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2.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(1): e12877, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31339648

RESUMO

Breastfeeding education and support are critical health worker skills. Confusion surrounding infant feeding advice linked to the HIV epidemic has reduced the confidence of health workers to support breastfeeding. High antiretroviral therapy coverage of breastfeeding women living with HIV, and an Infant Feeding policy supportive of breastfeeding, now provides an opportunity to improve breastfeeding practices. Challenges remain in restoring health worker confidence to support breastfeeding. This qualitative study presents findings from focus group discussions with mothers of young infants, exploring their experiences of health worker breastfeeding counselling and support. Analysis followed the thematic framework approach. Six researchers reviewed the transcripts, coded them independently, then jointly reviewed the codes, and agreed on a working analytical framework. Although mothers received antenatal breastfeeding messages, these appeared to focus rigidly on the importance of exclusivity. Mothers described receiving some practical support with initiation of breastfeeding after delivery, but support and advice for post-natal breastfeeding challenges were often incorrect or absent. The support also ignored the context in which women make infant feeding decisions, including returning to work and pressures from family members. Despite improved breastfeeding policies, restoring confidence in health workers to support breastfeeding remains a challenge. The post-natal period, when mothers experience breastfeeding difficulties, is particularly critical, and our findings reinforce the importance of continuity of care between communities and health facilities. This research has implications for how health workers are trained to support breastfeeding. Greater attention is needed on developing skills and confidence in identifying, assessing, and supporting women experiencing breastfeeding challenges.

3.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(1): e8-e9, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791801
4.
Matern Child Nutr ; 16(2): e12922, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31845538

RESUMO

Clinical guidelines are used to translate research findings into evidence-based clinical practice but are frequently not comprehensively adopted by health workers (HWs). HIV and infant feeding guidelines were revised by the World Health Organization to align feeding advice for HIV-exposed and unexposed infants, and these were adopted in South Africa in 2017. We describe an innovative, team-based, mentoring programme developed to update HWs on these guidelines. The intervention was underpinned by strong theoretical frameworks and aimed to improve HWs' attitudes, knowledge, confidence, and skills about breastfeeding in the context of HIV. On-site workshops and clinical mentoring used interactive participatory methods and a simple low-tech approach, guided by participants' self-reported knowledge gaps. Workshops were conducted at 24 participating clinics over three sessions, each lasting 1-2 hr. Evaluation data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Of 303 participating HWs, 249/303 (82.2%) attended all workshops. Achieving high workshop attendance was challenging and "catch-up" sessions were required to achieve good coverage. Common knowledge gaps identified included antiretroviral therapy adherence monitoring during breastfeeding and management of viral load results (173 participants), management of breast conditions (79), and advice about expressing and storing breastmilk (64). Most participants reported all their knowledge gaps were addressed and anticipated that their practice would change. We describe a feasible, sustainable approach to updating HWs on HIV and infant feeding guidelines and improving skills in breastfeeding counselling in resource-constrained settings. This approach could be adapted to other topics and, with further evaluation, implemented at scale using existing resources.

5.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e028095, 2019 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31740463

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Between 1998 and 2009 reported exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) rates in South African infants, aged 0-6 months, ranged from 6.2% to 25.7%. In 2011, the National Minister of Health shifted policy to promote 'exclusive' breast feeding for all women in South Africa irrespective of HIV status (Tshwane Declaration of Support for Breastfeeding in South Africa). This analysis examines early EBF prior to and through implementation of the declaration. SETTING: Data from the three South Africa national, cross-sectional, facility-based surveys, conducted in 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13, were analysed. Primary health facilities (n=580) were randomly selected after a stratified multistage probability proportional-to-size sampling to provide valid national and provincial estimates. PARTICIPANTS: A national sample of all infants attending their 6 weeks vaccination at selected facilities. The number of caregiver-infant pairs enrolled were 10 182, 10 106 and 9120 in 2010, 2011-12, and 2012-13, respectively. PRIMARY OUTCOME MEASURE: Exclusive breast feeding as measured using structured 24 hours recall plus prior 7 days (8 days inclusive prior to day interview) and WHO definition. RESULTS: The adjusted OR comparing EBF prevalence in 2011-12 and 2012-13 with 2010 were 2.08 and 5.51, respectively. Mothers with generally higher socioeconomic status, HIV-positive, unplanned pregnancy, primipara, postcaesarean delivery, resided in certain provinces and women who did not receive breastfeeding counselling had significantly lower odds of EBF. CONCLUSION: With what seemed to be an intransigently low EBF rate since 1998, South Africa saw an increase in early EBF for infants aged 4-8 weeks from 2010 to 2013, coinciding with a major national breastfeeding policy change. These increases were seen across all provinces and subgroups, suggesting a population-wide effect, rather than an increase in certain subgroups or locations. While these increases in EBF were significant, the 59.1% prevalence is still below desired levels of early EBF. Further improvements in EBF programmes are needed.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(11): e0224670, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research studies have demonstrated a reduction in the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) to less than 2%, or 5% in non-breastfeeding and breastfeeding populations, respectively, with antiretroviral interventions. However, the risk of MTCT in routine health-facility settings, where service delivery is usually sub-optimal needs monitoring. METHOD: We conducted a retrospective review of data from 2008-2014, in two health facilities in Adamawa State, Nigeria. Descriptive statistics were used to estimate overall MTCT rate and MTCT rate by year, and period of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) protocol implementation. We conducted simple and multiple logistic-regression analyses, to identify predictors of MTCT. RESULTS: Data from 1,651 mother-to-infant pairs, with HIV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) test results from 2008 (n = 49), 2009 (n = 246), 2010 (n = 280), 2011 (n = 335), 2012 (n = 290), 2013 (n = 225) and 2014 (n = 226) were analysed. The overall MTCT rate among HIV exposed infants (HEIs) was 9.7% (95% CI 8.3% - 11.1%) at a median age of 8 weeks (IQR = 6-20). The MTCT rate decreased from 14.3% (4.4%-24.2%) in 2008 to 4.9% (2.1%-7.7%) in 2014 (p = 0.016). The MTCT rate was the lowest (5.4% [3.7% - 7.0%]) when all pregnant women living with HIV received triple antiretroviral therapy, as treatment or prophylaxis (ARVT/P). Using the pooled data, we found that infant age, breastfeeding option, antiretroviral regimen and year were predictors of MTCT. The adjusted odds of MTCT were significantly higher, when neither mother nor HEI received ARVT/P (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 26.4 [14.0-49.8], and lower amongst infants born in 2012, compared with those born in 2008 (AOR 0.2 [0.0-1.0]). CONCLUSION: The MTCT rate declined significantly between 2008 and 2014 in these two routine health-facility settings in Nigeria. Our study suggests that ARVT/P yields the lowest MTCT. Thus, efforts to scale up lifelong ARVT/P (Option B+) in Nigeria should be accelerated.

8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 789, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526366

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite improved policies to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (MTCT), adherence to maternal antiretroviral therapy (ART) and infant Nevirapine prophylaxis (NVP) is low in South Africa. We describe ART adherence amongst a cohort of HIV-positive mothers and HIV-exposed but uninfected infants from 6 weeks until 18 months post-delivery and identify risk factors for nonadherence. METHODS: Data were collected in 2012-2014 through a nationally representative survey of PMTCT effectiveness. Mother-infant pairs were enrolled during the infant's first immunization visit at 6 weeks. Mothers and HIV-exposed infants (2811 pairs) were followed to 18 months at 3-month intervals. Mothers who self-reported being on ART at 6 weeks postpartum (N = 1572 (55.9%)) and infants on NVP at 6 weeks (N = 2370 (84.3%)) were eligible for this analysis and information about their adherence was captured at each interview they attended thereafter. We defined nonadherence within each 3-month interval as self-report of missing > 5% of daily ART/NVP doses, estimated adherence using a Cox survival curve with Andersen & Gill setup for recurring events, and identified risk factors for nonadherence with an extended Cox regression model (separately for mothers and infants) in Stata 13. Results are not nationally representative as this is a subgroup analysis of the follow-up cohort. RESULTS: Amongst mothers on ART at 6 weeks postpartum, cumulative adherence to maternal ART until 18 months was 63.4%. Among infants on NPV at 6 weeks postpartum, adherence to NVP was 74.5%.. Risk factors for nonadherence to maternal ART, controlling for other factors, included mother's age (16-24 years vs. ≥34 years, adjusted Hazard Ratio (aHR): 1.9, 95% CI: 1.4-2.5), nondisclosure of HIV status to anyone (nondisclosure vs. disclosure: aHR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.1), and timing of ART initiation (initiated ART after delivery vs. initiated ART before delivery: aHR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3-2.0). Provincial variation was seen in nonadherence to infant NVP, controlling for other factors. CONCLUSION: Maintaining ART adherence until 18 months postpartum remains a crucial challenge, with maternal ART adherence among the six week maternal ART cohort below 65% and infant NVP adherence among breastfeeding infants in this cohort below 75%.This is gravely concerning, given the global policy shift to lifelong ART amongst pregnant and lactating women, and the need for extended infant prophylaxis amongst mothers who are not virally suppressed. Our findings suggest that young mothers and mothers who do not disclose their status should be targeted with messages to improve adherence, and that late maternal ART initiation (after delivery) increases the risk of maternal nonadherence.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/imunologia , Lactente , Mães , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Cooperação do Paciente/psicologia , Profilaxia Pós-Exposição , Adolescente , Adulto , Aleitamento Materno , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soronegatividade para HIV , Humanos , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Lactação , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 784, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526367

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Eliminating mother-to-child transmission of HIV is a global public health target. Robust, feasible methodologies to measure population level impact of programmes to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) are needed in high HIV prevalence settings. We present a summary of the protocol of the South African PMTCT Evaluation (SAPMTCTE) with its revision over three repeated rounds of the survey, 2010-2014. METHODS: Three cross sectional surveys (2010, 2011-2012 and 2012-2013) were conducted in 580 primary health care immunisation service points randomly selected after stratified multistage probability proportional to size sampling. All infants aged 4-8 weeks receiving their six-week immunisation at a sampled facility on the day of the visit were eligible to participate. Trained research nurses conducted interviews and took infant dried blood spot (iDBS) samples for HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing. Interviews were conducted using mobile phones and iDBS were sent to the National Health Laboratory for testing. All findings were adjusted for study design, non-response, and weighted for number of South African live-birth in each study round. In 2012 a national closed cohort of these 4 to 8-week old infants testing EIA positive (HIV Exposed Infants) from the 2012-2013 cross-sectional survey was established to estimate longer-term PMTCT impact to 18 months. Follow-up analyses were to estimate weighted cumulative MTCT until 18 months, postnatal MTCT from 6 weeks until 18 months and a combined outcome of MTCT-or-death, using a competing risks model, with death as a competing risk. HIV-free survival was defined as a child surviving and HIV-negative up to 18 months or last visit seen. A weighted cumulative incidence analysis was conducted, adjusting for survey design effects. DISCUSSION: In the absence of robust high-quality routine medical recording systems, in the context of a generalised HIV epidemic, national surveys can be used to monitor PMTCT effectiveness; however, monitoring long-term outcomes nationally is difficult due to poor retention in care.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento/economia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV/imunologia , Renda , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/economia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde da Criança/economia , Estudos Transversais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Registros Médicos/economia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 783, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 2016 'Start Free, Stay Free, AIDS Free' global agenda, builds on the 2011-2015 'Global Plan'. It prioritises 22 countries where 90% of the world's HIV-positive pregnant women live and aims to eliminate vertical  transmission of HIV (EMTCT) and to keep mothers alive. By 2019, no Global Plan priority country had achieved EMTCT; however, 11 non-priority countries had. This paper synthesises the characteristics of the first four countries validated for EMTCT, and of the 21 Global Plan priority countries located in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We consider what drives vertical transmission of HIV (MTCT) in the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. METHODS: A literature review, using PubMed, Science direct and the google search engine was conducted to obtain global and national-level information on current HIV-related context and health system characteristics of the first four EMTCT-validated countries and the 21 SSA Global Plan priority countries. Data representing only one clinic, hospital or region were excluded. Additionally, key global experts working on EMTCT were contacted to obtain clarification on published data. We applied three theories (the World Health Organisation's building blocks to strengthen health systems, van Olmen's Health System Dynamics framework and Baral's socio-ecological model for HIV risk) to understand and explain the differences between EMTCT-validated and non-validated countries. Additionally, structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression were used to explain associations between infant HIV exposure, access to antiretroviral therapy and two outcomes: (i) percent MTCT and (iii) number of new paediatric HIV infections per 100 000 live births (paediatric HIV case rate). RESULTS: EMTCT-validated countries have lower HIV prevalence, less breastfeeding, fewer challenges around leadership, governance within the health sector or country, infrastructure and service delivery compared with Global Plan priority countries. Although by 2016 EMTCT-validated countries and Global Plan priority countries had adopted a public health approach to HIV prevention, recommending lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART) for all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women, EMCT-validated countries had also included contact tracing such as assisted partner notification, and had integrated maternal and child health (MCH) and sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services, with services for HIV infection, sexually transmitted infections, and viral hepatitis. Additionally, Global Plan priority countries have limited data on key SRH indicators such as unmet need for family planning, with variable coverage of antenatal care, HIV testing and triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) and very limited contact tracing. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and linear regression analysis demonstrated that ART access protects against percent MTCT (p<0.001); in simple linear regression it is 53% protective against percent MTCT. In contrast, SEM demonstrated that the case rate was driven by the number of HIV exposed infants (HEI) i.e. maternal HIV prevalence (p<0.001). In linear regression models, ART access alone explains only 17% of the case rate while HEI alone explains 81% of the case rate. In multiple regression, HEI and ART access accounts for 83% of the case rate, with HEI making the most contribution (coef. infant HIV exposure=82.8, 95% CI: 64.6, 101.1, p<0.001 vs coef. ART access=-3.0, 95% CI: -6.2, 0.3, p=0.074). CONCLUSION: Reducing infant HIV exposure, is critical to reducing the paediatric HIV case rate; increasing ART access is critical to reduce percent MTCT. Additionally, our study of four validated countries underscores the importance of contact tracing, strengthening programme monitoring, leadership and governance, as these are potentially-modifiable factors.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/epidemiologia , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/transmissão , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Saúde Reprodutiva , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Aleitamento Materno , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Lactente , Lactação , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Mães/educação , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
11.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 788, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since 2001 the South African guidelines to improve child health and prevent vertical HIV transmission recommended frequent infant follow-up with HIV testing at 18 months postpartum. We sought to understand non-attendance at scheduled follow-up study visits up to 18 months, and for the 18-month infant HIV test amongst a nationally representative sample of HIV exposed uninfected (HEU) infants from a high HIV-prevalence African setting. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data drawn from a nationally representative observational cohort study (conducted during October 2012 to September 2014) of HEU infants and their primary caregivers was undertaken. Participants were eligible (N = 2650) if they were 4-8 weeks old and HEU at enrolment. All enrolled infants were followed up every 3 months up to 18 months. Each follow-up visit was scheduled to coincide with each child's routine health visit, where possible. The denominator at each time point comprised HEU infants who were alive and HIV-free at the previous visit. We assessed baseline maternal and early HIV care characteristics associated with the frequency of 'Missed visits' (MV-frequency), using a negative binomial regression model adjusting for the follow-up time in the study, and associated with missed visits at 18 months (18-month MV) using a logistic regression model. RESULTS: The proportion of eligible infants with MV was lowest at 3 months (32.7%) and 18 months (31.0%) and highest at 12 months (37.6%). HIV-positive mothers not on triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) by 6-weeks postpartum had a significantly increased occurrence rate of 'MV-frequency' (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 1.2 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-1.4), p < 0.0001). Compared to those mothers with ART, these mothers also increased the risk of '18-month-MV' (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3 (CI, 1.1-1.6), p = 0.006). Unknown infant nevirapine-intake status increased the rate of 'MV-frequency' (p = 0.02). Mothers > 24 years had a significantly reduced rate of 'MV-frequency' (p ≤ 0.01) and risk of '18-month-MV' (p < 0.01) compared to younger women. Shorter travel time to health facility lowered the occurrence of 'MV-frequency' (p ≤ 0.004). CONCLUSION: Late initiation of maternal ART and infant prophylaxis under the Option- A policy and extended travel time to clinics (measured at 6 weeks postpartum), contributed to higher postnatal MV rates. Mothers older than 24 years had lower MV rates. Targeted interventions may be needed during the current PMTCT Option B+ (lifelong ART to pregnant and lactating women at HIV diagnosis) to circumvent these risk factors and reduce missed visits during HIV-care.


Assuntos
Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Saúde da Criança , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Perda de Seguimento , Cuidado Pós-Natal/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mães/educação , Cuidado Pós-Natal/economia , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 787, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526373

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa (SA) has expanded efforts to reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) to less than 2% at six weeks after birth and to less than 5% at 18 months postpartum by 2016. Despite improved antiretroviral regimens and coverage between 2001 and 2016, there is little data on infant HIV drug resistance. This paper tracks the prevalence of HIV drug resistance patterns amongst HIV infected infants from three nationally representative studies that assessed the effectiveness of national programs to prevent MTCT (PMTCT). The first study was conducted in 2010 (under the dual therapy PMTCT policy), the second from 2011 to 12 (PMTCT Option A policy) and the third from 2012 to 13 (PMTCT Option A policy). From 2010 to 2013, infant non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) exposure increased from single dose to daily throughout breastfeeding; maternal nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) and NNRTI exposure increased with initiation of NNRTI-and NRTI- containing triple antiretroviral therapy (ART) earlier in gestation and at higher CD4 cell counts. METHODS: Three nationally representative surveys were conducted in 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13. During the surveys, mothers with known, unknown, or no exposure to antiretrovirals for PMTCT and their infants were included, and MTCT was measured. For this paper, infant dried blood spots (iDBS) from HIV PCR positive infants aged 4-8 weeks, with consent for additional iDBS testing, were analysed for HIV drug resistance at the National Institute of Communicable Diseases (NICD), SA, using an in-house assay validated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Total viral nucleic acid was extracted from 2 spots and amplified by nested PCR to generate a ~ 1 kb amplicon that was sequenced using Sanger sequencing technologies. Sequence assembly and editing was performed using RECall v3. RESULTS: Overall, HIV-1 drug resistance was detected in 51% (95% Confidence interval (CI) [45-58%]) of HIV PCR positive infants, 37% (95% CI [28-47%]) in 2010, 64% (95% CI [53-74%]) in 2011 and 63% (95% CI [47-77%]) in 2012 (p < 0.0001), particularly to the NNRTI drug class. Pooled analyses across all three surveys demonstrated that infants whose mothers received ART showed the highest prevalence of resistance (74%); 26% (21/82) of HIV PCR positive infants with no or undocumented antiretroviral drug (ARV) exposure harboured NNRTI resistance. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate increasing NNRTI resistance amongst newly-diagnosed infants in a high HIV prevalence setting where maternal ART coverage increased across the years, starting earlier in gestation and at higher CD4 cell counts. This is worrying as lifelong maternal ART coverage for HIV positive pregnant and lactating women is increasing. Also of concern is that resistant virus was detected in HIV positive infants whose mothers were not exposed to ARVs, raising questions about circulating resistant virus. Numbers in this group were too small to assess trends over the three years.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Farmacorresistência Viral , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , HIV-1/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Aleitamento Materno , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Soropositividade para HIV , HIV-1/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Lactação , Mães , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Prevalência , Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/uso terapêutico , Autorrelato , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 790, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss to follow-up after a positive infant HIV diagnosis negates the potential benefits of robust policies recommending immediate triple antiretroviral therapy initiation in HIV positive infants. Whilst the diagnosis and follow-up of HIV positive infants in urban, specialized settings is easier to institutionalize, there is little information about access to care amongst HIV positive children diagnosed at primary health care clinic level. We sought to understand the characteristics of HIV positive children diagnosed with HIV infection at primary health care level, across all provinces of South Africa, their attendance at study-specific exit interviews and their reported uptake of HIV-related care. The latter could serve as a marker of knowledge, access or disclosure. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data gathered about HIV positive children, participating in an HIV-exposed infant national observational cohort study between October 2012 and September 2014, was undertaken. HIV infected children were identified by total nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction using standardized procedures in a nationally accredited central laboratory. Descriptive analyses were conducted on the HIV positive infant population, who were treated as a case series in this analysis. Data from interviews conducted at baseline (six-weeks post-delivery) and on study exit (the first visit following infant HIV positive diagnosis) were analysed. RESULTS: Of the 2878 HIV exposed infants identified at 6 weeks, 1803 (62.2%), 1709, 1673, 1660, 1680 and 1794 were see at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months respectively. In total, 101 tested HIV positive (67 at 6 weeks, and 34 postnatally). Most (76%) HIV positive infants were born to single mothers with a mean age of 26 years and an education level above grade 7 (76%). Although only 33.7% of pregnancies were planned, 83% of mothers reported receiving antiretroviral drugs to prevent MTCT. Of the 44 mothers with a documented recent CD4 cell count, the median was 346.8 cell/mm3. Four mothers (4.0%) self-reported having had TB. Only 59 (58.4%) HIV positive infants returned for an exit interview after their HIV diagnosis; there were no statistically significant differences in baseline characteristics between HIV positive infants who returned for an exit interview and those who did not. Amongst HIV positive infants who returned for an exit interview, only two HIV positive infants (3.4%) were reportedly receiving triple antiretroviral therapy (ART). If we assume that all HIV positive children who did not return for their exit interview received ART, then ART uptake amongst these HIV positive children < 18 months would be 43.6%. CONCLUSIONS: Early ART uptake amongst children aged 15 months and below was low. This raises questions about timely, early paediatric ART uptake amongst HIV positive children diagnosed in primary health care settings. Qualitative work is needed to understand low and delayed paediatric ART uptake in young children, and more work is needed to measure progress with infant ART initiation at primary care level since 2014.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , HIV/imunologia , Cuidado Pós-Natal , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/economia , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Feminino , Seguimentos , Soropositividade para HIV , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Perda de Seguimento , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 785, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526381

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In June 2015, South Africa introduced early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) at birth and ten weeks postpartum. Guidelines recommended return of birth results within a week and ten weeks postpartum results within four weeks. Task shifting was also suggested to increase service coverage. This study aimed to understand factors affecting return of EID results to caregivers. METHODS: Secondary analysis of data gathered from 571 public-sector primary health care facilities (PHCs) during a nationally representative situational assessment, was conducted. The assessment was performed one to three months prior to facility involvement in the 2010 evaluation of the South African programme to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission (SAPMTCTE). Self-reported infrastructural and human resource EID-related data were collected from managers and designated staff using a structured questionnaire. The main outcome variable was 'EID turn-around-time (TAT) to caregiver' (caregiver TAT), measured as reported number of weeks from infant blood draw to caregiver receipt of results. This was dichotomized as either short (≤3 weeks) or delayed (> 3 weeks) caregiver TAT. Logit-based risk difference analysis was used to assess factors associated with short caregiver TAT. Analysis included TAT to facility (facility TAT), defined as reported number of weeks from infant blood draw to facility receipt of results. RESULTS: Overall, 26.3% of the 571 PHCs reported short caregiver TAT. In adjusted analyses, short caregiver TAT was less achieved when facility TAT was > 7 days (versus ≤7 days) (adjusted risk difference (aRD): - 0.2 (95% confidence interval - 0.3-(- 0.1)), p = 0.006 for 8-14 days and - 0.3 (- 0.5-(- 0.1)), p = 0.006 for > 14 days), and in facilities with staff nurses (compared to those without) (aRD: - 9.4 (- 16.6-(- 2.2), p = 0.011). CONCLUSION: Although short caregiver TAT for EID was only reported in approximately 26% of facilities, these facilities demonstrate that achieving EID TAT of ≤3 weeks is possible, making timely ART initiation within 3 weeks of diagnosis feasible within the public health sector. Our adjusted analyses underpin the need for quick return of results to facilities. They also raise questions around staff mentoring: we hypothesise that facilities with staff nurses were likely to have fewer professional nurses, and thus inadequate senior support.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , HIV/imunologia , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Laboratórios Hospitalares/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Sorodiagnóstico da AIDS , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Programas de Rastreamento , Análise Multivariada , Enfermeiras Neonatologistas , Parto/sangue , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Autorrelato , África do Sul
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(Suppl 1): 786, 2019 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526387

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although the use of technology viz. mobile phones, personalised digital assistants, smartphones, notebook and tablets to monitor health and health care (mHealth) is mushrooming, only small, localised studies have described their use as a data collection tool. This paper describes the complexity, functionality and feasibility of mHealth for large scale surveillance at national and sub-national levels in South Africa, a high HIV-prevalence setting. METHODS: In 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-13 three nationally representative surveys were conducted amongst infants attending 580 facilities across all 51 districts, within all nine provinces of South Africa, to monitor the effectiveness of the programme to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). In all three surveys a technical protocol and iterative system for mobile data collection was developed. In 2012-13 the system included automated folders to store information about upcoming interviews. Paper questionnaires were used as a back-up, in case of mHealth failure. These included written instructions per question on limits, skips and compulsory questions. Data collectors were trained on both systems. RESULTS: In the 2010, 2011-12 and 2012-2013 surveys respectively, data from 10,554, 10,071, and 10,536 interviews, and approximately 186 variables per survey were successfully uploaded to 151 mobile phones collecting data from 580 health facilities in 51 districts, across all nine provinces of South Africa. A technician, costing approximately U$D20 000 p.a. was appointed to support field-based staff. Two percent of data were gathered using paper- questionnaires. The time needed for mHealth interviews was approximately 1,5 times less than the time needed for paper questionnaires 30-45 min versus approximately 120 min (including 60-70 min for the interview with an additional 45 min for data capture). In 2012-13, 1172 data errors were identified via the web-based console. There was a four-week delay in resolving data errors from paper-based surveys compared with a 3-day turnaround time following direct capture on mobile phones. CONCLUSION: Our experiences demonstrate the feasibility of using mHealth during large-scale national surveys, in the presence of a supportive data management team. mHealth systems reduced data collection time by almost 1.5 times, thus reduced data collector costs and time needed for data management.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular , Processamento Eletrônico de Dados/métodos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Telemedicina/métodos , Cuidadores , Estudos Transversais , Assistência à Saúde , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Estudos de Viabilidade , Seguimentos , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Mães , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/economia
17.
Glob Health Action ; 12(1): 1630100, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31290377

RESUMO

Background: HIV/AIDS has had a significant impact on maternal and child health in South Africa. It is thus of vital importance to implement interventions to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) as early as possible during pregnancy. Negative interactions between patients and health care providers (HCPs) can be an important barrier to antenatal care, PMTCT use and PMTCT adherence. Research about respectful maternity care has focused more on the patient perspective. We therefore compared the patient and HCP perspectives and reflected on how interactions between HCPs and patients can be improved. Objective: To obtain insights into the attitudes of HCPs in the context of HIV and PMTCT-related care, by studying patient and HCP perceptions of their interactions, in a peri-urban hospital setting in Gauteng province, South Africa. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in a public tertiary-level hospital. Fourteen semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with nurses and doctors in the antenatal clinic and postnatal ward. Thirty-one semi-structured in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions were conducted with HIV positive and negative women on the postnatal ward. Results: HCPs experienced a difficult work environment due to a high workload. This was combined with frustrations when they felt that patients did not take responsibility for their own or their child's health. They were motivated by the need to help the child. Patients experienced judging comments by HCPs especially towards younger, older and foreign women. They expressed fear to ask questions and self-blame, which in some cases delayed health care seeking. No discrimination or isolation of HIV infected patients was reported by patients and HCPs. Conclusion: We hypothesize that more humane working conditions for obstetric HCPs and a caring, personalised approach to patient management can improve patient-provider interactions and access to respectful care. These are critical to preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/psicologia , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Lactente , Entrevistas como Assunto , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Cuidado Pós-Natal/organização & administração , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal/organização & administração , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Pesquisa Qualitativa , África do Sul , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 22(6): e25284, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31215757

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: To date, very little programmatic data has been published regarding serial antiretroviral (ARV) levels in infants exposed to maternal treatment and/or infant prophylaxis during the first months of life. Such data provide the opportunity to describe the proportion of infants exposed to virologically suppressive levels of ARVs and to gauge adherence to the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) programme. METHODS: From August 2014 to January 2016, HIV-exposed infants born at Kalafong Provincial Tertiary Hospital in Pretoria, South Africa were enrolled as part of an observational cohort study. Plasma samples from HIV-exposed uninfected infants were obtained at birth, 6-weeks, 10-weeks and 14-weeks of age and quantitative efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP) drug level testing performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, irrespective of maternal ARV regimen. Descriptive analysis of EFV and NVP levels in relation to self-reported maternal and infant ARV exposure was performed. EFV levels >500 ng/mL and NVP levels >100 ng/mL were reported based on studies suggesting that trough levels above these thresholds are associated with virological suppression and PMTCT respectively. RESULTS: Among 66 infants exposed to maternal EFVin utero, 29 (44%) had virologically suppressive plasma EFV levels at birth, with a median level of 1665 ng/mL (IQR: 1094 to 3673). Among infants who were exclusively breastfed at 6-, 10- and 14 weeks, 13/48 (27%), 5/25 (25%) and 0/21 (0%) had virologically suppressive EFV levels. Among 64 infants whose mothers reported administering daily infant NVP at time of their 6-week HIV PCR test, only 45 (70%) had NVP levels above the minimum prophylactic trough level. CONCLUSIONS: During the first 10-weeks after delivery, a quarter of breastfed infants born to women on an EFV-containing treatment regimen maintained virologically suppressive EFV plasma levels. This finding highlights the importance of both careful monitoring of ARV side effects and repeat HIV PCR after the first few months of life among HIV-exposed uninfected infants. As 30% of infants had inadequate NVP plasma levels at 6-weeks of age, adherence counselling to caregivers regarding infant prophylaxis needs to be enhanced to further reduce mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

20.
Pediatrics ; 143(6)2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31101703

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early HIV testing is needed for treatment success in young infants, but universal testing is expensive. In this study, we examined the feasibility of early infant HIV risk scores for targeted polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing and early HIV diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort of newborns exposed to HIV was enrolled and PCR tested within 72 hours. We quantified associations between HIV infection and clinical and laboratory maternal-infant parameters by logistic regression models and determined sensitivity and specificity for derived risk scores. RESULTS: From August 2014 to December 2016, 1759 participants were enrolled. Mothers without antenatal care (5.7% [97 of 1688]) were more likely to deliver newborns who are PCR-positive (P = .0005). A total of 1 in 5 mothers (217 of 990; 21.9%) had HIV viral load (VL) >1000 copies per µL. A total of 432 of 1655 (26.1%) infants were preterm. Low birth weight was documented in 398 of 1598 (24.55%) and 13 of 31 (40.63%) newborns who are PCR-negative and -positive, respectively (P = .0329). A total of 204 of 1689 (12.08%) were growth restricted or small for gestational age, and 6 of 37 (16.22%) were PCR-positive. Symptomatic newborns frequently tested positive (P = .0042). The HIV PCR positivity rate was 2.2% (37 of 1703). Two-risk (combined 3-drug antiretroviral therapy [cART] duration, VL), 3-risk (cART duration, VL, symptomatic newborn), and 4-risk (cART duration, VL, symptomatic, small for gestational age newborn) models for HIV acquisition had predictive probability of 0.28, 0.498, and 0.57, respectively; this could guide targeted birth testing. However, using the 3- and 4-risk scores (probability 0.02 and 0.04), 20% and 24% will be missed compared with universal testing. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted newborn testing requires access to maternal VL. Even if risk models include parameters such as maternal cART history, birth weight, weeks' gestation, and symptoms, 1 in 5 newborns who are infected will not be targeted. At present, we support universal PCR testing at birth within the South African prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV context.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Infecções por HIV/genética , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/diagnóstico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Fatores de Risco , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Carga Viral/genética , Carga Viral/métodos
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