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1.
Pancreatology ; 21(3): 613-621, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objectives: Pancreatic cysts are frequently detected in high-risk individuals (HRI) undergoing surveillance for pancreatic cancer. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium developed consensus recommendations for surgical resection of pancreatic cysts in HRI that are similar to the Fukuoka guidelines used for the management of sporadic cysts. We compared the performance characteristics of CAPS criteria for pancreatic cyst management in HRI with the Fukuoka guidelines originally designed for the management of cysts in non-HRI. METHODS: Using prospectively collected data from CAPS studies, we determined for each patient with resected screen-detected cyst(s) whether Fukuoka guidelines or CAPS consensus statements would have recommended surgery. We compared sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves of these guidelines at predicting the presence of high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancer in pancreatic cysts. RESULTS: 356/732 HRI had ≥ one pancreatic cyst detected; 24 had surgery for concerning cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the Fukuoka criteria were 40%, 85%, 40%, and 85%, while those of the CAPS criteria were 60%, 85%, 50%, 89%, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed no significant difference between the Fukuoka and CAPS criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In HRI, the CAPS and Fukuoka criteria are moderately specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for detecting advanced neoplasia in cystic lesions. New approaches are needed to guide the surgical management of cystic lesions in HRI.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555482

RESUMO

One way to understand ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (pancreatic cancer) is to view it as unimaginably large numbers of evolving living organisms interacting with their environment. This "evolutionary view" creates both expected and surprising perspectives in all stages of neoplastic progression. Advances in the field will require greater attention to this critical evolutionary prospective.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a major cause of morbidity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Our purpose was to understand the impact of PDAC-induced cachexia on brain metabolism in PDAC xenograft studies, to gain new insights into the causes of cachexia-induced morbidity. Changes in mouse and human plasma metabolites were characterized to identify underlying causes of brain metabolic changes. METHODS: We quantified metabolites, detected with high-resolution 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in the brain and plasma of normal mice (n = 10) and mice bearing cachexia (n = 10) or non-cachexia (n = 9) inducing PDAC xenografts as well as in human plasma obtained from normal individuals (n = 24) and from individuals with benign pancreatic disease (n = 20) and PDAC (n = 20). Statistical significance was defined as a P value ≤0.05. RESULTS: The brain metabolic signature of cachexia-inducing PDAC was characterized by a significant depletion of choline of -27% and -21% as well as increases of glutamine of 13% and 9% and formate of 21% and 14%, relative to normal controls and non-cachectic tumour-bearing mice, respectively. Good to moderate correlations with percent weight change were found for choline (r = 0.70), glutamine (r = -0.58), and formate (r = -0.43). Significant choline depletion of -38% and -30%, relative to normal controls and non-cachectic tumour-bearing mice, respectively, detected in the plasma of cachectic mice likely contributed to decreased brain choline in cachectic mice. Similarly, relative to normal controls and patients with benign disease, choline levels in human plasma samples of PDAC patients were significantly lower by -12% and -20% respectively. A comparison of plasma metabolites from PDAC patients with and without weight loss identified significant changes in glutamine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Disturbances in metabolites of the choline/cholinergic and glutamine/glutamate/glutamatergic neurotransmitter pathways may contribute to morbidity. Metabolic normalization may provide strategies to reduce morbidity. The human plasma metabolite changes observed may lead to the development of companion diagnostic markers to detect PDAC and PDAC-induced cachexia.

5.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 856, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline copy number variants (CNVs) increase risk for many diseases, yet detection of CNVs and quantifying their contribution to disease risk in large-scale studies is challenging due to biological and technical sources of heterogeneity that vary across the genome within and between samples. METHODS: We developed an approach called CNPBayes to identify latent batch effects in genome-wide association studies involving copy number, to provide probabilistic estimates of integer copy number across the estimated batches, and to fully integrate the copy number uncertainty in the association model for disease. RESULTS: Applying a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify CNVs in a large multi-site Pancreatic Cancer Case Control study (PanC4) of 7598 participants, we found CNV inference was highly sensitive to technical noise that varied appreciably among participants. Applying CNPBayes to this dataset, we found that the major sources of technical variation were linked to sample processing by the centralized laboratory and not the individual study sites. Modeling the latent batch effects at each CNV region hierarchically, we developed probabilistic estimates of copy number that were directly incorporated in a Bayesian regression model for pancreatic cancer risk. Candidate associations aided by this approach include deletions of 8q24 near regulatory elements of the tumor oncogene MYC and of Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 (TUSC3). CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory effects may not account for the major sources of technical variation in genome-wide association studies. This study provides a robust Bayesian inferential framework for identifying latent batch effects, estimating copy number, and evaluating the role of copy number in heritable diseases.

6.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

7.
J Am Coll Surg ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency and significance of the germline variants in DNA damage repair genes still need to be elucidated in patients with sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our purpose was to determine whether germline variants in DNA damage repair genes were associated with survival of patients with sporadic PDAC. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively identified 854 patients with sporadic PDAC with germline DNA sequenced in targeted 22 DNA damage repair genes by next-generation sequencing. Outcomes were compared in terms of clinicopathologic features, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Nineteen patients had deleterious mutations; 103 had variant(s) of unknown significance (VUS). Germline DNA damage repair deleterious variant carriers had superior DFS (median, 19.1 months vs 11.9 months, p = 0.012) and OS (median, 29.7 months vs 20.2 months, p = 0.034), as compared with wild-type patients. Germline DNA damage repair VUS variant carriers also had superior DFS when compared with wild-type patients. In subgroup analysis, this improved survival was limited to patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, deleterious variant carriers vs wild-type patients DFS (median 36.3 months vs 13.1 months, p = 0.006) and OS (median 43.7 months vs 24.3 months, p = 0.045), VUS variant carriers vs wild-type patients DFS (16.5 months vs 13.1 months, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Having a deleterious variant in a DNA damage repair gene is associated with improved survival after resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

8.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

9.
Mod Pathol ; 33(12): 2544-2563, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704031

RESUMO

The publication of the "Pan-Cancer Atlas" by the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium, a partnership formed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), provides a wonderful opportunity to reflect on where we stand in our understanding of the genetics of pancreatic cancer, as well as on the opportunities to translate this understanding to patient care. From germline variants that predispose to the development of pancreatic cancer, to somatic mutations that are therapeutically targetable, genetics is now providing hope, where there once was no hope, for those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

10.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2804-2817, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376602

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by extensive local invasion and systemic spread. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional organoid model of human pancreatic cancer to characterize the molecular alterations critical for invasion. Time-lapse microscopy was used to observe invasion in organoids from 25 surgically resected human PDAC samples in collagen I. Subsequent lentiviral modification and small-molecule inhibitors were used to investigate the molecular programs underlying invasion in PDAC organoids. When cultured in collagen I, PDAC organoids exhibited two distinct, morphologically defined invasive phenotypes, mesenchymal and collective. Each individual PDAC gave rise to organoids with a predominant phenotype, and PDAC that generated organoids with predominantly mesenchymal invasion showed a worse prognosis. Collective invasion predominated in organoids from cancers with somatic mutations in the driver gene SMAD4 (or its signaling partner TGFBR2). Reexpression of SMAD4 abrogated the collective invasion phenotype in SMAD4-mutant PDAC organoids, indicating that SMAD4 loss is required for collective invasion in PDAC organoids. Surprisingly, invasion in passaged SMAD4-mutant PDAC organoids required exogenous TGFß, suggesting that invasion in SMAD4-mutant organoids is mediated through noncanonical TGFß signaling. The Rho-like GTPases RAC1 and CDC42 acted as potential mediators of TGFß-stimulated invasion in SMAD4-mutant PDAC organoids, as inhibition of these GTPases suppressed collective invasion in our model. These data suggest that PDAC utilizes different invasion programs depending on SMAD4 status, with collective invasion uniquely present in PDAC with SMAD4 loss. SIGNIFICANCE: Organoid models of PDAC highlight the importance of SMAD4 loss in invasion, demonstrating that invasion programs in SMAD4-mutant and SMAD4 wild-type tumors are different in both morphology and molecular mechanism.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Organoides/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad4/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
11.
Lab Invest ; 100(7): 1003-1013, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005909

RESUMO

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a distinct precancerous lesion in the pancreas with unique clinical and molecular features. Although in vitro studies in two-dimensional culture have led to numerous important insights in pancreatic cancer, such models are currently lacking for precancerous lesions. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of a cell line from a human pancreatic ITPN. Neoplastic cells were initially cultured in a three-dimensional organoid system, followed by transfer to two-dimensional culture. RNA sequencing revealed a gene expression profile consistent with pancreatic ductal origin, and whole genome sequencing identified many somatic mutations (including in genes involved in DNA repair and Wnt signaling) and structural rearrangements. In vitro characterization of the tumorigenic potential demonstrated a phenotype between that of normal pancreatic ductal cells and cancer cell lines. This cell line represents a valuable resource for interrogation of unique ITPN biology, as well as precancerous pancreatic lesions more generally.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fenótipo
12.
J Gastrointest Surg ; 24(5): 1101-1110, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197699

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Screening high-risk individuals (HRI) can detect potentially curable pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its precursors. We describe the outcomes of high-risk individuals (HRI) after pancreatic resection of screen-detected neoplasms. METHODS: Asymptomatic HRI enrolled in the prospective Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) studies from 1998 to 2014 based on family history or germline mutations undergoing surveillance for at least 6 months were included. Pathologic diagnoses, hospital length of stay, incidence of diabetes mellitus, operative morbidity, need for repeat operation, and disease-specific mortality were determined. RESULTS: Among 354 HRI, 48 (13.6%) had 57 operations (distal pancreatectomy (31), Whipple (20), and total pancreatectomy (6)) for suspected pancreatic neoplasms presenting as a solid mass (22), cystic lesion(s) (25), or duct stricture (1). The median length of stay was 7 days (IQR 5-11). Nine of the 42 HRI underwent completion pancreatectomy for a new lesion after a median of 3.8 years (IQR 2.5-7.6). Postoperative complications developed in 17 HRI (35%); there were no perioperative deaths. New-onset diabetes mellitus after partial resection developed in 20% of HRI. Fourteen PDACs were diagnosed, 11 were screen-detected, 10 were resectable, and 9 had an R0 resection. Metachronous PDAC developed in remnant pancreata of 2 HRI. PDAC-related mortality was 4/10 (40%), with 90% 1-year survival and 60% 5-year survival, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Screening HRI can detect PDAC with a high resectability rate. Surgical treatment is associated with a relatively short length of stay and low readmission rate, acceptable morbidity, zero 90-day mortality, and significant long-term survival. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT2000089.

13.
Sci Transl Med ; 11(501)2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31316009

RESUMO

Pancreatic cysts are common and often pose a management dilemma, because some cysts are precancerous, whereas others have little risk of developing into invasive cancers. We used supervised machine learning techniques to develop a comprehensive test, CompCyst, to guide the management of patients with pancreatic cysts. The test is based on selected clinical features, imaging characteristics, and cyst fluid genetic and biochemical markers. Using data from 436 patients with pancreatic cysts, we trained CompCyst to classify patients as those who required surgery, those who should be routinely monitored, and those who did not require further surveillance. We then tested CompCyst in an independent cohort of 426 patients, with histopathology used as the gold standard. We found that clinical management informed by the CompCyst test was more accurate than the management dictated by conventional clinical and imaging criteria alone. Application of the CompCyst test would have spared surgery in more than half of the patients who underwent unnecessary resection of their cysts. CompCyst therefore has the potential to reduce the patient morbidity and economic costs associated with current standard-of-care pancreatic cyst management practices.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Cisto Pancreático/diagnóstico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cisto Pancreático/genética , Cisto Pancreático/patologia , Cisto Pancreático/cirurgia
14.
Science ; 364(6446): 1156-1162, 2019 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31221853

RESUMO

Glycosylation alterations are indicative of tissue inflammation and neoplasia, but whether these alterations contribute to disease pathogenesis is largely unknown. To study the role of glycan changes in pancreatic disease, we inducibly expressed human fucosyltransferase 3 and ß1,3-galactosyltransferase 5 in mice, reconstituting the glycan sialyl-Lewisa, also known as carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (CA19-9). Notably, CA19-9 expression in mice resulted in rapid and severe pancreatitis with hyperactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling. Mechanistically, CA19-9 modification of the matricellular protein fibulin-3 increased its interaction with EGFR, and blockade of fibulin-3, EGFR ligands, or CA19-9 prevented EGFR hyperactivation in organoids. CA19-9-mediated pancreatitis was reversible and could be suppressed with CA19-9 antibodies. CA19-9 also cooperated with the KrasG12D oncogene to produce aggressive pancreatic cancer. These findings implicate CA19-9 in the etiology of pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer and nominate CA19-9 as a therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Antígeno CA-19-9/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Doença Aguda , Animais , Antígeno CA-19-9/imunologia , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Doença Crônica , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Fucosiltransferases/genética , Fucosiltransferases/metabolismo , Galactosiltransferases/genética , Galactosiltransferases/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Humanos , Camundongos , Terapia de Alvo Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite/patologia
15.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(16): 4973-4984, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142500

RESUMO

PURPOSE: In research settings, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) shows promise as a tumor-specific biomarker for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). This study aims to perform analytical and clinical validation of a KRAS ctDNA assay in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) and College of American Pathology-certified clinical laboratory. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Digital-droplet PCR was used to detect the major PDAC-associated somatic KRAS mutations (G12D, G12V, G12R, and Q61H) in liquid biopsies. For clinical validation, 290 preoperative and longitudinal postoperative plasma samples were collected from 59 patients with PDAC. The utility of ctDNA status to predict PDAC recurrence during follow-up was assessed. RESULTS: ctDNA was detected preoperatively in 29 (49%) patients and was an independent predictor of decreased recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Patients who had neoadjuvant chemotherapy were less likely to have preoperative ctDNA than were chemo-naïve patients (21% vs. 69%; P < 0.001). ctDNA levels dropped significantly after tumor resection. Persistence of ctDNA in the immediate postoperative period was associated with a high rate of recurrence and poor median RFS (5 months). ctDNA detected during follow-up predicted clinical recurrence [sensitivity 90% (95% confidence interval (CI), 74%-98%), specificity 88% (95% CI, 62%-98%)] with a median lead time of 84 days (interquartile range, 25-146). Detection of ctDNA during postpancreatectomy follow-up was associated with a median OS of 17 months, while median OS was not yet reached at 30 months for patients without ctDNA (P = 0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Measurement of KRAS ctDNA in a CLIA laboratory setting can be used to predict recurrence and survival in patients with PDAC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Testes Genéticos/normas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Recidiva
16.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1238-1245, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015203

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is the fourth-leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. The currently identified common susceptibility loci account for a small fraction of estimated heritability. We sought to estimate overall heritability of pancreatic cancer and partition the heritability by variant frequencies and functional annotations. METHODS: Analysis using the genome-based restricted maximum likelihood method (GREML) was conducted on Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium (PanC4) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from 3,568 pancreatic cancer cases and 3,363 controls of European Ancestry. RESULTS: Applying linkage disequilibrium- and minor allele frequency-stratified GREML (GREML-LDMS) method to imputed GWAS data, we estimated the overall heritability of pancreatic cancer to be 21.2% (SE = 4.8%). Across the functional groups (intronic, intergenic, coding, and regulatory variants), intronic variants account for most of the estimated heritability (12.4%). Previously identified GWAS loci explained 4.1% of the total phenotypic variation of pancreatic cancer. Mutations in hereditary pancreatic cancer susceptibility genes are present in 4% to 10% of patients with pancreatic cancer, yet our GREML-LDMS results suggested these regions explain only 0.4% of total phenotypic variance for pancreatic cancer. CONCLUSIONS: Although higher than previous studies, our estimated 21.2% overall heritability may still be downwardly biased due to the inherent limitation that the contribution of rare variants in genes with a substantive overall impact on disease are not captured when applying these commonly used methods to imputed GWAS data. IMPACT: Our work demonstrated the importance of rare and common variants in pancreatic cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia
17.
Pancreas ; 48(3): 329-334, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747824

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play an important role in the progression of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) by promoting tumor cell migration and drug resistance. We determined the impact of CAFs on PDAC cancer stem cells (CSCs). METHODS: Fibroblast cell lines from patients' tumors were cocultured with PDAC cells and examined for clonogenic growth and self-renewal using colony-forming assays and migration in vitro. Changes in the frequency of CSCs was determined by flow cytometry. The effect of integrin-focal adhesion kinase (FAK) signaling on CAF-mediated clonogenic growth was evaluated using short hairpin RNAs against ß1 integrin and FAK as well as a small-molecule FAK inhibitor. RESULTS: Cancer-associated fibroblasts enhanced PDAC clonogenic growth, self-renewal, and migration that was associated with an increase in the frequency of CSCs. These fibroblast cells were activated by PDAC cells and increased collagen synthesis resulting in FAK activation in PDAC cells. Knockdown of ß1-integrin and FAK or the inhibition of FAK kinase activity in PDAC cells abrogated the impact of CAFs on clonogenic growth. CONCLUSION: Therefore, CAFs enhance PDAC clonogenic growth, self-renewal, and the frequency of CSCs through type I collagen production that enhances integrin-FAK signaling in PDAC cells.


Assuntos
Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/patologia , Comunicação Celular , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Fibroblastos Associados a Câncer/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Cocultura , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Humanos , Integrina beta1/genética , Integrina beta1/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Interferência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais/genética
18.
Gastroenterology ; 156(7): 2041-2055, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660730

RESUMO

In the previous decade, comprehensive genomic analyses have yielded important insights about the genetic alterations that underlie pancreatic tumorigenesis. Whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas have confirmed the critical driver genes altered in the majority of pancreatic cancers, as well as identified numerous less frequently altered driver genes, and have delineated cancer subgroups with unique biological and clinical features. It is now appreciated that pancreatic susceptibility gene alterations are often identified in patients with pancreatic cancer without family histories suggestive of a familial cancer syndrome, prompting recent efforts to expand gene testing to all patients with pancreatic cancer. Studies of pancreatic cancer precursor lesions have begun to elucidate the evolutionary history of pancreatic tumorigenesis and to help us understand the utility of biomarkers for early detection and targets to develop new therapeutic strategies. In this review, we discuss the results of comprehensive genomic characterization of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions, and we highlight translational applications in early detection and therapy.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Testes Genéticos , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/terapia , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Hereditariedade , Humanos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/terapia , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Medicina de Precisão , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
19.
J Pathol ; 247(3): 347-356, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30430578

RESUMO

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are precursors to pancreatic cancer; however, little is known about genetic heterogeneity in these lesions. The objective of this study was to characterize genetic heterogeneity in IPMNs at the single-cell level. We isolated single cells from fresh tissue from ten IPMNs, followed by whole genome amplification and targeted next-generation sequencing of pancreatic driver genes. We then determined single-cell genotypes using a novel multi-sample mutation calling algorithm. Our analyses revealed that different mutations in the same driver gene frequently occur in the same IPMN. Two IPMNs had multiple mutations in the initiating driver gene KRAS that occurred in unique tumor clones, suggesting the possibility of polyclonal origin or an unidentified initiating event preceding this critical mutation. Multiple mutations in later-occurring driver genes were also common and were frequently localized to unique tumor clones, raising the possibility of convergent evolution of these genetic events in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Single-cell sequencing of IPMNs demonstrated genetic heterogeneity with respect to early and late occurring driver gene mutations, suggesting a more complex pattern of tumor evolution than previously appreciated in these lesions. Copyright © 2018 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Assuntos
Heterogeneidade Genética , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Genes Neoplásicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética
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