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1.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 9(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627340

RESUMO

With the amount of connected objects constantly on the rise, both in our daily life and in high-technology applications, it becomes critical to deal with their associated increase in energy consumption [...].

2.
Nanotechnology ; 30(21): 214006, 2019 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30736025

RESUMO

In this work, nanoscale electrical and optical properties of n-GaN nanowires (NWs) containing GaN/AlN multiple quantum discs (MQDs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy are investigated by means of single wire I(V) measurements, electron beam induced current microscopy (EBIC) and cathodoluminescence (CL) analysis. A strong impact of non-intentional AlN and GaN shells on the electrical resistance of individual NWs is put in evidence. The EBIC mappings reveal the presence of two regions with internal electric fields oriented in opposite directions: one in the MQDs region and the other in the adjacent bottom GaN segment. These fields are found to co-exist under zero bias, while under an external bias either one or the other dominates the current collection. In this way EBIC maps allow us to locate the current generation within the wire under different bias conditions and to give the first direct evidence of carrier collection from AlN/GaN MQDs. The NWs have been further investigated by photoluminescence and CL analyses at low temperature. CL mappings show that the near band edge emission of GaN from the bottom part of the NW is blue-shifted due to the presence of the radial shell. In addition, it is observed that CL intensity drops in the central part of the NWs. Comparing the CL and EBIC maps, this decrease of the luminescence intensity is attributed to an efficient charge splitting effect due to the electric fields in the MQDs region and in the GaN base.

3.
Nanomaterials (Basel) ; 8(6)2018 May 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799440

RESUMO

We demonstrate for the first time the efficient mechanical-electrical conversion properties of InGaN/GaN nanowires (NWs). Using an atomic force microscope equipped with a modified Resiscope module, we analyse the piezoelectric energy generation of GaN NWs and demonstrate an important enhancement when integrating in their volume a thick In-rich InGaN insertion. The piezoelectric response of InGaN/GaN NWs can be tuned as a function of the InGaN insertion thickness and position in the NW volume. The energy harvesting is favoured by the presence of a PtSi/GaN Schottky diode which allows to efficiently collect the piezo-charges generated by InGaN/GaN NWs. Average output voltages up to 330 ± 70 mV and a maximum value of 470 mV per NW has been measured for nanostructures integrating 70 nm-thick InGaN insertion capped with a thin GaN top layer. This latter value establishes an increase of about 35% of the piezo-conversion capacity in comparison with binary p-doped GaN NWs. Based on the measured output signals, we estimate that one layer of dense InGaN/GaN-based NW can generate a maximum output power density of about 3.3 W/cm². These results settle the new state-of-the-art for piezo-generation from GaN-based NWs and offer a promising perspective for extending the performances of the piezoelectric sources.

4.
Nanoscale ; 9(13): 4610-4619, 2017 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28323294

RESUMO

The performances of 1D-nanostructure based nanogenerators are governed by the ability of nanostructures to efficiently convert mechanical deformation into electrical energy, and by the efficiency with which this piezo-generated energy is harvested. In this paper, we highlight the crucial influence of the GaN nanowire-metal Schottky nanocontact on the energy harvesting efficiency. Three different metals, p-type doped diamond, PtSi and Pt/Ir, have been investigated. By using an atomic force microscope equipped with a Resiscope module, we demonstrate that the harvesting of piezo-generated energy is up to 2.4 times more efficient using a platinum-based Schottky nanocontact compared to a doped diamond-based nanocontact. In light of Schottky contact characteristics, we evidence that the conventional description of the Schottky diode cannot be applied. The contact is governed by its nanometer size. This specific behaviour induces notably a lowering of the Schottky barrier height, which gives rise to an enhanced conduction. We especially demonstrate that this effective thinning is directly correlated with the improvement of the energy harvesting efficiency, which is much pronounced for Pt-based Schottky diodes. These results constitute a building block to the overall improvement of NW-based nanogenerator devices.

5.
Nanoscale ; 8(34): 15479-85, 2016 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27523903

RESUMO

Recent advances in large area graphene growth have led to tremendous applications in a variety of areas. The graphene nanomesh with its tunable band-gap is of great interest for both fundamental research, to explore the effect of edges on both the 2D electrical conduction and its electrochemical behavior, and applications such as nanoelectronic devices or highly sensitive biosensors. Here, we report on the fabrication of a large surface graphene nanomesh by nanoimprint lithography (NIL) to produce controlled artificial edges. The electrochemical response of this high quality single graphene layer imprinted nanomesh shows an enhancement in capacitance associated with faster electron transfer which can be attributed to the high density of edges. The electrochemical performances of this nanomesh graphene platform have been also studied for label-free DNA detection from Hepatitis C virus as a model. We demonstrate that such a nanomesh platform allows direct detection at the sub-attomolar level with more than 90% of molecules located on the imprinted artificial edges. Such a graphene nanomesh electrode will find useful future applications in the field of biosensing.

6.
Nano Lett ; 16(8): 4895-902, 2016 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27414518

RESUMO

Epitaxial growth of GaN nanowires on graphene is demonstrated using molecular beam epitaxy without any catalyst or intermediate layer. Growth is highly selective with respect to silica on which the graphene flakes, grown by chemical vapor deposition, are transferred. The nanowires grow vertically along their c-axis and we observe a unique epitaxial relationship with the ⟨21̅1̅0⟩ directions of the wurtzite GaN lattice parallel to the directions of the carbon zigzag chains. Remarkably, the nanowire density and height decrease with increasing number of graphene layers underneath. We attribute this effect to strain and we propose a model for the nanowire density variation. The GaN nanowires are defect-free and they present good optical properties. This demonstrates that graphene layers transferred on amorphous carrier substrates is a promising alternative to bulk crystalline substrates for the epitaxial growth of high quality GaN nanostructures.

7.
Appl Opt ; 55(36): 10463-10468, 2016 Dec 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28059278

RESUMO

Laser sources with a controllable flexible wavelength have found widespread applications in optical fiber communication, optical sensing, and microscopy. Here, we report a tunable mode-locked fiber laser using a graphene-based saturable absorber and a tapered mirror as an end mirror in the cavity. The phase layer in the mirror is precisely etched by focused ion beam (FIB) milling technology, and the resonant wavelength of the mirror shifts correspond to the different etch depths. By scanning the tapered mirror mechanically, the center wavelength of a mode-locked fiber laser can be continuously tuned from 1562 to 1532 nm, with a pulse width in the sub-ps level and repetition rate of 27 MHz.

8.
Nanotechnol Sci Appl ; 7: 85-95, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25339846

RESUMO

Graphene has been intensively studied in recent years in order to take advantage of its unique properties. Its synthesis on SiC substrates by solid-state graphitization appears a suitable option for graphene-based electronics. However, before developing devices based on epitaxial graphene, it is desirable to understand and finely control the synthesis of material with the most promising properties. To achieve these prerequisites, many studies are being conducted on various SiC substrates. Here, we review 3C-SiC(100) epilayers grown by chemical vapor deposition on Si(100) substrates for producing graphene by solid state graphitization under ultrahigh-vacuum conditions. Based on various characterization techniques, the structural and electrical properties of epitaxial graphene layer grown on 3C-SiC(100)/Si(100) are discussed. We establish that epitaxial graphene presents properties similar to those obtained using hexagonal SiC substrates, with the advantage of being compatible with current Si-processing technology.

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