Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 57
Filtrar
1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170001

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the lifetime prevalence of infectious, inflammatory, and autoimmune disorders in a multisite study of probands with childhood-onset obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and their first-degree relatives. Methods: Medical questionnaires were completed by 1401 probands and 1045 first-degree relatives in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study. Lifetime prevalence of immune-related diseases was compared with the highest available population estimate and reported as a point estimate with 95% adjusted Wald interval. Worst-episode OCD severity and symptom dimensions were assessed with the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) and Symptom Checklist (YBOCS-CL). Results: Probands reported higher-than-expected prevalence of scarlet fever (4.0 [3.1-5.2]% vs. 1.0%-2.0%, z = 1.491, p < 0.001, n = 1389), encephalitis or meningitis (1.4 [0.9-2.1]% vs. 0.1%-0.4%, z = 5.913, p < 0.001, n = 1393), rheumatoid arthritis (1.1 [0.6-2.0]% vs. 0.2%-0.4%, z = 3.416, p < 0.001, n = 949) and rheumatic fever (0.6 [0.3-1.2]% vs. 0.1%-0.2%, z = 3.338, p < 0.001, n = 1390), but not systemic lupus erythematosus, diabetes, asthma, multiple sclerosis, psoriasis, or inflammatory bowel disease. First-degree relatives reported similarly elevated rates of scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and encephalitis or meningitis independent of OCD status. There was no association between worst-episode severity and immune-related comorbidities, although probands reporting frequent ear or throat infections had increased severity of cleaning-/contamination-related symptoms (mean factor score 2.5 ± 0.9 vs. 2.3 ± 1.0, t = 3.183, p = 0.002, n = 822). Conclusion: These data suggest high rates of streptococcal-related and other immune-mediated diseases in patients with childhood-onset OCD and are consistent with epidemiological studies in adults noting familial clustering. Limitations include potential reporting bias and absence of a control group, underscoring the need for further prospective studies characterizing medical and psychiatric disease clusters and their interactions in children. Such studies may ultimately improve our understanding of OCD pathogenesis and aid in the development of adjunctive immune-modulating therapeutic strategies.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30610941

RESUMO

T. gondii (TOXO) infects over one billion people worldwide, yet the literature lacks a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) focused on genetic variants controlling the persistence of TOXO infection. To identify putative T. gondii susceptibility genes, we performed a GWAS using IgG seropositivity as the outcome variable in a discovery sample (n = 790) from an Ashkenazi dataset, and a second sample of predominately African Americans (The Grady Trauma Project, n = 285). We also performed a meta-analyses of the 2 cohorts. None of the SNPs in these analyses was statistically significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. In the Ashkenazi population, the gene region of CHIA (chitinase) showed the most nominally significant association with TOXO. Prior studies have shown that the production of chitinase by macrophages in the brain responding to TOXO infection is crucial for controlling the burden of T. gondii cysts. We found a surprising number of genes involved in neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders among our top hits even though our outcome variable was TOXO infection. In the meta-analysis combining the Ashkenazi and Grady Trauma Project samples, there was enrichment for genes implicated in schizophrenia spectrum disorders (p < .05). Upon limiting our sample to those without mental illness, two schizophrenia related genes (CNTNAP2, GABAR2) still had significant TOXO-associated variants at the p < .05 level, but did not pass the genome wide significance threshold after correction for multiple comparisons. Using Ingenuity Systems molecular network analysis, we identified molecular nodes suggesting that while different genetic variants associated with TOXO in the two population samples, the molecular pathways for TOXO susceptibility nevertheless converged on common pathways. Molecular nodes in these common pathways included NOTCH1, CD44, and RXRA. Prior studies show that CD44 participates in TOXO-induced immunopathology and that RXRA is instrumental in regulating T-helper immune responses. These data provide new insights into the pathophysiology of this common neurotropic parasite.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Esquizofrenia/genética , Toxoplasmose/genética , Adulto , Afro-Americanos/genética , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Judeus/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Toxoplasmose/sangue
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30503783

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies of case-control status have advanced the understanding of the genetic basis of psychiatric disorders. Further progress may be gained by increasing sample size but also by new analysis strategies that advance the exploitation of existing data, especially for clinically important quantitative phenotypes. The functionally-informed efficient region-based test strategy (FIERS) introduced herein uses prior knowledge on biological function and dependence of genotypes within a powerful statistical framework with improved sensitivity and specificity for detecting consistent genetic effects across studies. As proof of concept, FIERS was used for the first genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based investigation on bipolar disorder (BD) that focuses on an important aspect of disease course, the functional outcome. FIERS identified a significantly associated locus on chromosome 15 (hg38: chr15:48965004 - 49464789 bp) with consistent effect strength between two independent studies (GAIN/TGen: European Americans, BOMA: Germans; n = 1592 BD patients in total). Protective and risk haplotypes were found on the most strongly associated SNPs. They contain a CTCF binding site (rs586758); CTCF sites are known to regulate sets of genes within a chromatin domain. The rs586758 - rs2086256 - rs1904317 haplotype is located in the promoter flanking region of the COPS2 gene, close to microRNA4716, and the EID1, SHC4, DTWD1 genes as plausible biological candidates. While implication with BD is novel, COPS2, EID1, and SHC4 are known to be relevant for neuronal differentiation and function and DTWD1 for psychopharmacological side effects. The test strategy FIERS that enabled this discovery is equally applicable for tag SNPs and sequence data.

5.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 207, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29904359

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a common, highly heritable neuropsychiatric disease characterized by recurrent episodes of mania and depression. Lithium is the best-established long-term treatment for BD, even though individual response is highly variable. Evidence suggests that some of this variability has a genetic basis. This is supported by the largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) of lithium response to date conducted by the International Consortium on Lithium Genetics (ConLiGen). Recently, we performed the first genome-wide analysis of the involvement of miRNAs in BD and identified nine BD-associated miRNAs. However, it is unknown whether these miRNAs are also associated with lithium response in BD. In the present study, we therefore tested whether common variants at these nine candidate miRNAs contribute to the variance in lithium response in BD. Furthermore, we systematically analyzed whether any other miRNA in the genome is implicated in the response to lithium. For this purpose, we performed gene-based tests for all known miRNA coding genes in the ConLiGen GWAS dataset (n = 2,563 patients) using a set-based testing approach adapted from the versatile gene-based test for GWAS (VEGAS2). In the candidate approach, miR-499a showed a nominally significant association with lithium response, providing some evidence for involvement in both development and treatment of BD. In the genome-wide miRNA analysis, 71 miRNAs showed nominally significant associations with the dichotomous phenotype and 106 with the continuous trait for treatment response. A total of 15 miRNAs revealed nominal significance in both phenotypes with miR-633 showing the strongest association with the continuous trait (p = 9.80E-04) and miR-607 with the dichotomous phenotype (p = 5.79E-04). No association between miRNAs and treatment response to lithium in BD in either of the tested conditions withstood multiple testing correction. Given the limited power of our study, the investigation of miRNAs in larger GWAS samples of BD and lithium response is warranted.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(18): 4767-4772, 2018 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669919

RESUMO

To evaluate whether germline variants in genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes contribute to pancreatic cancer susceptibility, we sequenced the coding regions of CPB1 and other genes encoding pancreatic secretory enzymes and known pancreatitis susceptibility genes (PRSS1, CPA1, CTRC, and SPINK1) in a hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases and controls. Variants in CPB1, CPA1 (encoding carboxypeptidase B1 and A1), and CTRC were evaluated in a second set of cases with familial pancreatic cancer and controls. More deleterious CPB1 variants, defined as having impaired protein secretion and induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in transfected HEK 293T cells, were found in the hospital series of pancreatic cancer cases (5/986, 0.5%) than in controls (0/1,045, P = 0.027). Among familial pancreatic cancer cases, ER stress-inducing CPB1 variants were found in 4 of 593 (0.67%) vs. 0 of 967 additional controls (P = 0.020), with a combined prevalence in pancreatic cancer cases of 9/1,579 vs. 0/2,012 controls (P < 0.01). More ER stress-inducing CPA1 variants were also found in the combined set of hospital and familial cases with pancreatic cancer than in controls [7/1,546 vs. 1/2,012; P = 0.025; odds ratio, 9.36 (95% CI, 1.15-76.02)]. Overall, 16 (1%) of 1,579 pancreatic cancer cases had an ER stress-inducing CPA1 or CPB1 variant, compared with 1 of 2,068 controls (P < 0.00001). No other candidate genes had statistically significant differences in variant prevalence between cases and controls. Our study indicates ER stress-inducing variants in CPB1 and CPA1 are associated with pancreatic cancer susceptibility and implicate ER stress in pancreatic acinar cells in pancreatic cancer development.


Assuntos
Carboxipeptidase B , Carboxipeptidases A , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação , Proteínas de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Pancreáticas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carboxipeptidase B/genética , Carboxipeptidase B/metabolismo , Carboxipeptidases A/genética , Carboxipeptidases A/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/enzimologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
7.
Nat Genet ; 50(5): 668-681, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29700475

RESUMO

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common illness accompanied by considerable morbidity, mortality, costs, and heightened risk of suicide. We conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis based in 135,458 cases and 344,901 controls and identified 44 independent and significant loci. The genetic findings were associated with clinical features of major depression and implicated brain regions exhibiting anatomical differences in cases. Targets of antidepressant medications and genes involved in gene splicing were enriched for smaller association signal. We found important relationships of genetic risk for major depression with educational attainment, body mass, and schizophrenia: lower educational attainment and higher body mass were putatively causal, whereas major depression and schizophrenia reflected a partly shared biological etiology. All humans carry lesser or greater numbers of genetic risk factors for major depression. These findings help refine the basis of major depression and imply that a continuous measure of risk underlies the clinical phenotype.

8.
Brain Behav Immun ; 70: 203-213, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29574260

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The infections Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), cytomegalovirus, and Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 (HSV1) are common persistent infections that have been associated with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The major histocompatibility complex (MHC, termed HLA in humans) region has been implicated in these infections and these mental illnesses. The interplay of MHC genetics, mental illness, and infection has not been systematically examined in previous research. METHODS: In a cohort of 1636 individuals, we used genome-wide association data to impute 7 HLA types (A, B, C, DRB1, DQA1, DQB1, DPB1), and combined this data with serology data for these infections. We used regression analysis to assess the association between HLA alleles, infections (individually and collectively), and mental disorder status (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, controls). RESULTS: After Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons, HLA C∗07:01 was associated with increased HSV1 infection among mentally healthy controls (OR 3.4, p = 0.0007) but not in the schizophrenia or bipolar groups (P > 0.05). For the multiple infection outcome, HLA B∗ 38:01 and HLA C∗12:03 were protective in the healthy controls (OR ≈ 0.4) but did not have a statistically-significant effect in the schizophrenia or bipolar groups. T. gondii had several nominally-significant positive associations, including the haplotypes HLA DRB∗03:01 ∼ HLA DQA∗05:01 ∼ HLA DQB∗02:01 and HLA B∗08:01 ∼ HLA C∗07:01. CONCLUSIONS: We identified HLA types that showed strong and significant associations with neurotropic infections. Since some of these associations depended on mental illness status, the engagement of HLA-related pathways may be altered in schizophrenia due to immunogenetic differences or exposure history.

9.
J Affect Disord ; 232: 34-40, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29477096

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) evaluates passive thoughts of death or self-injury within the last two weeks, and is often used to screen depressed patients for suicide risk. We aimed to validate the PHQ-9 item 9 with a brief electronic version of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (eC-SSRS). METHODS: We analyzed data from 841 patients enrolled in the National Network of Depression Centers Clinical Care Registry. We performed a validation analysis of PHQ-9 item 9 for suicide risk and ideation, using the eC-SSRS as a gold standard (defined as positive response to suicidal ideation with intent to act or recent suicidal behavior). RESULTS: Of the 841 patients, 13.4% and 41.1% were assessed as being positive for suicide risk by the eC-SSRS and PHQ-9 item 9, respectively. For the overall cohort, sensitivity was 87.6% (95%CI 80.2-92.5%), specificity was 66.1% (95%CI 62.6-69.4%), PPV was 28.6% (95%CI 24.1-33.6%), and NPV was 97.2% (95%CI 95.3-98.3%) for the PHQ-9 suicide item. These performance measures varied within subgroups defined by demographic and clinical characteristics. In addition, the validity of PHQ-9 item 9 (cutoff score of 1) with eC-SSRS-defined suicide ideation showed overall poor results. LIMITATIONS: The gold standard used in our study was a surrogate measure of suicidality based on eC-SSRS scores. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our study suggest that item 9 of the PHQ-9 is an insufficient assessment tool for suicide risk and suicide ideation, with limited utility in certain demographic and clinical subgroups that requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos , Suicídio/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Padrões de Referência , Sistema de Registros , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Ideação Suicida , Adulto Jovem
10.
Compr Psychiatry ; 81: 53-59, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29268152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hoarding behavior may distinguish a clinically and possibly etiologically distinct subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Little is known about the relationship between executive dysfunction and hoarding in individuals with OCD. METHODS: The study sample included 431 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV OCD. Participants were assessed by clinicians for Axis I disorders, personality disorders, indecision, and hoarding. Executive functioning domains were evaluated using a self-report instrument, the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Adult Version (BRIEF-A). We compared scores on these domains in the 143 hoarding and 288 non-hoarding participants, separately in men and women. We used logistic regression to evaluate relationships between executive function scores and hoarding, and correlation and linear regression analyses to evaluate relationships between executive function scores and hoarding severity, in women. RESULTS: In men, the hoarding group had a significantly higher mean score than the non-hoarding group only on the shift dimension. In contrast, in women, the hoarding group had higher mean scores on the shift scale and all metacognition dimensions, i.e., those that assess the ability to systematically solve problems via planning and organization. The relationships in women between hoarding and scores on initiating tasks, planning/organizing, organization of materials, and the metacognition index were independent of other clinical features. Furthermore, the severity of hoarding in women correlated most strongly with metacognition dimensions. CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported deficits in planning and organization are associated with the occurrence and severity of hoarding in women, but not men, with OCD. This may have implications for elucidating the etiology of, and developing effective treatments for, hoarding in OCD.

11.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(1): 65-74, 2018 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29121268

RESUMO

Importance: Lithium is a first-line mood stabilizer for the treatment of bipolar affective disorder (BPAD). However, the efficacy of lithium varies widely, with a nonresponse rate of up to 30%. Biological response markers are lacking. Genetic factors are thought to mediate treatment response to lithium, and there is a previously reported genetic overlap between BPAD and schizophrenia (SCZ). Objectives: To test whether a polygenic score for SCZ is associated with treatment response to lithium in BPAD and to explore the potential molecular underpinnings of this association. Design, Setting, and Participants: A total of 2586 patients with BPAD who had undergone lithium treatment were genotyped and assessed for long-term response to treatment between 2008 and 2013. Weighted SCZ polygenic scores were computed at different P value thresholds using summary statistics from an international multicenter genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 36 989 individuals with SCZ and genotype data from patients with BPAD from the Consortium on Lithium Genetics. For functional exploration, a cross-trait meta-GWAS and pathway analysis was performed, combining GWAS summary statistics on SCZ and response to treatment with lithium. Data analysis was performed from September 2016 to February 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Treatment response to lithium was defined on both the categorical and continuous scales using the Retrospective Criteria of Long-Term Treatment Response in Research Subjects with Bipolar Disorder score. The effect measures include odds ratios and the proportion of variance explained. Results: Of the 2586 patients in the study (mean [SD] age, 47.2 [13.9] years), 1478 were women and 1108 were men. The polygenic score for SCZ was inversely associated with lithium treatment response in the categorical outcome, at a threshold P < 5 × 10-2. Patients with BPAD who had a low polygenic load for SCZ responded better to lithium, with odds ratios for lithium response ranging from 3.46 (95% CI, 1.42-8.41) at the first decile to 2.03 (95% CI, 0.86-4.81) at the ninth decile, compared with the patients in the 10th decile of SCZ risk. In the cross-trait meta-GWAS, 15 genetic loci that may have overlapping effects on lithium treatment response and susceptibility to SCZ were identified. Functional pathway and network analysis of these loci point to the HLA antigen complex and inflammatory cytokines. Conclusions and Relevance: This study provides evidence for a negative association between high genetic loading for SCZ and poor response to lithium in patients with BPAD. These results suggest the potential for translational research aimed at personalized prescribing of lithium.

13.
World J Biol Psychiatry ; : 1-13, 2017 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28854847

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Lithium remains the oldest and most effective treatment for mood stabilisation in bipolar disorder (BD), even though at least half of patients are only partially responsive or do not respond. This study aimed to identify biomarkers associated with lithium response in BD, based on comparing RNA sequencing information derived from lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) of lithium-responsive (LR) versus lithium non-responsive (LNR) BD patients, to assess gene expression variations that might bear on treatment outcome. METHODS: RNA sequencing was carried out on 24 LCLs from female BD patients (12 LR and 12 LNR) followed by qPCR validation in two additional independent cohorts (41 and 17 BD patients, respectively). RESULTS: Fifty-six genes showed nominal differential expression comparing LR and LNR (FC ≥ |1.3|, P ≤ 0.01). The differential expression of HDGFRP3 and ID2 was validated by qPCR in the independent cohorts. CONCLUSIONS: We observed higher expression levels of HDGFRP3 and ID2 in BD patients who favourably respond to lithium. Both of these genes are involved in neurogenesis, and HDGFRP3 has been suggested to be a neurotrophic factor. Additional studies in larger BD cohorts are needed to confirm the potential of HDGFRP3 and ID2 expression levels in blood cells as tentative favourable lithium response biomarkers.

14.
Mol Neuropsychiatry ; 3(1): 1-11, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28879196

RESUMO

Suicidal behavior is a complex and devastating phenotype with a heritable component that has not been fully explained by existing common genetic variant analyses. This study represents the first large-scale DNA sequencing project designed to assess the role of rare functional genetic variation in suicidal behavior risk. To accomplish this, whole-exome sequencing data for ∼19,000 genes were generated for 387 bipolar disorder subjects with a history of suicide attempt and 631 bipolar disorder subjects with no prior suicide attempts. Rare functional variants were assessed in all exome genes as well as pathways hypothesized to contribute to suicidal behavior risk. No result survived conservative Bonferroni correction, though many suggestive findings have arisen that merit additional attention. In addition, nominal support for past associations in genes, such as BDNF, and pathways, such as the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, was also observed. Finally, a novel pathway was identified that is driven by aldehyde dehydrogenase genes. Ultimately, this investigation explores variation left largely untouched by existing efforts in suicidal behavior, providing a wealth of novel information to add to future investigations, such as meta-analyses.

15.
Front Psychiatry ; 8: 150, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28861008

RESUMO

Atypical antipsychotic medications, such as risperidone, aripiprazole, and olanzapine, have utility in treating motor tics, particularly in Tourette syndrome. In rare cases, atypical antipsychotic medications have been associated with adult-onset motor tics. Such adverse drug reactions have been documented in response to quetiapine, aripiprazole, and amisulpride. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first case of adult-onset motor tics related to olanzapine administration.

16.
Front Mol Neurosci ; 10: 83, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28386217

RESUMO

Objective: The aim of this study was to identify any potential genetic overlap between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD). We hypothesized that since these disorders share a sub-phenotype, they may share common risk alleles. In this manuscript, we report the overlap found between these two disorders. Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted between ADHD and OCD, and polygenic risk scores (PRS) were calculated for both disorders. In addition, a protein-protein analysis was completed in order to examine the interactions between proteins; p-values for the protein-protein interaction analysis was calculated using permutation. Conclusion: None of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) reached genome wide significance and there was little evidence of genetic overlap between ADHD and OCD.

17.
Compr Psychiatry ; 75: 117-124, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28359017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Clinicians have long considered doubt to be a fundamental characteristic of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, the clinical relevance of doubt in OCD has not been addressed. METHODS: Participants included 1182 adults with OCD who had participated in family and genetic studies of OCD. We used a clinical measure of the severity of doubt, categorized as none, mild, moderate, severe, or extreme. We evaluated the relationship between doubt and OCD clinical features, Axis I disorders, personality and personality disorder dimensions, impairment, and treatment response. RESULTS: The severity of doubt was inversely related to the age at onset of OCD symptoms. Doubt was strongly related to the number of checking symptoms and, to a lesser extent, to the numbers of contamination/cleaning and hoarding symptoms. Doubt also was related to the lifetime prevalence of recurrent major depression and generalized anxiety disorder; to the numbers of avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder traits; and to neuroticism and introversion. Moreover, doubt was strongly associated with global impairment and poor response to cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT), even adjusting for OCD severity and other correlates of doubt. CONCLUSIONS: Doubt is associated with important clinical features of OCD, including impairment and cognitive-behavioral treatment response.


Assuntos
Emoções , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtorno da Personalidade Compulsiva/psicologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neuroticismo , Transtornos da Personalidade/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Neurol Sci ; 375: 71-72, 2017 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28320191

RESUMO

Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a polygenic neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by repetitive thoughts and behaviors that cause distress. The pathogenic repeat expansion [GGGGCC]n found at the C9orf72 locus is the most common cause of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and has also been documented in patients with psychosis and schizophrenia. Furthermore, obsessions and compulsions have been identified in patients diagnosed with ALS and/or FTD and carrying the pathogenic repeat expansion. Here, we performed genetic screening for the C9orf72 repeat expansion on 573 patients diagnosed with OCD. None of the patients were found to carry the expansion. The results show that patients with OCD do not commonly carry the pathogenic repeat expansion and therefore should not be routinely screened. OCD and psychotic patients who do test positive for the C9orf72, however, should be closely observed for the later development of FTD and ALS.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Proteínas/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteína C9orf72 , Criança , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Adulto Jovem
19.
Compr Psychiatry ; 73: 43-52, 2017 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27915218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hoarding behavior may indicate a clinically and possibly etiologically distinct subtype of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Empirical evidence supports a relationship between hoarding and emotional over-attachment to objects. However, little is known about the relationship between hoarding and parental attachment in OCD. METHOD: The study sample included 894 adults diagnosed with DSM-IV OCD who had participated in family and genetic studies of OCD. Participants were assessed for Axis I disorders, personality disorders, and general personality dimensions. The Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) was used to assess dimensions of perceived parental rearing (care, overprotection, and control). We compared parental PBI scores in the 334 hoarding and 560 non-hoarding participants, separately in men and women. We used logistic regression to evaluate the relationship between parenting scores and hoarding in women, adjusting for other clinical features associated with hoarding. RESULTS: In men, there were no significant differences between hoarding and non-hoarding groups in maternal or paternal parenting scores. In women, the hoarding group had a lower mean score on maternal care (23.4 vs. 25.7, p<0.01); a higher mean score on maternal protection (9.4 vs. 7.7, p<0.001); and a higher mean score on maternal control (7.0 vs. 6.2, p<0.05), compared to the non-hoarding group. The magnitude of the relationships between maternal bonding dimensions and hoarding in women did not change after adjustment for other clinical features. Women who reported low maternal care/high maternal protection had significantly greater odds of hoarding compared to women with high maternal care/low maternal protection (OR=2.54, 95% CI=1.60-4.02, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Perceived poor maternal care, maternal overprotection, and maternal overcontrol are associated with hoarding in women with OCD. Parenting dimensions are not related to hoarding in men. These findings provide further support for a hoarding subtype of OCD and for sex-specific differences in etiologic pathways for hoarding in OCD.


Assuntos
Colecionismo/psicologia , Apego ao Objeto , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Caracteres Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Psychiatr Res ; 82: 141-8, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27501140

RESUMO

Hoarding is common among youth with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), with up to 26% of OCD youth exhibiting hoarding symptoms. Recent evidence from adult hoarding and OCD cohorts suggests that hoarding symptoms are associated with executive functioning deficits similar to those observed in subjects with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, while hoarding behavior often onsets during childhood, there is little information about executive function deficits and ADHD in affected children and adolescents. The study sample included 431 youths (ages 6-17 years) diagnosed with OCD who participated in the OCD Collaborative Genetics Study and the OCD Collaborative Genetics Association Study and completed a series of clinician-administered and parent report assessments, including diagnostic interviews and measures of executive functioning (Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Functioning; BRIEF) and hoarding severity (Hoarding Rating Scale-Interview; HRS-I). 113 youths (26%) had clinically significant levels of hoarding compulsions. Youths with and without hoarding differed significantly on most executive functioning subdomains and composite indices as measured by the parent-rated BRIEF. Groups did not differ in the frequency of full DSM-IV ADHD diagnoses; however, the hoarding group had significantly greater number of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms compared to the non-hoarding group. In multivariate models, we found that overall BRIEF scores were related to hoarding severity, adjusting for age, gender and ADHD symptoms. These findings suggest an association between hoarding and executive functioning deficits in youths with OCD, and assessing executive functioning may be important for investigating the etiology and treatment of children and adolescents with hoarding and OCD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/epidemiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Colecionismo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adolescente , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/diagnóstico , Criança , Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/complicações , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/epidemiologia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/psicologia , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA