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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 249: 133-152, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879139

RESUMO

Mercury (Hg) is an environmental contaminant that has been reported in many wildlife species worldwide. The organic form of Hg bioaccumulates in higher trophic levels, and thus, long-lived predators are at risk for higher Hg exposure. Although ecological risk assessments for contaminants such as Hg include pertinent receptor species, snakes are rarely considered, despite their high trophic status and potential to accumulate high levels of Hg. Our current knowledge of these reptiles suggests that snakes may be useful novel biomarkers to monitor contaminated environments. The few available studies show that snakes can bioaccumulate significant amounts of Hg. However, little is known about the role of snakes in Hg transport in the environment or the individual-level effects of Hg exposure in this group of reptiles. This is a major concern, as snakes often serve as important prey for a variety of taxa within ecosystems (including humans). In this review, we compiled and analyzed the results of over 30 studies to discuss the impact of Hg on snakes, specifically sources of exposure, bioaccumulation, health consequences, and specific scientific knowledge gaps regarding these moderate to high trophic predators.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Serpentes/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Humanos
2.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 76: 105846, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470267

RESUMO

Herbal remedies and nutraceuticals continue to be used as treatments for a variety of maladies ranging from joint disease to obesity. IMUNO-2865 is a natural nutraceutical supplement that has been advertised to modulate inflammation, boost cytokine activity promoting a robust immunity, but has yet to be evaluated as an adjuvant. In the present study, 4-week-old C57BL/6 female mice (n = 45) were fed 0, 5 or 50 mg/5 g tablet IMUNO-2865 (I-2865) in a tablet formulated feed. One group of mice (n = 15, 5 mice/diet) were placed on a feed diet for 14 days, while the other group of 30 mice (10 mice/diet) were placed on the diet for 28 days. Five mice from each diet group in the 28-day feeding trial were vaccinated on day 7 with a mouse recombinant parainfluenza virus to mimic viral challenge. On days 0, 14 and 28 blood samples were collected. Mice were humanely euthanized on days 14 and 28. Spleens were collected to analyze organ weight/body weight ratios, cell recovery, T cell and B cell phenotype, cell proliferation, antibody titers and cytokine production. Administration of dietary I-2865 for 14 days had no effect on murine immunity. In the 28-day dietary vaccine trial, I-2865 supplementation did not enhance vaccine response, based on vaccine antigen-specific IgG titers, nor did it alter T cell and B cell phenotype, function or cytokine response, but it did decrease splenocyte numbers in the vaccinated mice.

3.
Viruses ; 11(7)2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295877

RESUMO

Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is an acute respiratory disease of poultry caused by infectious laryngotracheitis virus (ILTV). Control of the disease with live attenuated vaccines administered via eye drop build upon immune responses generated by the eye-associated lymphoid tissues. The aim of this study was to assess cytokine and lymphocyte changes in the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissues (CALT) and Harderian gland (HG) stimulated by the ocular inoculation of the ILTV chicken embryo origin (CEO) vaccine strain and virulent strain 63140. This study offers strong evidence to support the roles that the CALT and HG play in the development of protective ILTV immune responses. It supports the premise that ILTV-mediated immunomodulation favors the B cell response over those of T cells. Further, it provides evidence that expansions of CD8α+ cells, with the concomitant expression of the Granzyme A gene, are key to reducing viral genomes in the CALT and halting ILTV cytolytic replication in the conjunctiva. Ultimately, this study revealed that the early upregulation of interleukin (IL)-12p40 and Interferon (IFN)-γ cytokine genes, which shape the antigen-specific cell-mediated immune responses, retarded the decline of virus replication, and enhanced the development of lesions in the conjunctiva epithelium.

4.
Vet Surg ; 48(5): 780-785, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155740

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between serum and synovial fluid (SF) leptin concentrations and body condition score (BCS) in healthy and osteoarthritic dogs. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled, prospective, clinical study. ANIMALS: Nineteen healthy dogs and 29 dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) secondary to cranial cruciate ligament injury. METHODS: Synovial fluid was obtained from the femorotibial joint under sedation (healthy dogs) or during surgery (OA dogs). Serum and SF leptin and interleukin (IL)-1ß concentrations were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Dogs were classified as optimal weight (BCS 4-5/9) or overweight (BCS >5/9). Radiographs were scored for OA severity by a radiologist. Owners completed the Liverpool Osteoarthritis in Dogs (LOAD) questionnaire. RESULTS: Mean (± SD) SF leptin (4.09 ± 4 ng/mL) was lower than serum leptin (6.88 ± 5.52 ng/mL, P < .0001). Synovial fluid leptin was higher in overweight (5.28 ± 4.21) than in optimal body weight dogs (1.54 ± 1.72 ng/mL, P < .0001). Serum (P < .001) and SF leptin (P = .004) concentrations were associated with BCS. Concentration of SF leptin did not differ between healthy (2.4 ± 2.04 ng/mL) and OA (4.9 ± 4.3 ng/mL, P = .25) dogs. Synovial fluid leptin and LOAD scores were weakly associated (P = .03). No association was detected between SF leptin and radiographic score or IL-1ß (P = .73). CONCLUSION: Serum and SF leptin correlated with BCS in this population. Synovial fluid leptin was weakly associated with LOAD scores but not with radiographic severity of OA or IL-1ß. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Serum and SF leptin concentrations do not predict radiographic severity of canine OA but contribute to joint pain and dysfunction.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Doenças do Cão/metabolismo , Leptina/sangue , Osteoartrite/veterinária , Líquido Sinovial/química , Animais , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/sangue , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/metabolismo , Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/sangue , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Humanos , Leptina/análise , Leptina/metabolismo , Masculino , Osteoartrite/sangue , Osteoartrite/metabolismo , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia
5.
Vet Dermatol ; 2018 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30417482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oclacitinib is a Janus kinase inhibitor used to control pruritus and skin lesions in canine allergic skin disease; its effect on canine T cells is not well-characterized. HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of oclacitinib on cultured T cells using peripheral blood mononuclear cells from dogs. ANIMALS: Six bluetick coonhounds. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Lymphocyte-enriched cells were incubated with or without the T-cell mitogen concanavalin A (Con A), oclacitinib (0.5, 1 or 10 µM), ciclosporin (200 ng/mL), Con A + oclacitinib 1 µM and Con A + ciclosporin. We assessed both T-cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines. RESULTS: Ciclosporin and oclacitinib both inhibited the spontaneous proliferation of T cells; this effect was significant only after incubation with oclacitinib at 10 µM. At this concentration, oclacitinib significantly reduced the spontaneous secretion of clonal activator cytokines [interleukin (IL)-2, IL-15], pro-inflammatory cytokines (interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-18) and the regulatory cytokine IL-10; tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and IL-6 cytokine production was mildly inhibited. After Con A stimulation, only T cells co-treated with ciclosporin achieved a significant proliferation inhibition and reduction of IL-2, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF-α. Surprisingly, oclacitinib at 1 µM (337 ng/mL, corresponding to the oral dosage of 0.4-0.6 mg/kg) did not significantly affect Con A-stimulated T-cell proliferation nor cytokine production (IL-2, IL-10, IL-15, IL-18, IFN-γ and TNF-α). CONCLUSIONS: Although a limited number of dogs were investigated, these preliminary results suggest that oclacitinib appears to have immunosuppressive properties, but only at dosages above those used to treat allergic pruritus in dogs.

6.
Poult Sci ; 97(7): 2525-2533, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29669131

RESUMO

A study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in controlling the infection of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE) in White Leghorns. A total of 30 laying hens (white leghorns W-36) were challenged both orally and cloacally with approximately 108 colony-forming units of nalidxic acid resistant SE (SENAR) and divided into 3 treatments: 1) SENAR challenged + 0.0% FOS, 2) SENAR challenged + 0.5% FOS (Nutraflora), and 3) SENAR challenged + 1.0% FOS. SENAR recovery via fecal shedding was measured at 3- and 6-d post-infection (dpi), whereas in the ceca and internal organs, SENAR recovery was measured at 7-d post-infection. In the first experiment, there was a 1.0 log10 and a 1.3 log10 reduction in cecal SENAR by supplementation of FOS at 0.5 and 1.0%, respectively. In the second experiment, there was a 0.6 log10 and a 0.8 log10 reduction in cecal SENAR by supplementation of FOS at 0.5 and 1.0%, respectively. Fecal shedding was significantly lower in 1.0% FOS supplemented groups compared to SENAR challenge 0.0% FOS. There was no significant difference among the 3 treatments on SENAR recovery in liver with gall bladder and ovaries. However, the frequency of positive SENAR in the ovaries (10 to 40%) in SENAR challenge 0.0% FOS was significantly lower than liver with gall bladder (60 to 80%) in both experiments. There was a significant upregulation of toll-like receptor-4 in 1.0% FOS and interferon gamma in both 0.5 and 1.0% FOS. Histologic measurements of ileal villi height and crypt depth were similar across all treatments. Immunohistochemistry analyses of ileal samples showed that immunoglobulin A positive cells increased as FOS concentration increased reaching significance at 1.0% as well as altered cytokine gene expression in the ileum. Further, FOS supplementation also reduced cecal SENAR and feces SENAR levels. Collectively, the results suggest that dietary supplementation with FOS may impair SE pathogenesis while modulating humoral immunity within the gut-associated lymphoid tissue.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella enteritidis/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Derrame de Bactérias , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Carboidratos da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Carboidratos da Dieta/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/efeitos dos fármacos , Vesícula Biliar/microbiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/microbiologia , Tecido Linfoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Oligossacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/microbiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonella enteritidis/fisiologia
7.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 39(1): 43-57, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29144192

RESUMO

Characterising the immune cells of the head-associated lymphoid tissues (HALT) and trachea during maturation in young birds is critical to understanding the immunological responses to avian respiratory diseases and vaccines. Selected mucosal leukocytes of the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), Harderian gland (HG), nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and trachea from 4-, 6-, 8-, and 10-week-old chickens were enumerated and phenotyped. HG, NALT, and trachea cellularity increased as the birds aged with cell viability varying by tissue. The results showed that the T cell subset numbers, but not B cell numbers, increased in the mucosal tissues of chickens during aging.


Assuntos
Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Leucócitos/citologia , Tecido Linfoide/citologia , Traqueia/citologia , Animais , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Feminino , Leucócitos/imunologia , Tecido Linfoide/imunologia , Masculino , Traqueia/imunologia
8.
J Virol Methods ; 251: 1-6, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969954

RESUMO

Inactivation of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) has been routinely achieved with heat, ß-propiolactone, binary ethylenimine, ultraviolet light and formalin. However, these strategies have not been tested for cell surface ligand or receptor phenotype in viral-infected chicken immune cells. To study the capacity of fixation buffers to preserve surface markers while inactivating NDV, a primary splenocyte culture was infected with NDV and incubated with a commercial intracellular fixation buffer (ICB), formulated with 4% formaldehyde. Splenocytes were fixed with a 1:2 dilution of ICB in phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for 45min at 23°C or 4°C and inactivation of NDV was tested in addition to recognition of antigens by antibodies in fixed and non-fixed splenocytes via flow cytometric analysis. The binding and percentage of splenic CD4+ and CD8+ cells were not affected. In addition, NDV titers as high as 109.5 and 107.6 EID50 in allantoic fluid (AF) and macrophages, respectively, were successfully inactivated after 45min at 23°C and 4°C, confirming the ICB's effectiveness in inactivating high concentrations of NDV. In conclusion, high concentrations of NDV in AF, chicken splenocytes, and macrophages can be inactivated using ICB. Additionally, this method did not compromise cell phenotyping of enriched chicken splenocytes.


Assuntos
Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fixadores/farmacologia , Leucócitos/virologia , Viabilidade Microbiana/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus , Alantoide/virologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/fisiologia , Baço/virologia
9.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 245: 157-180, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29038944

RESUMO

Lead is a persistent inorganic environmental pollutant that affects humans and animals worldwide. Avian species are especially susceptible to lead exposure through consumption of lead ammunition, lead fishing tackle, and other contaminated food sources such as aquatic species ingesting lead contaminated sediments in mining areas. Even with government regulations on the use of lead ammunition in many countries, including the United States, terrestrial, aquatic, predatory, and scavenger avian species are still at risk of exposure to potentially lethal concentrations of lead. The toxicities seen in these avian species include increased oxidative stress and decreased anti-oxidant enzymes in hepatic and renal tissue. The avian immune system is also a target of lead and displays a number of altered functions suggestive of immune suppression; however, studies in wildlife and laboratory species remain too limited for definitive statements with regard to population risk. In contrast, lead clearly inhibits reproductive capabilities in adult birds, and alters growth and development of hatchlings. Environmental remediation for lead removal, which would lower toxic exposure in wildlife, presently is a monumental and prohibitively expensive effort. Wildlife exposure will therefore continue in contaminated areas, necessitating development of new remediation practices. These plans should aim toward limiting more widespread or heavier contamination of wildlife habitats. This chapter reviews presently available information of lead toxicity in wild bird species, and suggests continued monitoring and reduction strategies to reduce lead exposure for at-risk avian populations.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/metabolismo , Aves/metabolismo , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Armas de Fogo , Chumbo/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Tecidual
10.
Avian Dis ; 61(2): 267-270, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28665728

RESUMO

A 3-yr-old adult female roller pigeon ( Columba livia ) used as part of a breeding pair for an ongoing research study presented with acute left limb lameness. Palpation of the left leg and region revealed a large lump near the coxofemoral joint. The bird was able to ambulate in the cage, but would not brood her hatchling. The bird was humanely euthanized and necropsy was performed. Grossly, multiple large white to pale tan nodules were noted in the pancreas, lung, rib cage, intestines, and unilaterally in the left kidney. Microscopic examination of the various organs revealed neoplastic proliferation of round cells consistent with lymphoblasts. Immunohistochemistry was performed with the use of antibodies to CD3, CD79a, CD20, and CD21 to phenotype the cells. The results indicated that the neoplastic infiltrating cells were predominantly of T-cell origin.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Columbidae , Coxeadura Animal/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/veterinária , Doença Aguda , Animais , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Feminino , Rim/patologia , Coxeadura Animal/patologia , Linfoma não Hodgkin/diagnóstico , Linfoma não Hodgkin/patologia , Pâncreas/patologia
11.
J Occup Environ Med ; 59(7): 679-690, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28692002

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A repeated measures study was used to assess the effect of work tasks on select proinflammatory biomarkers in firefighters working at prescribed burns. METHODS: Ten firefighters and two volunteers were monitored for particulate matter and carbon monoxide on workdays, January to July 2015. Before and after workshift dried blood spots were analyzed for inflammatory mediators using the Meso Scale Discovery assay, while blood smears were used to assess leukocyte parameters. RESULTS: Firefighters lighting with drip-torches had higher cross-work-shift increases in interleukin-8, C-reactive protein, and serum amyloid A compared with holding, a task involving management of fire boundaries. A positive association between interleukin-8 and segmented-neutrophil was observed. CONCLUSION: Results from this study suggest that intermittent occupational diesel exposures contribute to cross-work-shift changes in host systemic innate inflammation as indicated by elevated interleukin-8 levels and peripheral blood segmented-neutrophils.


Assuntos
Amiloide/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Bombeiros , Interleucina-8/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Incêndios Florestais , Adulto , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Monóxido de Carbono/efeitos adversos , Teste em Amostras de Sangue Seco , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Neutrófilos/patologia , Material Particulado/efeitos adversos
12.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 73(4): 513-521, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28488006

RESUMO

Many aquatic and terrestrial avian species inadvertently ingest lead (Pb) in the form of spent or fragmented ammunition, mistaking it for food or grit. Previous studies in our laboratory have shown that ingestion of even a single 45-mg pellet can significantly increase blood-Pb levels and significantly inhibit the enzyme delta aminolevulinic-acid dehydratase (δ-ALAD) for a period of greater than 4 weeks. In the current study, proven breeder pairs of domestic Roller pigeons were housed in individual cages. The hens were orally gavaged with dH2O vehicle, a single #9 Pb pellet (2.0 mm/45 mg) or a single #7.5 Pb pellet (2.3 mm/95 mg), placed back with the cock bird and allowed to mate for two consecutive clutches. The eggs were monitored for fertilization, shell damage, egg weight, and length during the 16- to 18-day incubation period. Hatchlings remained with the hen and cock through the weaning period (28-35 days post hatch) and were monitored for weight, development, and mortality. Weanling blood was collected for blood-Pb levels, δ-ALAD activity, red blood cell counts, total protein, and packed cell volume. Following euthanasia, weanling liver, spleen, kidney, sciatic nerve, thymus, and brain were collected for histopathology. Egg weight and length were significantly decreased in the #7.5 Pb pellet treatment group for the first clutch, and hatchling weight 7 days post hatch also was significantly less in the #7.5 Pb pellet treatment group during the first clutch. Histopathologic analysis showed increased lesions in liver, kidney, spleen, and thymus of the Pb-treated weanlings, during both the first and second clutch compared with the non-Pb-treated weanlings. These data suggest that maternal consumption of a single 95-mg Pb pellet can adversely impact egg size and hatchling organ development.


Assuntos
Columbidae/fisiologia , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Chumbo/toxicidade , Óvulo/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino
13.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 39: 389-396, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27551985

RESUMO

Homeopathic remedies have been selectively employed in human medicine since Hahneman introduced the concept in 1828. While the use of homeopathy is regionally popular in both human and veterinary medicine, there is still a significant lack of scientific evidence supporting its efficacy. This is likely due to an absence of studies evaluating the mechanism of action of these compounds. Engystol® an FDA-approved antiviral agent, is a popular homeopathic commercial product. In select in vivo and in vitro observational studies, the drug showed a measureable innate immune therapeutic efficacy. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the innate and adaptive immunomodulatory effects of oral Engystol(®) (1 or 10 tablets/L water consumed), prior to and post antigenic challenge in a mouse model with a well-characterized and clinically measureable immune system. We first evaluated the murine immune response when oral Engystol(®) was given alone for 28days. Mice were then challenged with an antigen-specific H5N1 HA vaccine while on Engystol(®) for an additional 33days. Serum and supernatants from cultured splenic lymphocytes were collected and screened with a 32-cytokine panel. Serum vaccine epitope-specific IgG titers plus T cell and B cell phenotypes from splenic tissue were also evaluated. Preliminary results showed that Engystol(®) alone did not alter immunity; however, upon vaccine challenge, Engystol(®) decreased CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratios, altered select cytokines/chemokines, and anti-H5N1 HA IgG titers were increased in the 10 tablet/L group. Collectively, these data suggest that Engystol(®) can modulate immunity upon antigenic challenge.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/prevenção & controle , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Células Th1/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Relação CD4-CD8 , Feminino , Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Fatores Imunológicos , Imunofenotipagem , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/imunologia
14.
PLoS One ; 11(7): e0159153, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27409587

RESUMO

More effective vaccines are needed to control avian diseases. The use of chicken interferon gamma (chIFNγ) during vaccination is a potentially important but controversial approach that may improve the immune response to antigens. In the present study, three different systems to co-deliver chIFNγ with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antigens were evaluated for their ability to enhance the avian immune response and their protective capacity upon challenge with virulent NDV. These systems consisted of: 1) a DNA vaccine expressing the Newcastle disease virus fusion (F) protein co-administered with a vector expressing the chIFNγ gene for in ovo and booster vaccination, 2) a recombinant Newcastle disease virus expressing the chIFNγ gene (rZJ1*L/IFNγ) used as a live vaccine delivered in ovo and into juvenile chickens, and 3) the same rZJ1*L/IFNγ virus used as an inactivated vaccine for juvenile chickens. Co-administration of chIFNγ with a DNA vaccine expressing the F protein resulted in higher levels of morbidity and mortality, and higher amounts of virulent virus shed after challenge when compared to the group that did not receive chIFNγ. The live vaccine system co-delivering chIFNγ did not enhanced post-vaccination antibody response, nor improved survival after hatch, when administered in ovo, and did not affect survival after challenge when administered to juvenile chickens. The low dose of the inactivated vaccine co-delivering active chIFNγ induced lower antibody titers than the groups that did not receive the cytokine. The high dose of this vaccine did not increase the antibody titers or antigen-specific memory response, and did not reduce the amount of challenge virus shed or mortality after challenge. In summary, regardless of the delivery system, chIFNγ, when administered simultaneously with the vaccine antigen, did not enhance Newcastle disease virus vaccine immunogenicity.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/uso terapêutico , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Virais de Fusão/imunologia
15.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 36(5): 496-509, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25560415

RESUMO

Crocodilians are important keystone species and indicators of environmental health. Much remains unknown, however regarding utility of field-collected crocodilian blood samples for ecologic assessments. Field sampling sites are also often distant to analysis centers, necessitating development of new techniques and panels of assays that will yield environmentally relevant data. Stability and viability of hematological and immunological indices have been of particular interest for linking ecosystem health to biomarkers in resident species. In this study, we investigated the effect of time at analysis post-blood sampling at 4 and 24 hr on a panel of potential biomarkers in alligator blood. Our results suggest alligator blood samples can be reliably evaluated for both hematologic and immunologic profile 24 hr after sampling.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos/sangue , Jacarés e Crocodilos/imunologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Manejo de Espécimes , Animais
16.
Endocrinology ; 155(8): 2909-23, 2014 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24840346

RESUMO

Estrogen has potent immunomodulatory effects on proinflammatory responses, which can be mediated by serine proteases. We now demonstrate that estrogen increased the extracellular expression and IL-12-induced activity of a critical member of serine protease family Granzyme A, which has been shown to possess a novel inflammatory persona. The inhibition of serine protease activity with inhibitor 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride significantly diminished enhanced production of proinflammatory interferon-γ, IL-1ß, IL-1α, and Granzyme A activity even in the presence of a Th1-inducing cytokine, IL-12 from splenocytes from in vivo estrogen-treated mice. Inhibition of serine protease activity selectively promoted secretion of Th2-specific IL-4, nuclear phosphorylated STAT6A, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)6A translocation, and STAT6A DNA binding in IL-12-stimulated splenocytes from estrogen-treated mice. Inhibition with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride reversed the down-regulation of Th2 transcription factors, GATA3 and c-Maf in splenocytes from estrogen-exposed mice. Although serine protease inactivation enhanced the expression of Th2-polarizing factors, it did not reverse estrogen-modulated decrease of phosphorylated STAT5, a key factor in Th2 development. Collectively, data suggest that serine protease inactivity augments the skew toward a Th2-like profile while down-regulating IL-12-induced proinflammatory Th1 biomolecules upon in vivo estrogen exposure, which implies serine proteases as potential regulators of inflammation. Thus, these studies may provide a potential mechanism underlying the immunomodulatory effect of estrogen and insight into new therapeutic strategies for proinflammatory and female-predominant autoimmune diseases.


Assuntos
Estrogênios/fisiologia , Granzimas/fisiologia , Mediadores da Inflamação/fisiologia , Interleucina-12/fisiologia , Inibidores de Serino Proteinase/farmacologia , Células Th2/metabolismo , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Feminino , Fator de Transcrição GATA3/metabolismo , Granzimas/metabolismo , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-maf/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT5/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição STAT6/metabolismo , Sulfonas/farmacologia , Células Th2/enzimologia , Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
17.
J Vet Med ; 2014: 239495, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26464923

RESUMO

Sarcocystis neurona is the most common cause of Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM), affecting 0.5-1% horses in the United States during their lifetimes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the equine immune responses in an experimentally induced Sarcocystis neurona infection model. Neurologic parameters were recorded prior to and throughout the 70-day study by blinded investigators. Recombinant SnSAG1 ELISA for serum and CSF were used to confirm and track disease progression. All experimentally infected horses displayed neurologic signs after infection. Neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes from infected horses displayed significantly delayed apoptosis at some time points. Cell proliferation was significantly increased in S. neurona-infected horses when stimulated nonspecifically with PMA/I but significantly decreased when stimulated with S. neurona compared to controls. Collectively, our results suggest that horses experimentally infected with S. neurona manifest impaired antigen specific response to S. neurona, which could be a function of altered antigen presentation, lack of antigen recognition, or both.

18.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 65(4): 704-14, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24051988

RESUMO

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter cellular and organ system homeostasis by interfering with the body's normal physiologic processes. Numerous studies have identified environmental estrogens as modulators of EDC-related processes in crocodilians, notably in sex determination. Other broader studies have shown that environmental estrogens dysregulate normal immune function in mammals, birds, turtles, lizards, fish, and invertebrates; however, the effects of such estrogenic exposures on alligator immune function have not been elucidated. Alligators occupy a top trophic status, which may give them untapped utility as indicators of environmental quality. Environmental estrogens are also prevalent in the waters they occupy. Understanding the effects of these EDCs on alligator immunity is critical for managing and assessing changes in their health and is thus the focus of this review.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Estrogênios/toxicidade , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Jacarés e Crocodilos , Animais , Cadeia Alimentar , Estados Unidos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23909435

RESUMO

Parabens, alkyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid, are widely used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, personal care products and as food additives to inhibit microbial growth and extend product shelf life. Consumers of these compounds are frequently exposed via the skin, lips, eyes, oral mucosa, nails, and hair. Parabens are estrogenic molecules but exert weaker activity than natural estrogens, which would imply a low risk. Consistent with this idea, a number of recent commission reports from different countries suggested that parabens pose a negligible endocrine-disrupting risk at the recommended doses. However, individuals are not routinely exposed to a single paraben, and most of the available paraben toxicity data, reviewed in these reports, are from single-exposure studies. Further, assessing the additive and cumulative risk of multiple paraben exposure from daily use of multiple cosmetic and/or personal care products is presently not possible based on current studies. In this review, current and recent studies of paraben exposure and public health policies as well as critical gaps in the knowledge are discussed and new research directions regarding multiple exposures and novel target cohorts are recommended.


Assuntos
Parabenos/toxicidade , Receptores Estrogênicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Cosméticos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Gravidez , Conservantes Farmacêuticos/toxicidade
20.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; 34(3): 266-82, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23656247

RESUMO

Optimizing cell culture conditions is important when studying cell proliferation and viability, particularly in response to cytotoxic compounds. Altered cell storage conditions can adversely impact proliferation and viability in mortal cell lines. However, little is known regarding the effects on immortal feline cell lines. In the present study, two feline injection-site sarcoma (ISS) cell lines were evaluated under standard culture conditions and three alternative storage/culture conditions for spontaneous proliferation rate and sensitivity to masitinib, a highly selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor with activity against primary and metastatic ISS cell lines. Cell viability was assessed by 7-aminoactinomycin D and cytology. Spontaneous proliferation did not significantly differ across the FBS concentrations (10% vs. 1%) for one cell line, however, with the other cell line spontaneous proliferation was significantly decreased in the 1% FBS 1-step technique, and the cold step technique at both 1% and 10% FBS. When normalized to untreated control cells, the IC50 values for masitinib were comparable across all culture techniques. Furthermore, apoptosis appeared to be the primary mechanism of this proliferation inhibition. Our preliminary findings suggest that select feline sarcoma cell lines cultured in 10% FBS yield comparable cytotoxicity data even when subjected to varying storage/culture conditions.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Preservação Biológica/métodos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Sarcoma/metabolismo , Tiazóis/farmacologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Gatos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sarcoma/patologia
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