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1.
Lancet ; 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31492505

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to assess the safety of edoxaban in combination with P2Y12 inhibition in patients with atrial fibrillation who had percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). METHODS: ENTRUST-AF PCI was a randomised, multicentre, open-label, non-inferiority phase 3b trial with masked outcome evaluation, done at 186 sites in 18 countries. Patients had atrial fibrillation requiring oral anticoagulation, were aged at least 18 years, and had a successful PCI for stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) from 4 h to 5 days after PCI using concealed, stratified, and blocked web-based central randomisation to either edoxaban (60 mg once daily) plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for 12 months or a vitamin K antagonist (VKA) in combination with a P2Y12 inhibitor and aspirin (100 mg once daily, for 1-12 months). The edoxaban dose was reduced to 30 mg per day if one or more factors (creatinine clearance 15-50 mL/min, bodyweight ≤60 kg, or concomitant use of specified potent P-glycoprotein inhibitors) were present. The primary endpoint was a composite of major or clinically relevant non-major (CRNM) bleeding within 12 months. The primary analysis was done in the intention-to-treat population and safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of their assigned study drug. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02866175, is closed to new participants, and follow-up is completed. FINDINGS: From Feb 24, 2017, through May 7, 2018, 1506 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the edoxaban regimen (n=751) or VKA regimen (n=755). Median time from PCI to randomisation was 45·1 h (IQR 22·2-76·2). Major or CRNM bleeding events occurred in 128 (17%) of 751 patients (annualised event rate 20·7%) with the edoxaban regimen and 152 (20%) of 755 patients (annualised event rate 25·6%) patients with the VKA regimen; hazard ratio 0·83 (95% CI 0·65-1·05; p=0·0010 for non-inferiority, margin hazard ratio 1·20; p=0·1154 for superiority). INTERPRETATION: In patients with atrial fibrillation who had PCI, the edoxaban-based regimen was non-inferior for bleeding compared with the VKA-based regimen, without significant differences in ischaemic events. FUNDING: Daiichi Sankyo.

2.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377792

RESUMO

Self-terminating atrial arrhythmias are commonly detected on continuous rhythm monitoring, e.g. by pacemakers or defibrillators. It is unclear whether the presence of these arrhythmias has therapeutic consequences. We sought to summarize evidence on the prevalence of atrial high-rate episodes (AHREs) and their impact on risk of stroke. We performed a comprehensive, tabulated review of published literature on the prevalence of AHRE. In patients with AHRE, but without atrial fibrillation (AF), we reviewed the stroke risk and the potential risk/benefit of oral anticoagulation. Atrial high-rate episodes are found in 10-30% of AF-free patients. Presence of AHRE slightly increases stroke risk (0.8% to 1%/year) compared with patients without AHRE. Atrial high-rate episode of longer duration (e.g. those >24 h) could be associated with a higher stroke risk. Oral anticoagulation has the potential to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE but is associated with a rate of major bleeding of 2%/year. Oral anticoagulation is not effective in patients with heart failure or survivors of a stroke without AF. It remains unclear whether anticoagulation is effective and safe in patients with AHRE. Atrial high-rate episodes are common and confer a slight increase in stroke risk. There is true equipoise on the best way to reduce stroke risk in patients with AHRE. Two ongoing trials (NOAH-AFNET 6 and ARTESiA) will provide much-needed information on the effectiveness and safety of oral anticoagulation using non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants in patients with AHRE.

3.
Europace ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436835

RESUMO

AIMS: ENSURE-AF (NCT02072434) was the largest prospective randomized clinical trial of anticoagulation for cardioversion in atrial fibrillation (AF), which also provides the largest prospective dataset for transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) prior to cardioversion. This ancillary analysis investigated determinants of TOE-detected left atrium thrombi (LAT) in patients scheduled for electrical cardioversion (ECV). METHODS AND RESULTS: The ENSURE-AF multicentre PROBE evaluation trial compared edoxaban 60 mg once daily (QD) with enoxaparin/warfarin in 2199 subjects undergoing ECV of non-valvular AF. Patients were stratified by the use of TOE, anticoagulant experience, and selected edoxaban dose. Electrical cardioversion was cancelled or deferred when TOEdetected LAT. In total, 1183 subjects were stratified to the TOE arm and LAT was reported in 91 (8.2%). In univariate analysis, age ≥75 years (26.4% vs. 16.9%, P = 0.0308), lower weight (86.5 ± 15.0 vs. 90.7 ± 18.0 kg, P = 0.0309), lower creatinine clearance (80.1 ± 30.6 vs. 93.2 ± 33.9 mL/min, P = 0.0007), heart failure (59.3% vs. 43.0%, P = 0.0029), and diuretic treatment (53.9% vs. 40.1%, P = 0.0141) were more prevalent in the LAT group. Non-significant trends were seen for higher mean CHA2DS2-VASc score (3.0 ± 1.41 vs. 2.7 ± 1.48, P = 0.0571) and more prevalent anticoagulation use prior to enrolment (60.4% vs. 50.3%, P = 0.0795) in the LAT group. In logistic regression analysis, age (P = 0.0202) and heart failure (P = 0.0064) were independently associated with LAT. CONCLUSION: Elective ECV is commonly cancelled or deferred due to TOE-detected LAT in patients with non-valvular AF. Age ≥75 years and heart failure were associated with the presence of LAT.

4.
Europace ; 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324921

RESUMO

Efficacy and safety of dronedarone was shown in the ATHENA trial for paroxysmal or persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) patients. Further trials revealed safety concerns in patients with heart failure and permanent AF. This review summarizes insights from recent real-world studies and meta-analyses, including reports on efficacy, with focus on liver safety, mortality risk in patients with paroxysmal/persistent AF, and interactions of dronedarone with direct oral anticoagulants. Reports of rapidly progressing liver failure in dronedarone-prescribed patients in 2011 led to regulatory cautions about potential liver toxicity. Recent real-world evidence suggests dronedarone liver safety profile is similar to other antiarrhythmics and liver toxicity could be equally common with many Class III antiarrhythmics. Dronedarone safety concerns (increased mortality in patients with permanent AF) were raised based on randomized controlled trials (RCT) (ANDROMEDA and PALLAS), but comedication with digoxin may have increased the mortality rates in PALLAS, considering the dronedarone-digoxin pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction. Real-world data on apixaban-dronedarone interactions and edoxaban RCT observations suggest no significant safety risks for these drug combinations. Median trough plasma concentrations of dabigatran 110 mg during concomitant use with dronedarone are at acceptable levels, while PK data on the rivaroxaban-dronedarone interaction are unavailable. In RCTs and real-world studies, dronedarone significantly reduces AF burden and cardiovascular hospitalizations, and demonstrates a low risk for proarrhythmia in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. The concerns on liver safety must be balanced against the significant reduction in hospitalizations in patients with non-permanent AF and low risk for proarrhythmias following dronedarone treatment.

5.
Europace ; 2019 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131392

RESUMO

AIMS : Age-induced changes and electrical remodelling are important components of the atrial fibrillation (AF) substrate. To study regional distribution and age-dependent changes in gene expression that may promote AF in human atria. METHODS AND RESULTS : Human left atrial (LA) and right atrial (RA) tissue samples were obtained from donor hearts unsuitable for transplantation and from patients undergoing mitral valve repair. Atrial fibrillation was mimicked in vitro by tachypacing of human atrial tissue slices. Ionic currents were studied by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique; gene expression was analysed by real-time qPCR and immunoblotting. Both healthy RA and RA from older patients showed greater CACNA1c mRNA and CaV1.2 protein expression than LA. No age-dependent changes of Kir2.1 expression in both atria were seen. Remodelling occurred in a qualitatively similar manner in RA and LA. IK1 and Kir2.1 protein expression increased with AF. MiR-1, miR-26a, and miR-26b were down-regulated with AF in both atria. ICa,L was decreased. CACNA1c and CACNA2b expression decreased and miR-328 increased in RA and LA during AF. Ex vivo tachypacing of human atrial slices replicated these findings. There were age-dependent increases in miR-1 and miR-328, while miR-26a decreased with age in atrial tissues from healthy human donor hearts. CONCLUSION : Features of electrical remodelling in man occur in a qualitatively similar manner in both human atria. Age-related miR-328 dysregulation and reduced ICa,L may contribute to increased AF susceptibility with age.

8.
Europace ; 21(7): 993-994, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30882143

RESUMO

Clinicians accept that there are many unknowns when we make diagnostic and therapeutic decisions. Acceptance of uncertainty is essential for the pursuit of the profession: bedside decisions must often be made on the basis of incomplete evidence. Over the years, physicians sometimes even do not realize anymore which the fundamental gaps in our knowledge are. As clinical scientists, however, we have to halt and consider what we do not know yet, and how we can move forward addressing those unknowns. The European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) believes that scanning the field of arrhythmia / cardiac electrophysiology to identify knowledge gaps which are not yet the subject of organized research, should be undertaken on a regular basis. Such a review (White Paper) should concentrate on research which is feasible, realistic, and clinically relevant, and should not deal with futuristic aspirations. It fits with the EHRA mission that these White Papers should be shared on a global basis in order to foster collaborative and needed research which will ultimately lead to better care for our patients. The present EHRA White Paper summarizes knowledge gaps in the management of atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia/sudden death and heart failure.

10.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 21(9): 1103-1113, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30652394

RESUMO

AIMS: Cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) improves symptoms and exercise tolerance and reduces heart failure (HF) hospitalizations over 6-month follow-up in patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III or IV symptoms, QRS < 130 ms and 25% ≤ left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 45% (FIX-HF-5C study). The current prospective registry study (CCM-REG) aimed to assess the longer-term impact of CCM on hospitalizations and mortality in real-world experience in this same population. METHODS AND RESULTS: A total of 140 patients with 25% ≤ LVEF ≤ 45% receiving CCM therapy (CCM-REG25-45 ) for clinical indications were included. Cardiovascular and HF hospitalizations, Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and NYHA class were assessed over 2 years. Mortality was tracked through 3 years and compared with predictions by the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM). A separate analysis was performed on patients with 35% ≤ LVEF ≤ 45% (CCM-REG35-45 ) and 25% ≤ LVEF < 35% (CCM-REG25-34 ). Hospitalizations decreased by 75% (from 1.2/patient-year the year before, to 0.35/patient-year during the 2 years following CCM, P < 0.0001) in CCM-REG25-45 and by a similar amount in CCM-REG35-45 (P < 0.0001) and CCM-REG25-34 . MLHFQ and NYHA class improved in all three cohorts, with progressive improvements over time (P < 0.002). Three-year survival in CCM-REG25-45 (82.8%) and CCM-REG24-34 (79.4%) were similar to those predicted by SHFM (76.7%, P = 0.16; 78.0%, P = 0.81, respectively) and was better than predicted in CCM-REG35-45 (88.0% vs. 74.7%, P = 0.046). CONCLUSION: In real-world experience, CCM produces results similar to those of previous studies in subjects with 25% ≤ LVEF ≤ 45% and QRS < 130 ms; cardiovascular and HF hospitalizations are reduced and MLHFQ and NYHA class are improved. Overall mortality was comparable to that predicted by the SHFM but was lower than predicted in patients with 35% ≤ LVEF ≤ 45%.

11.
Int J Cardiol ; 287: 174-180, 2019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527991

RESUMO

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cause of thromboembolic complications. The risk of suffering a thromboembolic complication correlates with the CHA2DS2-VASc score identifying patients at increased risk. It is based on patient age, prior thromboembolic events, and clinical comorbidities, but not based on pathophysiological changes in different types of atrial cardiomyopathy (ACM) as classified in the expert consensus on ACM published in 2016. The impact of different types of ACM has also been acknowledged in the expert consensus statement on catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation. The aim of this review is to review data on clinical importance of ACMs.

12.
Am J Cardiol ; 123(4): 592-597, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30527775

RESUMO

In the EdoxabaN versus warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of Atrial Fibrillation study (NCT 02072434), edoxaban showed similar efficacy and safety versus enoxaparin-warfarin in patients underwent electrical cardioversion of nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. In this ancillary analysis, we compared the primary efficacy (composite of stroke, systemic embolic event, myocardial infarction, cardiovascular death, and overall study period) and safety (composite of major and clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding, on-treatment) end points in relation to body mass index (BMI; <30 vs ≥30 kg/m2). We also compared cardioversion outcomes in relation to BMI. Of 2,199 patients enrolled, 1,095 were randomized to edoxaban and 1,104 to enoxaparin-warfarin. Mean age was 64 ± 10 and 64 ± 11 years and mean BMI 30.6 and 30.7 kg/m2, respectively. Cardiovascular and metabolic diseases were more prevalent in obese (n = 1067) than nonobese patients. Overall ischemic event rates were low; rates in the BMI <30 kg/m2 subgroup were numerically lower than the ≥30 kg/m2 subgroup, but not significantly different (odds ratio [OR], 0.74 [95% confidence interval 0.23, 2.24]). Composite major + clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding rates were low and numerically lower, but not significantly different (OR 0.88 [0.38, 2.04]), between the edoxaban and enoxaparin-warfarin arms and across weight categories. Successful cardioversion rate was higher in the BMI <30 versus ≥30 kg/m2 subgroup (73.9% vs 69.9%; OR 1.22 [1.01 to 1.48]). In EdoxabaN versus warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of Atrial Fibrillation, BMI did not significantly impact the relative efficacy and safety of edoxaban versus enoxaparin-warfarin. Nevertheless, the nonobese group had a higher rate of cardioversion success than the obese group.

13.
Int J Cardiol ; 278: 126-132, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30528621

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The goal of this study was to analyze the impact of dronedarone on the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients followed in general practices in Germany. METHODS: This study included patients who had received a first prescription of dronedarone, amiodarone, flecainide, propafenone, or sotalol in 1258 general and 62 cardiology practices between January 2010 and March 2017 (index date). The main outcomes of this study were the percentages of patients with myocardial infarction and stroke in the dronedarone group and in the group of individuals who had received other antiarrhythmic drugs within six years of the index date. Cox proportional regression models were used to estimate the relationship between dronedarone and myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: This study included 3498 individuals who had received dronedarone and 17,724 individuals who had received other antiarrhythmic drugs. After six years of follow-up, 3.9% of patients who had received dronedarone and 5.2% of patients who had received other antiarrhythmic drugs had been diagnosed with myocardial infarction (log-rank p-value = 0.002). At the end of the follow-up period, 7.4% of individuals with dronedarone prescriptions and 8.3% of those who had been prescribed other antiarrhythmic drugs had been diagnosed with a stroke (log-rank p-value = 0.003). Dronedarone was associated with a significant decrease in the risk of developing myocardial infarction (HR = 0.78) and suffering a stroke (HR = 0.84) compared to other antiarrhythmics. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, dronedarone was associated with a lower risk of myocardial infarction and stroke in patients with AF compared to other antiarrhythmics.


Assuntos
Antiarrítmicos/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Dronedarona/uso terapêutico , Medicina Geral/tendências , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Factuais/tendências , Feminino , Seguimentos , Medicina Geral/métodos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
14.
Clin Res Cardiol ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30306295

RESUMO

Cardiac arrhythmias remain a common challenge and are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective and safe rhythm control strategies are a primary, yet unmet need in everyday clinical practice. Despite significant pharmacological and technological advances, including catheter ablation and device-based therapies, the development of more effective alternatives is of significant interest to increase quality of life and to reduce symptom burden, hospitalizations and mortality. The mechanistic understanding of pathophysiological pathways underlying cardiac arrhythmias has advanced profoundly, opening up novel avenues for mechanism-based therapeutic approaches. Current management of arrhythmias, however, is primarily guided by clinical and demographic characteristics of patient groups as opposed to individual, patient-specific mechanisms and pheno-/genotyping. With this state-of-the-art paper, the Working Group on Cellular Electrophysiology of the German Cardiac Society aims to close the gap between advanced molecular understanding and clinical decision-making in cardiac electrophysiology. The significance of cellular electrophysiological findings for clinical arrhythmia management constitutes the main focus of this document. Clinically relevant knowledge of pathophysiological pathways of arrhythmias and cellular mechanisms of antiarrhythmic interventions are summarized. Furthermore, the specific molecular background for the initiation and perpetuation of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias and mechanism-based strategies for therapeutic interventions are highlighted. Current "hot topics" in atrial fibrillation are critically appraised. Finally, the establishment and support of cellular and translational electrophysiology programs in clinical rhythmology departments is called for to improve basic-science-guided patient management.

15.
Exp Biol Med (Maywood) ; 243(11): 895-910, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105952

RESUMO

Dronedarone improves microvascular flow during atrial fibrillation and reduces the infarct size in acute models of myocardial infarction. However, dronedarone might be harmful in patients with recent decompensated heart failure and increases mortality in patients with permanent atrial fibrillation. A pathophysiological explanation for these discrepant data is lacking. This study investigated the effects of dronedarone on gene and protein expression in the infarcted area and border zone in pigs subjected to anterior ischemia/reperfusion myocardial infarction. The ischemia/reperfusion myocardial infarction was induced in 16 pigs. Eight pigs were treated with dronedarone for 28 days after myocardial infarction, the remaining pigs served as control. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling and 2D-DIGE-based proteome analysis were used to assess the effects of dronedarone on left ventricular gene expression in healthy (LV), infarcted (MI), and border zone tissue. Selected targets were validated by RT-qPCR or immunoblot analyses, with special emphasize given to the transcriptome/proteome overlap. Combined "omics" analysis was performed to identify most significant disease and function charts affected by dronedarone and to establish an integrated network. The levels of 879 (BZ) or 7 (MI) transcripts and 51 (LV) or 15 (BZ) proteins were significantly altered by dronedarone, pointing to a substantial efficacy of dronedarone in the border zone. Transcriptome and proteome data indicate that dronedarone influences post-infarction remodeling processes and identify matricellular proteins as major targets of dronedarone in this setting. This finding is fully supported by the disease and function charts as well as by the integrated network established by combined "omics". Dronedarone therapy alters myocardial gene expression after acute myocardial infarction with pronounced effects in the border zone. Dronedarone promotes infarct healing via regulation of periostin and might contribute to the limitation of its expansion as well as cardiac rupture. Thus, there are no experimental hints that dronedarone per se has direct harmful effects after MI in ventricular tissue. Impact statement Dronedarone reduced the infarct size in models of acute myocardial infarction (MI). Here, we show that dronedarone attenuates many of the substantial changes in gene expression that are provoked by acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in pigs. Dronedarone modifies the expression of gene panels related to post-infarction cardiac healing and remodeling processes and, most remarkably, this occurs predominantly in the infarction border-zone and much less so in the vital or infarcted myocardium. Combined "omics" identified matricellular proteins and ECM as major dronedarone-regulated targets and emphasizes their relevance for Disease Charts and Tox Function Charts associated with tissue remodeling and cellular movement. The results demonstrate dronedarone's capability of regulating cardiac repair and remodeling processes specifically in the infarction border zone and identify underlying mechanisms and pathways that might be employed in future therapeutic strategies to improve long-term cardiac tissue function and stability.

17.
Europace ; 20(12): 1936-1943, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29947751

RESUMO

Aims: The EdoxabaN vs. warfarin in subjectS UndeRgoing cardiovErsion of atrial fibrillation (ENSURE-AF) (NCT02072434) study was a multicentre prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-endpoint evaluation (PROBE) trial comparing edoxaban with enoxaparin/warfarin followed by warfarin alone in 2199 non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients undergoing electrical cardioversion and showed comparable rates of bleeding and thromboembolism between treatments. This prespecified ancillary analysis investigated the impact of edoxaban therapy on treatment satisfaction and utilization of healthcare services. Methods and results: The Perception of Anticoagulant Treatment Questionnaire (PACT-Q2) was completed by study patients on Day 28 post-cardioversion. Higher scores represent greater satisfaction. Healthcare resource utilizations were collected from randomization to Day 28 post-cardioversion. Data from patients who received at least one dose of study drugs were analysed. Patients treated with edoxaban were more satisfied than enoxaparin/warfarin in both PACT-Q treatment satisfaction and convenience scores (P < 0.001 for both). Differences in treatment satisfaction scores were greater in patients who underwent non-transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE)-guided cardioversion than in patients who underwent TOE-guided cardioversion. Edoxaban was associated with fewer clinic visits (4.75 visits vs. 7.60 visits; P < 0.001) and fewer hospital days (3.43 days vs. 5.41 days; P < 0.05). Rates of hospitalizations and emergency room visits were not significantly different. Overall, edoxaban therapy was estimated to reduce healthcare costs by €107.73, €437.92, €336.75, and $246.32 per patient in German, Spanish, Italian, and US settings, respectively. Conclusions: The convenience of edoxaban therapy over warfarin in patients undergoing cardioversion may provide greater treatment satisfaction and cost savings to the healthcare system.

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