid to reduce near-surface hydrodynamic resistance, thus promoting particle-surface interactions for exosome binding. We used the device for the detection-in 2 µl plasma samples from 20 ovarian cancer patients and 10 age-matched controls-of exosome subpopulations expressing CD24, epithelial cell adhesion molecule and folate receptor alpha proteins, and suggest exosomal folate receptor alpha as a potential biomarker for early detection and progression monitoring of ovarian cancer. The nanolithography-free nanopatterned device should facilitate the use of liquid biopsies for cancer diagnosis.

3.
J Mol Med (Berl) ; 97(7): 957-972, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025088

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma (ES) are aggressive pediatric bone and soft tissue tumors driven by EWS-ETS fusion oncogenes, most commonly EWS-FLI1. Treatment of ES patients consists of up to 9 months of alternating courses of 2 chemotherapeutic regimens. Furthermore, EWS-ETS-targeted therapies have yet to demonstrate clinical benefit, thereby emphasizing a clinical responsibility to search for new therapeutic approaches. Our previous in silico drug screening identified entinostat as a drug hit that was predicted to reverse the ES disease signatures and EWS-FLI1-mediated gene signatures. Here, we establish preclinical proof of principle by investigating the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of entinostat in preclinical ES models, as well as characterizing the mechanisms of action and in vivo pharmacokinetics of entinostat. ES cells are preferentially sensitive to entinostat in an EWS-FLI1 or EWS-ERG-dependent manner. Entinostat induces apoptosis of ES cells through G0/G1 cell cycle arrest, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation, DNA damage, homologous recombination (HR) repair impairment, and caspase activation. Mechanistically, we demonstrate for the first time that HDAC3 is a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1 and that entinostat inhibits growth of ES cells through suppressing a previously unexplored EWS-FLI1/HDAC3/HSP90 signaling axis. Importantly, entinostat significantly reduces tumor burden by 97.4% (89.5 vs. 3397.3 mm3 of vehicle, p < 0.001) and prolongs the median survival of mice (15.5 vs. 8.5 days of vehicle, p < 0.001), in two independent ES xenograft mouse models, respectively. Overall, our studies demonstrate promising activity of entinostat against ES, and support the clinical development of the entinostat-based therapies for children and young adults with metastatic/relapsed ES. KEY MESSAGES: • Entinostat potently inhibits ES both in vitro and in vivo. • EWS-FLI1 and EWS-ERG confer sensitivity to entinostat treatment. • Entinostat suppresses the EWS-FLI1/HDAC3/HSP90 signaling. • HDAC3 is a transcriptional target of EWS-FLI1. • HDAC3 is essential for ES cell viability and genomic stability maintenance.

4.
J Mol Diagn ; 21(2): 352-365, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30529127

RESUMO

Lung cancer accounts for approximately 14% of all newly diagnosed cancers and is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Chimeric RNA resulting from gene fusions (RNA fusions) and other RNA splicing errors are driver events and clinically addressable targets for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The reliable assessment of these RNA markers by next-generation sequencing requires integrated reagents, protocols, and interpretive software that can harmonize procedures and ensure consistent results across laboratories. We describe the development and verification of a system for targeted RNA sequencing for the analysis of challenging, low-input solid tumor biopsies that includes reagents for nucleic acid quantification and library preparation, run controls, and companion bioinformatics software. Assay development reconciled sequence discrepancies in public databases, created predictive formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded RNA qualification metrics, and eliminated read misidentification attributable to index hopping events on the next-generation sequencing flow cell. The optimized and standardized system was analytically verified internally and in a multiphase study conducted at five independent laboratories. The results show accurate, reproducible, and sensitive detection of RNA fusions, alternative splicing events, and other expression markers of NSCLC. This comprehensive approach, combining sample quantification, quality control, library preparation, and interpretive bioinformatics software, may accelerate the routine implementation of targeted RNA sequencing of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples relevant to NSCLC.

5.
Lab Chip ; 18(24): 3790-3801, 2018 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474100

RESUMO

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) present a promising liquid biopsy for cancer diagnosis. However, it remains a daunting challenge to quantitatively measure molecular contents of EVs including tumor-associated mRNAs. Herein, we report a configurable microwell-patterned microfluidic digital analysis platform combined with a dual-probe hybridization assay for PCR-free, single-molecule detection of specific mRNAs in EVs. The microwell array in our device is configurable between the flow-through assay mode for enhanced hybridization capture and tagging of mRNAs and the digital detection mode based on femtoliter-scale enzymatic signal amplification for single-molecule counting of surface-bound targets. Furthermore, a dual-probe hybridization assay has been developed to enhance the sensitivity of the digital single-molecule detection of EV mRNAs. Combining the merits of the chip design and the dual-probe digital mRNA hybridization assay, the integrated microfluidic system has been demonstrated to afford quantitative detection of synthetic GAPDH mRNA with a LOD as low as 20 aM. Using this technology, we quantified the level of GAPDH and EWS-FLI1 mRNAs in EVs derived from two cell lines of peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET), CHLA-9 and CHLA-258. Our measurements detected 64.6 and 43.5 copies of GAPDH mRNA and 6.5 and 0.277 copies of EWS-FLI1 fusion transcripts per 105 EVs derived from CHLA-9 and CHLA-258 cells, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of quantitative measurement of EWS-FLI1 mRNA copy numbers in Ewing Sarcoma (EWS)-derived EVs. These results highlight the ultralow frequency of tumor-specific mRNA markers in EVs and the necessity of developing highly sensitive methods for analysis of EV mRNAs. The microfluidic digital mRNA analysis platform presented here would provide a useful tool to facilitate quantitative analysis of tumor-associated EV mRNAs for liquid biopsy-based cancer diagnosis and monitoring.

6.
Lab Chip ; 18(22): 3459-3470, 2018 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339164

RESUMO

Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a liquid biopsy marker that can carry signatures (i.e., mutations) associated with certain pathological conditions. Therefore, the extraction of cfDNA from a variety of clinical samples can be an effective and minimally invasive source of markers for disease detection and subsequent management. In the oncological diseases, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), a cfDNA sub-class, can carry clinically actionable mutations and coupled with next generation sequencing or other mutation detection methods provide a venue for effective in vitro diagnostics. However, cfDNA mutational analyses require high quality inputs. This necessitates extraction platforms that provide high recovery over the entire ctDNA size range (50 → 150 bp) with minimal interferences (i.e., co-extraction of genomic DNA), and high reproducibility with a simple workflow. Herein, we present a novel microfluidic solid-phase extraction device (µSPE) consisting of a plastic chip that is activated with UV/O3 to generate surface-confined carboxylic acid functionalities for the µSPE of cfDNA. The µSPE uses an immobilization buffer (IB) consisting of polyethylene glycol and salts that induce cfDNA condensation onto the activated plastic microfluidic surface. The µSPE consists of an array of micropillars to increase extraction bed load (scalable to loads >700 ng of cfDNA) and can be produced at low-cost using replication-based techniques. The entire µSPE can be fabricated in a single molding step negating the need for adding additional extraction supports to the device simplifying production and keeping device and assay cost low. The µSPE allowed for recoveries >90% of model cfDNA fragments across a range of sizes (100-700 bp) and even the ability to extract efficiently short cfDNA fragments (50 bp, >70%). In addition, the composition of the IB allowed for reducing the interference of co-extracted genomic DNA. We demonstrated the clinical utility of the µSPE by quantifying the levels of cfDNA in healthy donors and patients with non-small-cell lung and colorectal cancers. µSPE extracted cfDNA from plasma samples was also subjected to a ligase detection reaction (LDR) for determining the presence of mutations in the KRAS gene for colorectal and non-small cell lung cancer patients.

8.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099541

RESUMO

Background: Germline genetic testing with hereditary cancer gene panels can identify women at increased risk of breast cancer. However, those at increased risk of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) cannot be identified because predisposition genes for TNBC, other than BRCA1, have not been established. The aim of this study was to define the cancer panel genes associated with increased risk of TNBC. Methods: Multigene panel testing for 21 genes in 8753 TNBC patients was performed by a clinical testing laboratory, and testing for 17 genes in 2148 patients was conducted by a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) of research studies. Associations between deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes and TNBC were evaluated using results from TNBC patients and reference controls. Results: Germline pathogenic variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D were associated with high risk (odds ratio > 5.0) of TNBC and greater than 20% lifetime risk for overall breast cancer among Caucasians. Pathogenic variants in BRIP1, RAD51C, and TP53 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio > 2) of TNBC. Similar trends were observed for the African American population. Pathogenic variants in these TNBC genes were detected in 12.0% (3.7% non-BRCA1/2) of all participants. Conclusions: Multigene hereditary cancer panel testing can identify women with elevated risk of TNBC due to mutations in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D. These women can potentially benefit from improved screening, risk management, and cancer prevention strategies. Patients with mutations may also benefit from specific targeted therapeutic strategies.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(23): 5820-5829, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061361

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Prognostic value of pathologic complete response (pCR) and extent of pathologic response attained with anthracycline-free platinum plus taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is unknown. We report recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) according to degree of pathologic response in patients treated with carboplatin plus docetaxel NAC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: One-hundred and ninety patients with stage I-III TNBC were treated with neoadjuvant carboplatin (AUC6) plus docetaxel (75 mg/m2) every 21 days × 6 cycles. pCR (no evidence of invasive tumor in breast and axilla) and Residual cancer burden (RCB) were evaluated. Patients were followed for recurrence and survival. Extent of pathologic response was associated with RFS and OS using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS: Median age was 51 years, and 52% were node-positive. pCR and RCB I rates were 55% and 13%, respectively. Five percent of pCR patients, 0% of RCB I patients, and 58% of RCB II/III patients received adjuvant anthracyclines. Three-year RFS and OS were 79% and 87%, respectively. Three-year RFS was 90% in patients with pCR and 66% in those without pCR [HR = 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.14-0.62; P = 0.0001]. Three-year OS was 94% in patients with pCR and 79% in those without pCR (HR = 0.25; 95% CI, 0.10-0.63; P = 0.001). Patients with RCB I demonstrated 3-year RFS (93%) and OS (100%) similar to those with pCR. On multivariable analysis, higher tumor stage, node positivity, and RCB II/III were associated with worse RFS. CONCLUSIONS: Neoadjuvant carboplatin plus docetaxel yields encouraging efficacy in TNBC. Patients achieving pCR or RCB I with this regimen demonstrate excellent 3-year RFS and OS without adjuvant anthracycline.

10.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

11.
Transl Res ; 201: 136-153, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031766

RESUMO

Ewing sarcoma was first described in 1921 in the Proceedings of the New York Pathological Society by an eminent American pathologist from Cornell named James R. Ewing as a "diffuse endothelioma of bone." Since this initial description, more has been discovered regarding Ewing sarcoma and in the 1980's both Ewing sarcoma and peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors due to their similar features and shared identical genetic abnormality were grouped into a class of cancers entitled Ewing sarcoma family of tumors (ESFTs). Ewing sarcoma is the second most common pediatric osseous malignancy followed by osteosarcoma, with highest incidence among 10-20 years old. Ewing sarcoma is consistently associated with chromosomal translocation and functional fusion of the EWSR1 gene to any of several structurally related transcription factor genes of the E26 transformation-specific family. These tumor-specific molecular rearrangements are useful for primary diagnosis, may provide prognostic information, and present potential therapeutic targets. Therefore, ways to rapidly and efficiently detect these defining genomic alterations are of clinical relevance. Within the past decade, liquid biopsies including extracellular vesicles (EVs), have emerged as a promising alternative and/or complimentary approach to standard tumor biopsies. It was recently reported that fusion mRNAs from tumor-specific chromosome translocations can be detected in Ewing sarcoma cell-derived exosomes. Within this review, we overview the current advances in Ewing sarcoma and the opportunities and challenges in exploiting circulating exosomes, primarily small bioactive EVs (30-180 nm), as developing sources of biomarkers for diagnosis and therapeutic response monitoring in children and young adult patients with ESFT.

13.
Cancer Res ; 78(15): 4370-4385, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891506

RESUMO

Drug development for first-line treatment of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) has been stagnant for almost three decades. Traditional cell culture methods for primary drug screening do not always accurately reflect clinical disease. To overcome this barrier, we grew a panel of EOC cell lines in three-dimensional (3D) cell cultures to form multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS). We characterized these MCTS for molecular and cellular features of EOC and performed a comparative screen with cells grown using two-dimensional (2D) cell culture to identify previously unappreciated anticancer drugs. MCTS exhibited greater resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, showed signs of senescence and hypoxia, and expressed a number of stem cell-associated transcripts including ALDH1A and CD133, also known as PROM1 Using a library of clinically repurposed drugs, we identified candidates with preferential activity in MCTS over 2D cultured cells. One of the lead compounds, the dual COX/LOX inhibitor licofelone, reversed the stem-like properties of ovarian MCTS. Licofelone also synergized with paclitaxel in ovarian MCTS models and in a patient-derived tumor xenograft model. Importantly, the combination of licofelone with paclitaxel prolonged the median survival of mice (>141 days) relative to paclitaxel (115 days), licofelone (37 days), or vehicle (30 days). Increased efficacy was confirmed by Mantel-Haenszel HR compared with vehicle (HR = 0.037) and paclitaxel (HR = 0.017). These results identify for the first time an unappreciated, anti-inflammatory drug that can reverse chemotherapeutic resistance in ovarian cancer, highlighting the need to clinically evaluate licofelone in combination with first-line chemotherapy in primary and chemotherapy-refractory EOC.Significance: This study highlights the use of an in vitro spheroid 3D drug screening model to identify new therapeutic approaches to reverse chemotherapy resistance in ovarian cancer. Cancer Res; 78(15); 4370-85. ©2018 AACR.

14.
Cell Rep ; 23(1): 313-326.e5, 2018 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617669

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is not a single disease, but several histologically defined cancers with different genetic drivers, clinical courses, and therapeutic responses. The current study evaluated 843 RCC from the three major histologic subtypes, including 488 clear cell RCC, 274 papillary RCC, and 81 chromophobe RCC. Comprehensive genomic and phenotypic analysis of the RCC subtypes reveals distinctive features of each subtype that provide the foundation for the development of subtype-specific therapeutic and management strategies for patients affected with these cancers. Somatic alteration of BAP1, PBRM1, and PTEN and altered metabolic pathways correlated with subtype-specific decreased survival, while CDKN2A alteration, increased DNA hypermethylation, and increases in the immune-related Th2 gene expression signature correlated with decreased survival within all major histologic subtypes. CIMP-RCC demonstrated an increased immune signature, and a uniform and distinct metabolic expression pattern identified a subset of metabolically divergent (MD) ChRCC that associated with extremely poor survival.

15.
Cancer Cell ; 33(4): 690-705.e9, 2018 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29622464

RESUMO

We analyzed molecular data on 2,579 tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) of four gynecological types plus breast. Our aims were to identify shared and unique molecular features, clinically significant subtypes, and potential therapeutic targets. We found 61 somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) and 46 significantly mutated genes (SMGs). Eleven SCNAs and 11 SMGs had not been identified in previous TCGA studies of the individual tumor types. We found functionally significant estrogen receptor-regulated long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and gene/lncRNA interaction networks. Pathway analysis identified subtypes with high leukocyte infiltration, raising potential implications for immunotherapy. Using 16 key molecular features, we identified five prognostic subtypes and developed a decision tree that classified patients into the subtypes based on just six features that are assessable in clinical laboratories.

16.
Cell ; 173(2): 338-354.e15, 2018 Apr 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625051

RESUMO

Cancer progression involves the gradual loss of a differentiated phenotype and acquisition of progenitor and stem-cell-like features. Here, we provide novel stemness indices for assessing the degree of oncogenic dedifferentiation. We used an innovative one-class logistic regression (OCLR) machine-learning algorithm to extract transcriptomic and epigenetic feature sets derived from non-transformed pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Using OCLR, we were able to identify previously undiscovered biological mechanisms associated with the dedifferentiated oncogenic state. Analyses of the tumor microenvironment revealed unanticipated correlation of cancer stemness with immune checkpoint expression and infiltrating immune cells. We found that the dedifferentiated oncogenic phenotype was generally most prominent in metastatic tumors. Application of our stemness indices to single-cell data revealed patterns of intra-tumor molecular heterogeneity. Finally, the indices allowed for the identification of novel targets and possible targeted therapies aimed at tumor differentiation.

17.
Oncotarget ; 9(19): 14828-14848, 2018 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29599910

RESUMO

There is a lack of personalized treatment options for women with recurrent platinum-resistant ovarian cancer. Outside of bevacizumab and a group of poly ADP-ribose polymerase inhibitors, few options are available to women that relapse. We propose that efficacious drug combinations can be determined via molecular characterization of ovarian tumors along with pre-established pharmacogenomic profiles of repurposed compounds. To that end, we selectively performed multiple two-drug combination treatments in ovarian cancer cell lines that included reactive oxygen species inducers and HSP90 inhibitors. This allowed us to select cell lines that exhibit disparate phenotypes of proliferative inhibition to a specific drug combination of auranofin and AUY922. We profiled altered mechanistic responses from these agents in both reactive oxygen species and HSP90 pathways, as well as investigated PRKCI and lncRNA expression in ovarian cancer cell line models. Generation of dual multi-gene panels implicated in resistance or sensitivity to this drug combination was produced using RNA sequencing data and the validity of the resistant signature was examined using high-density RT-qPCR. Finally, data mining for the prevalence of these signatures in a large-scale clinical study alluded to the prevalence of resistant genes in ovarian tumor biology. Our results demonstrate that high-throughput viability screens paired with reliable in silico data can promote the discovery of effective, personalized therapeutic options for a currently untreatable disease.

18.
Cell Death Dis ; 9(3): 326, 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29487338

RESUMO

We identified SMYD2, a SMYD (SET and MYND domain) family protein with lysine methyltransferase activity, as a novel breast cancer oncogene. SMYD2 was expressed at significantly higher levels in breast cancer cell lines and in breast tumor tissues. Silencing of SMYD2 by RNAi in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines or inhibition of SMYD2 with its specific inhibitor, AZ505, significantly reduced tumor growth in vivo. SMYD2 executes this activity via methylation and activation of its novel non-histone substrates, including STAT3 and the p65 subunit of NF-κB, leading to increased TNBC cell proliferation and survival. There are cross-talk and synergistic effects among SMYD2, STAT3, and NF-κB in TNBC cells, in that STAT3 can contribute to the modification of NF-κB p65 subunit post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, whereas the p65 subunit of NF-κB can also contribute to the modification of STAT3 post-translationally by recruitment of SMYD2, leading to methylation and activation of STAT3 and p65 in these cells. The expression of SMYD2 can be upregulated by IL-6-STAT3 and TNFα-NF-κB signaling, which integrates epigenetic regulation to inflammation in TNBC development. In addition, we have identified a novel SMYD2 transcriptional target gene, PTPN13, which links SMYD2 to other known breast cancer associated signaling pathways, including ERK, mTOR, and Akt signaling via PTPN13 mediated phosphorylation.

19.
Mol Cell Proteomics ; 17(3): 495-515, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29242380

RESUMO

Developing tumors continuously release nano-sized vesicles that represent circulating "fingerprints" of the tumor's identity. In gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), we have previously reported that these tumors release "oncosomes" carrying the constitutively activated tyrosine kinase (TK) receptor KIT. Despite the clinical utility of TK inhibitors, such as imatinib mesylate (IM), recurrence and metastasis are clinical problems that urge the need to identify new tumor-derived molecules. To this aim, we performed the first high quality proteomic study of GIST-derived exosomes (GDEs) and identified 1,060 proteins composing the core GDE proteome (cGDEp). The cGDEp was enriched in diagnostic markers (e.g. KIT, CD34, ANO1, PROM1, PRKCQ, and ENG), as well as proteins encoded by genes previously reported expressed in GIST (e.g. DPP4, FHL1, CDH11, and KCTD12). Many of these proteins were validated using cell lines, patient-derived KIT+ exosomes, and GIST tissues. We further show that in vitro and in vivo-derived GDE, carry proteins associated with IM response, such as Sprouty homolog 4 (SPRY4), surfeit 4 (SURF4), ALIX, and the cGMP-dependent 3',5'-cyclic phosphodiesterase 2A (PDE2A). Additionally, we report that the total exosome levels and exosome-associated KIT and SPRY4 protein levels have therapeutic values. In fact, molecular characterization of in vivo-derived KIT+ exosomes indicate significant sorting of p-KITTyr719, total KIT, and SPRY4 after IM-treatment of metastatic patients as compared with the pre-IM levels. Our data suggest that analysis of circulating exosomes levels and molecular markers of IM response in GIST patients with primary and metastatic disease is suitable to develop liquid based biopsies for the diagnosis, prognosis, and monitoring of response to treatment of these tumors. In summary, these findings provide the first insight into the proteome of GIST-derived oncosomes and offers a unique opportunity to further understand their oncogenic elements which contribute to tumorigenesis and drug resistance. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD007997.

20.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 17188, 2017 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29215048

RESUMO

Pancreatic cancer is among the most lethal cancers with poorly tolerated treatments. There is increasing interest in using high-dose intravenous ascorbate (IVC) in treating this disease partially because of its low toxicity. IVC bypasses bioavailability barriers of oral ingestion, provides pharmacological concentrations in tissues, and exhibits selective cytotoxic effects in cancer cells through peroxide formation. Here, we further revealed its anti-pancreatic cancer mechanisms and conducted a phase I/IIa study to investigate pharmacokinetic interaction between IVC and gemcitabine. Pharmacological ascorbate induced cell death in pancreatic cancer cells with diverse mutational backgrounds. Pharmacological ascorbate depleted cellular NAD+ preferentially in cancer cells versus normal cells, leading to depletion of ATP and robustly increased α-tubulin acetylation in cancer cells. While ATP depletion led to cell death, over-acetylated tubulin led to inhibition of motility and mitosis. Collagen was increased, and cancer cell epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) was inhibited, accompanied with inhibition in metastasis. IVC was safe in patients and showed the possibility to prolong patient survival. There was no interference to gemcitabine pharmacokinetics by IVC administration. Taken together, these data revealed a multi-targeting mechanism of pharmacological ascorbate's anti-cancer action, with minimal toxicity, and provided guidance to design larger definitive trials testing efficacy of IVC in treating advanced pancreatic cancer.

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