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1.
Pancreatology ; 2021 Feb 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593706

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Objectives: Pancreatic cysts are frequently detected in high-risk individuals (HRI) undergoing surveillance for pancreatic cancer. The International Cancer of the Pancreas Screening (CAPS) Consortium developed consensus recommendations for surgical resection of pancreatic cysts in HRI that are similar to the Fukuoka guidelines used for the management of sporadic cysts. We compared the performance characteristics of CAPS criteria for pancreatic cyst management in HRI with the Fukuoka guidelines originally designed for the management of cysts in non-HRI. METHODS: Using prospectively collected data from CAPS studies, we determined for each patient with resected screen-detected cyst(s) whether Fukuoka guidelines or CAPS consensus statements would have recommended surgery. We compared sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves of these guidelines at predicting the presence of high-grade dysplasia or invasive cancer in pancreatic cysts. RESULTS: 356/732 HRI had ≥ one pancreatic cyst detected; 24 had surgery for concerning cystic lesions. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV for the Fukuoka criteria were 40%, 85%, 40%, and 85%, while those of the CAPS criteria were 60%, 85%, 50%, 89%, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed no significant difference between the Fukuoka and CAPS criteria. CONCLUSIONS: In HRI, the CAPS and Fukuoka criteria are moderately specific, but not sufficiently sensitive for detecting advanced neoplasia in cystic lesions. New approaches are needed to guide the surgical management of cystic lesions in HRI.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33555482

RESUMO

One way to understand ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (pancreatic cancer) is to view it as unimaginably large numbers of evolving living organisms interacting with their environment. This "evolutionary view" creates both expected and surprising perspectives in all stages of neoplastic progression. Advances in the field will require greater attention to this critical evolutionary prospective.

3.
Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33574088

RESUMO

Germline variation and smoking are independently associated with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). We conducted genome-wide smoking interaction analysis of PDAC using genotype data from four previous genome-wide association studies in individuals of European ancestry (7,937 cases and 11,774 controls). Examination of expression quantitative trait loci data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project followed by colocalization analysis was conducted to determine if there was support for common SNP(s) underlying the observed associations. Statistical tests were two sided and P-values < 5 x 10-8 were considered statistically significant. Genome-wide significant evidence of qualitative interaction was identified on chr2q21.3 in intron 5 of the transmembrane protein 163 (TMEM163) and upstream of the cyclin T2 (CCNT2). The most significant SNP using the Empirical Bayes method, in this region which included 45 significantly associated SNPs, was rs1818613 (per allele OR in never smokers 0.87, 95% CI 0.82-0.93; former smokers 1.00, 95 CI 0.91-1.07; current smokers 1.25, 95%CI 1.12-1.40, interaction P-value=3.08x10-9). Examination of the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project data demonstrated an expression quantitative trait locus in this region for TMEM163 and CCNT2 in several tissue types. Colocalization analysis supported a shared SNP, rs842357, in high LD with rs1818613 (r2=0. 94) driving both the observed interaction and the expression quantitative trait loci signals. Future studies are needed to confirm and understand the differential biologic mechanisms by smoking status that contribute to our PDAC findings.

4.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 19(1): 77-102, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406487

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic focus primarily on assessment of pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants associated with increased risk of breast, ovarian, and pancreatic cancer and recommended approaches to genetic testing/counseling and management strategies in individuals with these pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. This manuscript focuses on cancer risk and risk management for BRCA-related breast/ovarian cancer syndrome and Li-Fraumeni syndrome. Carriers of a BRCA1/2 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant have an excessive risk for both breast and ovarian cancer that warrants consideration of more intensive screening and preventive strategies. There is also evidence that risks of prostate cancer and pancreatic cancer are elevated in these carriers. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is a highly penetrant cancer syndrome associated with a high lifetime risk for cancer, including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas, premenopausal breast cancer, colon cancer, gastric cancer, adrenocortical carcinoma, and brain tumors.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33161160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The tumor microbiome of patients with pancreas ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) includes bacteria normally present in the upper gastrointestinal tract. If the predominant source of intratumoral bacteria in patients with PDAC is retrograde migration from the duodenum, duodenal fluid could be a representative biospecimen for determining microbiome profiles of patients with PDAC or at risk of developing PDAC. METHODS: We performed a case-control study comparing bacterial and fungal (16S and 18S rRNA) profiles of secretin-stimulated duodenal fluid collections from 308 patients undergoing duodenal endoscopy including 134 normal pancreas controls, 98 patients with pancreatic cyst(s) and 74 patients with PDAC. RESULTS: Alterations in duodenal fluid microbiomes with diminished alpha diversity were significantly associated with age >70 and proton pump inhibitor use. Patients with PDAC had significantly decreased duodenal microbial alpha diversity compared to age-matched controls with normal pancreata and those with pancreatic cyst(s). There was evidence of enrichment of Bifidobacterium genera in the duodenal fluid of patients with PDAC compared to controls and those with pancreatic cyst(s). There were also enrichment of duodenal fluid Fusobacteria and Rothia bacteria among patients with PDAC with short-term survival. Duodenal fluid microbiome profiles were not significantly different between controls and patients with pancreatic cyst(s). CONCLUSION: Patients with PDAC have alterations in their duodenal fluid microbiome profiles compared to patients with pancreatic cysts and those with normal pancreata.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006443

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cachexia is a major cause of morbidity in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Our purpose was to understand the impact of PDAC-induced cachexia on brain metabolism in PDAC xenograft studies, to gain new insights into the causes of cachexia-induced morbidity. Changes in mouse and human plasma metabolites were characterized to identify underlying causes of brain metabolic changes. METHODS: We quantified metabolites, detected with high-resolution 1 H magnetic resonance spectroscopy, in the brain and plasma of normal mice (n = 10) and mice bearing cachexia (n = 10) or non-cachexia (n = 9) inducing PDAC xenografts as well as in human plasma obtained from normal individuals (n = 24) and from individuals with benign pancreatic disease (n = 20) and PDAC (n = 20). Statistical significance was defined as a P value ≤0.05. RESULTS: The brain metabolic signature of cachexia-inducing PDAC was characterized by a significant depletion of choline of -27% and -21% as well as increases of glutamine of 13% and 9% and formate of 21% and 14%, relative to normal controls and non-cachectic tumour-bearing mice, respectively. Good to moderate correlations with percent weight change were found for choline (r = 0.70), glutamine (r = -0.58), and formate (r = -0.43). Significant choline depletion of -38% and -30%, relative to normal controls and non-cachectic tumour-bearing mice, respectively, detected in the plasma of cachectic mice likely contributed to decreased brain choline in cachectic mice. Similarly, relative to normal controls and patients with benign disease, choline levels in human plasma samples of PDAC patients were significantly lower by -12% and -20% respectively. A comparison of plasma metabolites from PDAC patients with and without weight loss identified significant changes in glutamine metabolism. CONCLUSIONS: Disturbances in metabolites of the choline/cholinergic and glutamine/glutamate/glutamatergic neurotransmitter pathways may contribute to morbidity. Metabolic normalization may provide strategies to reduce morbidity. The human plasma metabolite changes observed may lead to the development of companion diagnostic markers to detect PDAC and PDAC-induced cachexia.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 856, 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32894098

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Germline copy number variants (CNVs) increase risk for many diseases, yet detection of CNVs and quantifying their contribution to disease risk in large-scale studies is challenging due to biological and technical sources of heterogeneity that vary across the genome within and between samples. METHODS: We developed an approach called CNPBayes to identify latent batch effects in genome-wide association studies involving copy number, to provide probabilistic estimates of integer copy number across the estimated batches, and to fully integrate the copy number uncertainty in the association model for disease. RESULTS: Applying a hidden Markov model (HMM) to identify CNVs in a large multi-site Pancreatic Cancer Case Control study (PanC4) of 7598 participants, we found CNV inference was highly sensitive to technical noise that varied appreciably among participants. Applying CNPBayes to this dataset, we found that the major sources of technical variation were linked to sample processing by the centralized laboratory and not the individual study sites. Modeling the latent batch effects at each CNV region hierarchically, we developed probabilistic estimates of copy number that were directly incorporated in a Bayesian regression model for pancreatic cancer risk. Candidate associations aided by this approach include deletions of 8q24 near regulatory elements of the tumor oncogene MYC and of Tumor Suppressor Candidate 3 (TUSC3). CONCLUSIONS: Laboratory effects may not account for the major sources of technical variation in genome-wide association studies. This study provides a robust Bayesian inferential framework for identifying latent batch effects, estimating copy number, and evaluating the role of copy number in heritable diseases.

8.
Cancer Lett ; 493: 245-253, 2020 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32896616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Single-cell next-generation sequencing (scNGS) technology has been widely used in genomic profiling, which relies on whole-genome amplification (WGA). However, WGA introduces errors and is especially less accurate when applied to single nucleotide variant (SNV) analysis. Targeted scNGS for SNV without WGA has not been described. We aimed to develop a method to detect circulating tumor cells (CTCs) with DNA SNVs. METHODS: We tested this targeted scNGS method with three driver mutant genes (KRAS/TP53/SMAD4) on one pancreatic cancer cell line AsPC-1 and then applied it to patients with metastatic PDAC for the validation. RESULTS: All single-cell of AsPC-1 and spiked-in AsPC-1 cells in healthy donor blood, which were isolated by the filtration with size or by flow cytometry, were detected by targeted scNGS method. All blood samples from six patients with metastatic PDAC, for the validation of target scNGS method, showed CTCs with SNVs of KRAS/TP53/SMAD4 and the positive confirmation of immunofluorescent stainings with Pan-CK/Vimentin/CD45. Four patients with early stage disease, one patient with benign pancreatic cyst and a healthy control sample all showed concordant results between targeted scNGS and CTC enumeration. CONCLUSIONS: The novel technique of targeted scNGS for SNV analysis, without pre-amplification, is a promising method for identifying and characterizing circulating tumor cells.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(12): 2735-2739, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967863

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with pancreatic cancer risk is uncertain. Mendelian randomization (MR) represents a study design using genetic instruments to better characterize the relationship between exposure and outcome. METHODS: We utilized data from genome-wide association studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium and Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, involving approximately 9,269 cases and 12,530 controls of European descent, to evaluate associations between pancreatic cancer risk and genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels. Conventional MR analyses were performed using individual-level and summary-level data. RESULTS: Using genetic instruments, we did not find evidence of associations between genetically predicted plasma n-6 PUFA levels and pancreatic cancer risk [estimates per one SD increase in each PUFA-specific weighted genetic score using summary statistics: linoleic acid odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.98-1.02; arachidonic acid OR = 1.00, 95% CI = 0.99-1.01; and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87-1.02]. The OR estimates remained virtually unchanged after adjustment for covariates, using individual-level data or summary statistics, or stratification by age and sex. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that variations of genetically determined plasma n-6 PUFA levels are not associated with pancreatic cancer risk. IMPACT: These results suggest that modifying n-6 PUFA levels through food sources or supplementation may not influence risk of pancreatic cancer.

10.
Pancreatology ; 20(6): 1078-1084, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819846

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Reduced pancreatic volume, often referred to as atrophy, is a commonly reported imaging feature of chronic pancreatitis (CP). This study evaluated whether there is an association between pancreatic volume and fibrosis, the criterion standard of CP, in patients undergoing total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT) for recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP) and CP. METHODS: All adult patients who underwent TPIAT between 2010 and 2019 were categorized into 3 groups: RAP, definite CP and indeterminate CP. Pancreatic volume was calculated by summing up the areas from each thin section of the pancreas on 3D CT imaging. Excisional biopsies of the pancreatic head as well as body/tail region were obtained at the time of TPIAT. Two different fibrosis scores were used for histologic assessment. RESULTS: A total of 16, 29 and 15 patients underwent TPIAT for RAP, definite CP and indeterminate CP, respectively. The mean pancreatic volumes for patients with RAP, definite CP and indeterminate CP were 65.7 ± 28.5 cc, 54.9 ± 22.9 cc and 61.8 ± 23.6 cc, respectively (p = 0.3). The mean fibrosis scores were significantly higher in patients with definite CP compared to RAP (p < 0.001) and indeterminate CP (p < 0.001). Pancreatic volume was not associated with either fibrosis score after adjusting for age, gender, duration of disease, BMI and diabetes in the multivariable analysis. CONCLUSIONS: While the fibrosis scores were higher in definite CP compared to both RAP and indeterminate CP, there was no correlation between pancreatic volume and fibrosis. This suggests that atrophy alone cannot be used to diagnose CP.

11.
J Am Coll Surg ; 2020 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The frequency and significance of the germline variants in DNA damage repair genes still need to be elucidated in patients with sporadic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Our purpose was to determine whether germline variants in DNA damage repair genes were associated with survival of patients with sporadic PDAC. STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively identified 854 patients with sporadic PDAC with germline DNA sequenced in targeted 22 DNA damage repair genes by next-generation sequencing. Outcomes were compared in terms of clinicopathologic features, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS). RESULTS: Nineteen patients had deleterious mutations; 103 had variant(s) of unknown significance (VUS). Germline DNA damage repair deleterious variant carriers had superior DFS (median, 19.1 months vs 11.9 months, p = 0.012) and OS (median, 29.7 months vs 20.2 months, p = 0.034), as compared with wild-type patients. Germline DNA damage repair VUS variant carriers also had superior DFS when compared with wild-type patients. In subgroup analysis, this improved survival was limited to patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy, deleterious variant carriers vs wild-type patients DFS (median 36.3 months vs 13.1 months, p = 0.006) and OS (median 43.7 months vs 24.3 months, p = 0.045), VUS variant carriers vs wild-type patients DFS (16.5 months vs 13.1 months, p = 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Having a deleterious variant in a DNA damage repair gene is associated with improved survival after resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

12.
Cancer Res ; 80(18): 4004-4013, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641412

RESUMO

Registry-based epidemiologic studies suggest associations between chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). As genetic susceptibility contributes to a large proportion of chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, we hypothesize that the genomic regions surrounding established genome-wide associated variants for these chronic inflammatory diseases are associated with PDAC. We examined the association between PDAC and genomic regions (±500 kb) surrounding established common susceptibility variants for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, chronic pancreatitis, and primary sclerosing cholangitis. We analyzed summary statistics from genome-wide association studies data for 8,384 cases and 11,955 controls of European descent from two large consortium studies using the summary data-based adaptive rank truncated product method to examine the overall association of combined genomic regions for each inflammatory disease group. Combined genomic susceptibility regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis were associated with PDAC at P values < 0.05 (0.0040, 0.0057, 0.011, and 3.4 × 10-6, respectively). After excluding the 20 PDAC susceptibility regions (±500 kb) previously identified by GWAS, the genomic regions for ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, and inflammatory bowel disease remained associated with PDAC (P = 0.0029, 0.0057, and 0.0098, respectively). Genomic regions for celiac disease (P = 0.22) and primary sclerosing cholangitis (P = 0.078) were not associated with PDAC. Our results support the hypothesis that genomic regions surrounding variants associated with inflammatory intestinal diseases, particularly, ulcerative colitis, Crohn disease, inflammatory bowel disease, and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC. SIGNIFICANCE: The joint effects of common variants in genomic regions containing susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease and chronic pancreatitis are associated with PDAC and may provide insights to understanding pancreatic cancer etiology.

13.
Mod Pathol ; 33(12): 2544-2563, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32704031

RESUMO

The publication of the "Pan-Cancer Atlas" by the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes Consortium, a partnership formed by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), provides a wonderful opportunity to reflect on where we stand in our understanding of the genetics of pancreatic cancer, as well as on the opportunities to translate this understanding to patient care. From germline variants that predispose to the development of pancreatic cancer, to somatic mutations that are therapeutically targetable, genetics is now providing hope, where there once was no hope, for those diagnosed with pancreatic cancer.

14.
J Pathol ; 252(3): 252-262, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696980

RESUMO

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are commonly identified non-invasive cyst-forming pancreatic neoplasms with the potential to progress into invasive pancreatic adenocarcinoma. There are few in vitro models with which to study the biology of IPMNs and their progression to invasive carcinoma. Therefore, we generated a living biobank of organoids from seven normal pancreatic ducts and ten IPMNs. We characterized eight IPMN organoid samples using whole genome sequencing and characterized five IPMN organoids and seven normal pancreatic duct organoids using transcriptome sequencing. We identified an average of 11,344 somatic mutations in the genomes of organoids derived from IPMNs, with one sample harboring 61,537 somatic mutations enriched for T→C transitions and T→A transversions. Recurrent coding somatic mutations were identified in 15 genes, including KRAS, GNAS, RNF43, PHF3, and RBM10. The most frequently mutated genes were KRAS, GNAS, and RNF43, with somatic mutations identified in six (75%), four (50%), and three (37.5%) IPMN organoid samples, respectively. On average, we identified 36 structural variants in IPMN derived organoids, and none had an unstable phenotype (> 200 structural variants). Transcriptome sequencing identified 28 genes differentially expressed between normal pancreatic duct organoid and IPMN organoid samples. The most significantly upregulated and downregulated genes were CLDN18 and FOXA1. Immunohistochemical analysis of FOXA1 expression in 112 IPMNs, 113 mucinous cystic neoplasms, and 145 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas demonstrated statistically significant loss of expression in low-grade IPMNs (p < 0.0016), mucinous cystic neoplasms (p < 0.0001), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma of any histologic grade (p < 0.0001) compared to normal pancreatic ducts. These data indicate that FOXA1 loss of expression occurs early in pancreatic tumorigenesis. Our study highlights the utility of organoid culture to study the genetics and biology of normal pancreatic duct and IPMNs. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

15.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 29(9): 1784-1791, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32546605

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are major modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer. Interactions between genetic variants and diabetes/obesity have not previously been comprehensively investigated in pancreatic cancer at the genome-wide level. METHODS: We conducted a gene-environment interaction (GxE) analysis including 8,255 cases and 11,900 controls from four pancreatic cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets (Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium I-III and Pancreatic Cancer Case Control Consortium). Obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg/m2) and diabetes (duration ≥3 years) were the environmental variables of interest. Approximately 870,000 SNPs (minor allele frequency ≥0.005, genotyped in at least one dataset) were analyzed. Case-control (CC), case-only (CO), and joint-effect test methods were used for SNP-level GxE analysis. As a complementary approach, gene-based GxE analysis was also performed. Age, sex, study site, and principal components accounting for population substructure were included as covariates. Meta-analysis was applied to combine individual GWAS summary statistics. RESULTS: No genome-wide significant interactions (departures from a log-additive odds model) with diabetes or obesity were detected at the SNP level by the CC or CO approaches. The joint-effect test detected numerous genome-wide significant GxE signals in the GWAS main effects top hit regions, but the significance diminished after adjusting for the GWAS top hits. In the gene-based analysis, a significant interaction of diabetes with variants in the FAM63A (family with sequence similarity 63 member A) gene (significance threshold P < 1.25 × 10-6) was observed in the meta-analysis (P GxE = 1.2 ×10-6, P Joint = 4.2 ×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: This analysis did not find significant GxE interactions at the SNP level but found one significant interaction with diabetes at the gene level. A larger sample size might unveil additional genetic factors via GxE scans. IMPACT: This study may contribute to discovering the mechanism of diabetes-associated pancreatic cancer.

16.
Cancer Res ; 80(13): 2804-2817, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376602

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by extensive local invasion and systemic spread. In this study, we employed a three-dimensional organoid model of human pancreatic cancer to characterize the molecular alterations critical for invasion. Time-lapse microscopy was used to observe invasion in organoids from 25 surgically resected human PDAC samples in collagen I. Subsequent lentiviral modification and small-molecule inhibitors were used to investigate the molecular programs underlying invasion in PDAC organoids. When cultured in collagen I, PDAC organoids exhibited two distinct, morphologically defined invasive phenotypes, mesenchymal and collective. Each individual PDAC gave rise to organoids with a predominant phenotype, and PDAC that generated organoids with predominantly mesenchymal invasion showed a worse prognosis. Collective invasion predominated in organoids from cancers with somatic mutations in the driver gene SMAD4 (or its signaling partner TGFBR2). Reexpression of SMAD4 abrogated the collective invasion phenotype in SMAD4-mutant PDAC organoids, indicating that SMAD4 loss is required for collective invasion in PDAC organoids. Surprisingly, invasion in passaged SMAD4-mutant PDAC organoids required exogenous TGFß, suggesting that invasion in SMAD4-mutant organoids is mediated through noncanonical TGFß signaling. The Rho-like GTPases RAC1 and CDC42 acted as potential mediators of TGFß-stimulated invasion in SMAD4-mutant PDAC organoids, as inhibition of these GTPases suppressed collective invasion in our model. These data suggest that PDAC utilizes different invasion programs depending on SMAD4 status, with collective invasion uniquely present in PDAC with SMAD4 loss. SIGNIFICANCE: Organoid models of PDAC highlight the importance of SMAD4 loss in invasion, demonstrating that invasion programs in SMAD4-mutant and SMAD4 wild-type tumors are different in both morphology and molecular mechanism.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Biomarcadores Tumorais/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/mortalidade , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Organoides/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/mortalidade , Proteína Smad4/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma/patologia , Adenocarcinoma/cirurgia , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/cirurgia , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Organoides/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/cirurgia , Prognóstico , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Smad4/genética , Taxa de Sobrevida , Células Tumorais Cultivadas
17.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw ; 18(4): 380-391, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259785

RESUMO

The NCCN Guidelines for Genetic/Familial High-Risk Assessment: Breast, Ovarian, and Pancreatic provide recommendations for genetic testing and counseling for hereditary cancer syndromes, and risk management recommendations for patients who are diagnosed with syndromes associated with an increased risk of these cancers. The NCCN panel meets at least annually to review comments, examine relevant new data, and reevaluate and update recommendations. These NCCN Guidelines Insights summarize the panel's discussion and most recent recommendations regarding criteria for high-penetrance genes associated with breast and ovarian cancer beyond BRCA1/2, pancreas screening and genes associated with pancreatic cancer, genetic testing for the purpose of systemic therapy decision-making, and testing for people with Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry.

18.
J Mol Diagn ; 22(6): 748-756, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32205290

RESUMO

Circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) measurements can be used to estimate tumor burden, but avoiding false-positive results is challenging. Herein, digital next-generation sequencing (NGS) is evaluated as a ctDNA detection method. Plasma KRAS and GNAS hotspot mutation levels were measured in 140 subjects, including 67 with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and 73 healthy and disease controls. To limit chemical modifications of DNA that yield false-positive mutation calls, plasma DNA was enzymatically pretreated, after which DNA was aliquoted for digital detection of mutations (up to 384 aliquots/sample) by PCR and NGS. A digital NGS score of two SDs above the mean in controls was considered positive. Thirty-seven percent of patients with pancreatic cancer, including 31% of patients with stages I/II disease, had positive KRAS codon 12 ctDNA scores; only one patient had a positive GNAS mutation score. Two disease control patients had positive ctDNA scores. Low-normal-range digital NGS scores at mutation hotspots were found at similar levels in healthy and disease controls, usually at sites of cytosine deamination, and were likely the result of chemical modification of plasma DNA and NGS error rather than true mutations. Digital NGS detects mutated ctDNA in patients with pancreatic cancer with similar yield to other methods. Detection of low-level, true-positive ctDNA is limited by frequent low-level detection of false-positive mutation calls in plasma DNA from controls.

19.
Lab Invest ; 100(7): 1003-1013, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005909

RESUMO

Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) is a distinct precancerous lesion in the pancreas with unique clinical and molecular features. Although in vitro studies in two-dimensional culture have led to numerous important insights in pancreatic cancer, such models are currently lacking for precancerous lesions. In this study, we report the generation and characterization of a cell line from a human pancreatic ITPN. Neoplastic cells were initially cultured in a three-dimensional organoid system, followed by transfer to two-dimensional culture. RNA sequencing revealed a gene expression profile consistent with pancreatic ductal origin, and whole genome sequencing identified many somatic mutations (including in genes involved in DNA repair and Wnt signaling) and structural rearrangements. In vitro characterization of the tumorigenic potential demonstrated a phenotype between that of normal pancreatic ductal cells and cancer cell lines. This cell line represents a valuable resource for interrogation of unique ITPN biology, as well as precancerous pancreatic lesions more generally.


Assuntos
Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Neoplasias Intraductais Pancreáticas , Idoso , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Nus , Fenótipo
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(9): 4858-4863, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075918

RESUMO

We report a sensitive PCR-based assay called Repetitive Element AneupLoidy Sequencing System (RealSeqS) that can detect aneuploidy in samples containing as little as 3 pg of DNA. Using a single primer pair, we amplified ∼350,000 amplicons distributed throughout the genome. Aneuploidy was detected in 49% of liquid biopsies from a total of 883 nonmetastatic, clinically detected cancers of the colorectum, esophagus, liver, lung, ovary, pancreas, breast, or stomach. Combining aneuploidy with somatic mutation detection and eight standard protein biomarkers yielded a median sensitivity of 80% in these eight cancer types, while only 1% of 812 healthy controls scored positive.


Assuntos
Aneuploidia , Neoplasias , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico , Biomarcadores Tumorais , DNA Tumoral Circulante , DNA/genética , Esôfago , Humanos , Biópsia Líquida , Mutação , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
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