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1.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(8): 984-994, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362557

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of the Scaphoid Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Trauma (SMaRT) trial was to evaluate the clinical and cost implications of using immediate MRI in the acute management of patients with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid with negative radiographs. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who presented to the emergency department (ED) with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid and negative radiographs were randomized to a control group, who did not undergo further imaging in the ED, or an intervention group, who had an MRI of the wrist as an additional test during the initial ED attendance. Most participants were male (52% control, 61% intervention), with a mean age of 36.2 years (18 to 73) in the control group and 38.2 years (20 to 71) in the intervention group. The primary outcome was total cost impact at three months post-recruitment. Secondary outcomes included total costs at six months, the assessment of clinical findings, diagnostic accuracy, and the participants' self-reported level of satisfaction. Differences in cost were estimated using generalized linear models with gamma errors. RESULTS: The mean cost up to three months post-recruitment per participant was £542.40 (sd £855.20, n = 65) for the control group and £368.40 (sd £338.60, n = 67) for the intervention group, leading to an estimated cost difference of £174 (95% confidence interval (CI) -£30 to £378; p = 0.094). The cost difference per participant increased to £266 (95% CI £3.30 to £528; p = 0.047) at six months. Overall, 6.2% of participants (4/65, control group) and 10.4% of participants (7/67, intervention group) had sustained a fracture of the scaphoid (p = 0.37). In addition, 7.7% of participants (5/65, control group) and 22.4% of participants (15/67, intervention group) had other fractures diagnosed (p = 0.019). The use of MRI was associated with higher diagnostic accuracy both in the diagnosis of a fracture of the scaphoid (100.0% vs 93.8%) and of any other fracture (98.5% vs 84.6%). CONCLUSION: The use of immediate MRI in the management of participants with a suspected fracture of the scaphoid and negative radiographs led to cost savings while improving the pathway's diagnostic accuracy and patient satisfaction. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:984-994.


Assuntos
Análise Custo-Benefício , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/economia , Osso Escafoide/lesões , Traumatismos do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Redução de Custos/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Radiografia , Osso Escafoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Reino Unido , Traumatismos do Punho/economia , Adulto Jovem
2.
Eur J Radiol ; 115: 46-52, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31084758

RESUMO

AIM: To examine the performance of 18F-FDG PET/MRI in the loco-regional staging of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). METHODS: Consecutive subjects with MPM undergoing pre-operative staging with 18F-FDG PET/CT who underwent a same day integrated 18F-FDG PET/MRI were prospectively studied. Clinical TNM staging (AJCC 7th edition) was performed separately and in consensus by two readers on the 18F-FDG PET/MRI studies, and compared with staging by 18F-FDG PET/CT, and with final pathological stage, determined by a combination of intra-operative and histological findings. RESULTS: 10 subjects (9 male, mean age 68 years) with biopsy-proven MPM (9 epithelioid tumours, 1 biphasic) were included. One subject underwent neo-adjuvant chemotherapy between imaging and surgery and was excluded from the clinical versus pathological stage analysis. Pathological staging was concordant with staging by 18F-FDG PET/MRI in 67% (n = 6) of subjects, and with 18F-FDG PET/CT staging in 33% (n = 3). Pathological T stage was concordant with 18F-FDG PET/MRI in 78% (n = 7), and with 18F-FDG PET/CT in 33% (n = 3) of subjects. Pathological N stage was concordant with both 18F-FDG PET/MRI and 18F-FDG PET/CT in 78% (n = 7) of cases. No subject had metastatic disease. There was good inter-observer agreement for overall PET/MRI staging (weighted kappa 0.63) with moderate inter-reader agreement for T staging (weighted kappa 0.59). All 6 subjects with prior talc pleurodesis demonstrated mismatch between elevated FDG uptake and restricted diffusion in areas of visible talc deposition. CONCLUSION: Clinical MPM staging by 18F-FDG PET/MRI is feasible, and potentially provides more accurate loco-regional staging than PET/CT, particularly in T staging.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Idoso , Biópsia , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Imagem Multimodal/métodos , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons/métodos , Estudos Prospectivos , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos
4.
Clin Radiol ; 74(3): 242-246, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665683

RESUMO

Since the inception of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) in 2006, the landscape for the delivery of clinical research within the National Health Service (NHS) has been transformed. Clinical radiology has benefitted from funding opportunities for primary imaging research as well as improvements to the supporting research infrastructure to provide imaging for many clinical trials; however, in an increasingly challenging NHS environment, the NIHR and clinical radiology have to evolve an effective working partnership to ensure imaging research is sustainable and will make an impact. A number of initiatives have arisen from discussions between the NIHR, the Royal College of Radiologists (RCR), and stakeholders that will be discussed in this article. It is hoped that these initiatives will be embraced by the imaging community and create a more dynamic sustainable imaging workforce, driving and supporting research and innovation towards future sustainability.

5.
Heliyon ; 4(9): e00804, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258994

RESUMO

Background: Chemoradiation (CRT) or short-course radiotherapy (SCRT) are standard treatments for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). We evaluated the efficacy/safety of two neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT) regimens as an alternative prior to total mesorectal excision (TME). Methods/design: This multi-centre, phase II trial in patients with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) defined high-risk LARC (>cT3b, cN2+ or extramural venous invasion) randomised patients (1:1) to FOLFOX + Bevacizumab (Arm 1) or FOLFOXIRI + bevacizumab (Arm 2) every 14 days for 6 cycles prior to surgery. Patients were withdrawn if positron emission tomography (PET) standardised uptake value (SUV) after 3 cycles failed to decrease by >30% or increased compared to baseline. Primary endpoint was pathological complete response rate (pCR). Secondary endpoints included adverse events (AE) and toxicity. Neoadjuvant rectal (NAR) scores based on "T" and "N" downstaging were calculated. Findings: Twenty patients aged 18-75 years were randomised. The trial stopped early because of poor accrual. Seventeen patients completed all 6 cycles of NACT. One stopped due to myocardial infarction, 1 poor response on PET (both received CRT) and 1 committed suicide. 11 patients had G3 AE, 1 G4 AE (neutropenia), and 1 G5 (suicide). pCR (the primary endpoint) was 0/10 for Arm 1 and 2/10 for Arm 2 i.e. 2/20 (10%) overall. Median NAR score was 14·9 with 5 (28%), 7 (39%), and 6 (33%) having low, intermediate, or high scores. Surgical morbidity was acceptable (1/18 wound infection, no anastomotic leak/pelvic sepsis/fistulae). The 24-month progression-free survival rate was 75% (95% CI: 60%-85%). Interpretation: The primary endpoint (pCR rate) was not met. However, FOLFOXIRI and bevacizumab achieved promising pCR rates, low NAR scores and was well-tolerated. This regimen is suitable for testing as the novel arm against current standards of SCRT and/or CRT in a future trial.

6.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 5: 102-107, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30094296

RESUMO

Aims: Ablation therapies are an innovative nephron-sparing alternative to radical nephrectomy for early stage renal cancers, although determination of treatment success is challenging. We aimed to undertake a systematic review of the literature to determine whether assessment of tumour perfusion may improve response assessment or alter clinical management when compared to standard imaging. Material and Methods: Two radiologists performed independent primary literature searches for perfusion imaging in response assessment following ablative therapies (radiofrequency ablation and cryotherapy) focused on renal tumours. Results: 5 of 795 articles were eligible, totaling 110 patients. The study designs were heterogeneous with different imaging techniques, perfusion calculations, reference standard and follow-up periods. All studies found lower perfusion following treatment, with a return of 'high grade' perfusion in the 7/110 patients with residual or recurrent tumour. One study found perfusion curves were different between successfully ablated regions and residual tumour. Conclusions: Studies were limited by small sample size and heterogeneous methodology. No studies have investigated the impact of perfusion imaging on management. This review highlights the current lack of evidence for perfusion imaging in response assessment following renal ablation, however it suggests that there may be a future role. Further prospective research is required to address this.

7.
Colorectal Dis ; 20(8): O226-O234, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29751360

RESUMO

AIM: Anastomotic leak (AL) is a major complication of rectal cancer surgery. Despite advances in surgical practice, the rates of AL have remained static, at around 10-15%. The aetiology of AL is multifactorial, but one of the most crucial risk factors, which is mostly under the control of the surgeon, is blood supply to the anastomosis. The MRC/NIHR IntAct study will determine whether assessment of anastomotic perfusion using a fluorescent dye (indocyanine green) and near-infrared laparoscopy can minimize the rate of AL leak compared with conventional white-light laparoscopy. Two mechanistic sub-studies will explore the role of the rectal microbiome in AL and the predictive value of CT angiography/perfusion studies. METHOD: IntAct is a prospective, unblinded, parallel-group, multicentre, European, randomized controlled trial comparing surgery with intra-operative fluorescence angiography (IFA) against standard care (surgery with no IFA). The primary end-point is rate of clinical AL at 90 days following surgery. Secondary end-points include all AL (clinical and radiological), change in planned anastomosis, complications and re-interventions, use of stoma, cost-effectiveness of the intervention and quality of life. Patients should have a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the rectum suitable for potentially curative surgery by anterior resection. Over 3 years, 880 patients from 25 European centres will be recruited and followed up for 90 days. DISCUSSION: IntAct will rigorously evaluate the use of IFA in rectal cancer surgery and explore the role of the microbiome in AL and the predictive value of preoperative CT angiography/perfusion scanning.

8.
Radiography (Lond) ; 24(1): 22-27, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29306370

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In many centres, a fixed method of contrast-media administration is used for CT regardless of patient body habitus. The aim of this trial was to assess contrast enhancement of the aorta, portal vein, liver and spleen during abdomino-pelvic CT imaging using a weight-adapted contrast media protocol compared to the current fixed dose method. METHODS: Thirty-nine oncology patients, who had previously undergone CT abdomino-pelvic imaging at the institution using a fixed contrast media dose, were prospectively imaged using a weight-adapted contrast media dose (1.4 ml/kg). The two sets of images were assessed for contrast enhancement levels (HU) at locations in the liver, aorta, portal vein and spleen during portal-venous enhancement phase. The t-test was used to compare the difference in results using a non-inferiority margin of 10 HU. RESULTS: When the contrast dose was tailored to patient weight, contrast enhancement levels were shown to be non-inferior to the fixed dose method (liver p < 0.001; portal vein p = 0.003; aorta p = 0.001; spleen p = 0.001). As a group, patients received a total contrast dose reduction of 165 ml using the weight-adapted method compared to the fixed dose method, with a mean cost per patient of £6.81 and £7.19 respectively. CONCLUSION: Using a weight-adapted method of contrast media administration was shown to be non-inferior to a fixed dose method of contrast media administration. Patients weighing 76 kg, or less, received a lower contrast dose which may have associated cost savings. A weight-adapted contrast media protocol should be implemented for portal-venous phase abdomino-pelvic CT for oncology patients with adequate renal function (>70 ml/min/1.73 m2).


Assuntos
Abdome/diagnóstico por imagem , Peso Corporal , Meios de Contraste/administração & dosagem , Iohexol/administração & dosagem , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Meios de Contraste/economia , Redução de Custos , Estudos de Equivalência como Asunto , Feminino , Humanos , Iohexol/economia , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Veia Porta/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/economia , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Periodontal Res ; 53(3): 324-333, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105779

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Risk for deterioration in treated aggressive periodontitis (AgP) individuals remained unclear. This retrospective cohort study investigated 7-26 years of periodontal outcomes and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of young adults with advanced periodontitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-nine previously treated patients with AgP were re-examined. Clinical and radiographic parameters before treatment discontinuation and at re-examination were compared. OHRQoL at re-call was assessed with the short-form Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14S). RESULTS: None of the subjects adhered to suggested periodontal therapy and maintenance after discharge. Mean percentage of sites with probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥6 mm at re-examination was 4.5 ± 5.9%. A total of 182 teeth had been lost over time. Tooth loss rate was 0.14/patient/year. From 68 subjects with documented favorable treatment outcomes, higher percentage of sites with PPD ≥6 mm at re-examination and higher radiographic proximal bone loss was associated with current smoking status. Patients with AgP with <20 teeth at re-call had worse OHRQoL than those with ≥20 teeth. Patients with higher full-mouth mean PPD also reported poorer OHRQoL. CONCLUSION: Treatment in patients with AgP who smoke and neglect proper supportive care, risk periodontal disease progression. Substantial tooth loss and higher full-mouth mean PPD led to poorer OHRQoL in this cohort.

10.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 20(1): 4-20, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28971346

RESUMO

The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype. Some issues that have dominated previous meetings, such as the accuracy of MR-based attenuation correction (AC) of the PET scan, were finally put to rest as having been adequately addressed for the majority of clinical situations. Likewise, the ability to standardise PET systems for use in multicentre trials was confirmed, thus removing a perceived barrier to larger clinical imaging trials. The meeting openly questioned whether PET/MRI should, in all cases, be used as a whole-body imaging modality or whether in many circumstances it would best be employed to give an in-depth study of previously identified disease in a single organ or region. The meeting concluded that there is still much work to be done in the integration of data from different fields and in developing a common language for all stakeholders involved. In addition, the participants advocated joint training and education for individuals who engage in routine PET/MRI. It was agreed that PET/MRI can enhance our understanding of normal and disrupted biology, and we are in a position to describe the in vivo nature of disease processes, metabolism, evolution of cancer and the monitoring of response to pharmacological interventions and therapies. As such, PET/MRI is a key to advancing medicine and patient care.

11.
Eur J Radiol Open ; 4: 69-74, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28616448

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of Adaptive Statistical Iterative Reconstruction (ASIR) on perfusion CT (pCT) parameter quantitation and image quality in primary colorectal cancer. METHODS: Prospective observational study. Following institutional review board approval and informed consent, 32 patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma underwent pCT (100 kV, 150 mA, 120 s acquisition, axial mode). Tumour regional blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV), mean transit time (MTT) and permeability surface area product (PS) were determined using identical regions-of-interests for ASIR percentages of 0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. Image noise, contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and pCT parameters were assessed across ASIR percentages. Coefficients of variation (CV), repeated measures analysis of variance (rANOVA) and Spearman' rank order correlation were performed with statistical significance at 5%. RESULTS: With increasing ASIR percentages, image noise decreased by 33% while CNR increased by 61%; peak tumour CNR was greater than 1.5 with 60% ASIR and above. Mean BF, BV, MTT and PS differed by less than 1.8%, 2.9%, 2.5% and 2.6% across ASIR percentages. CV were 4.9%, 4.2%, 3.3% and 7.9%; rANOVA P values: 0.85, 0.62, 0.02 and 0.81 respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ASIR improves image noise and CNR without altering pCT parameters substantially.

12.
Br J Surg ; 104(6): 648-659, 2017 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28407225

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The potential for an ultrasound-based screening programme for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) to improve survival through early detection has been the subject of much debate. The prevalence of ultrasound-detected asymptomatic RCC is an important first step to establishing whether a screening programme may be feasible. METHODS: A systematic search of MEDLINE and Embase was performed up to March 2016 to identify studies reporting the prevalence of renal masses and RCC. Two populations of patients were chosen: asymptomatic individuals undergoing screening ultrasonography and patients undergoing ultrasonography for abdominal symptoms not related to RCC. A random-effects meta-analysis was performed. Study quality was evaluated using a validated eight-point checklist. RESULTS: Sixteen studies (413 551 patients) were included in the final analysis. The pooled prevalence of renal mass was 0·36 (95 per cent c.i. 0·23 to 0·52) per cent and the prevalence of histologically proven RCC was 0·10 (0·06 to 0·15) per cent. The prevalence of RCC was more than double in studies from Europe and North America than in those from Asia: 0·17 (0·09 to 0·27) versus 0·06 (0·03 to 0·09) per cent respectively. Data on 205 screen-detected RCCs showed that 84·4 per cent of tumours were stage T1-T2 N0, 13·7 per cent were T3-T4 N0, and only 2·0 per cent had positive nodes or metastases at diagnosis. CONCLUSION: At least one RCC would be detected per 1000 individuals screened. The majority of tumours identified are early stage (T1-T2).


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Renais/epidemiologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Números Necessários para Tratar , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Aust Dent J ; 62(2): 152-160, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27391220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The current retrospective cross-sectional study investigated 5-18-year treatment outcomes in subjects who did not complete a recommended course of periodontal therapy. METHODS: Sixty-five subjects who voluntarily discontinued therapy were recalled. The subjects' demographic data and dental history since discontinuation of periodontal treatment were collected via questionnaires. The subjects' periodontal condition, radiographic data and individual tooth-based prognosis at pre-discontinuation and recall were compared. RESULTS: A total of 229 teeth had been lost over time, mainly due to periodontal reasons. Upper and lower molars were most frequently lost. Rate of tooth loss (0.38/patient per year) was comparable to untreated patients. Deterioration in periodontal health in terms of increased percentage of sites with bleeding on probing (BOP) and sites with probing pocket depths (PPD) of 6 mm or more at re-examination was observed. Positive correlations were found between tooth loss and: (i) years since therapy discontinued; (ii) percentage of sites with PPD of 6 mm or more at pre-discontinuation; and (iii) at re-examination. Percentage of sites with PPD of 6 mm or more at recall was positively correlated with periodontal tooth loss and negatively correlated with percentage of sites without BOP. CONCLUSIONS: Patients not completing a course of periodontal therapy are at risk of further tooth loss and deterioration in periodontal conditions over time.


Assuntos
Doenças Periodontais/terapia , Índice Periodontal , Bolsa Periodontal/cirurgia , Perda de Dente/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dente Molar , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perda de Dente/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 18(5): 637-50, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27534971

RESUMO

This article provides a collaborative perspective of the discussions and conclusions from the fifth international workshop of combined positron emission tomorgraphy (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from February 15 to 19, 2016. Specifically, we summarise the second part of the workshop made up of invited presentations from active researchers in the field of PET/MRI and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. This year, this included practical advice as to possible approaches to moving PET/MRI into clinical routine, the use of PET/MRI in brain receptor imaging, in assessing cardiovascular diseases, cancer, infection, and inflammatory diseases. To address perceived challenges still remaining to innovatively integrate PET and MRI system technologies, a dedicated round table session brought together key representatives from industry and academia who were engaged with either the conceptualisation or early adoption of hybrid PET/MRI systems. Discussions during the workshop highlighted that emerging unique applications of PET/MRI such as the ability to provide multi-parametric quantitative and visual information which will enable not only overall disease detection but also disease characterisation would eventually be regarded as compelling arguments for the adoption of PET/MR. However, as indicated by previous workshops, evidence in favour of this observation is only growing slowly, mainly due to the ongoing inability to pool data cohorts from independent trials as well as different systems and sites. The participants emphasised that moving from status quo to status go entails the need to adopt standardised imaging procedures and the readiness to act together prospectively across multiple PET/MRI sites and vendors.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Animais , Doença , Alemanha , Humanos
16.
Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol) ; 28(2): 83-92, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26586163

RESUMO

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has in recent years progressively established itself as one of the most valuable modalities for the diagnosis, staging and response assessment of rectal cancer and its use has largely focused on accurate morphological assessment. The potential of MRI, however, extends beyond detailed anatomical depiction: aspects of tissue physiology, such as perfusion, oxygenation and water molecule diffusivity, can be assessed indirectly. Functional MRI is rapidly evolving as a promising non-invasive assessment tool for tumour phenotyping and assessment of response to new therapeutic agents. In spite of promising experimental data, the evidence base for the application of functional MRI techniques in rectal cancer remains modest, reflecting the relatively poor agreement on technical protocols, image processing techniques and quantitative methodology to date, hampering routine integration into clinical management. This overview outlines the established strengths and the critical limitations of anatomical MRI in rectal cancer; it then introduces some of the functional MRI techniques and quantitative analysis methods that are currently available, describing their applicability in rectal cancer and reviewing the relevant literature; finally, it introduces the concept of a multi-parametric quantitative approach to rectal cancer.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neoplasias Retais/patologia , Humanos
18.
BMC Cancer ; 15: 764, 2015 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26493588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) preoperative chemoradiation (CRT) is the standard of care, but the risk of local recurrence is low with good quality total mesorectal excision (TME), although many still develop metastatic disease. Current challenges in treating rectal cancer include the development of effective organ-preserving approaches and the prevention of subsequent metastatic disease. Neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy (NACT) alone may reduce local and systemic recurrences, and may be more effective than postoperative treatments which often have poor compliance. Investigation of intensified NACT is warranted to improve outcomes for patients with LARC. The objective is to evaluate feasibility and efficacy of a four-drug regimen containing bevacizumab prior to surgical resection. METHODS/DESIGN: This is a multi-centre, randomized phase II trial. Eligible patients must have histologically confirmed LARC with distal part of the tumour 4-12 cm from anal verge, no metastases, and poor prognostic features on pelvic MRI. Sixty patients will be randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive folinic acid + flurourcil + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX) + bevacizumab (BVZ) or FOLFOX + irinotecan (FOLFOXIRI) + BVZ, given in 2 weekly cycles for up to 6 cycles prior to TME. Patients stop treatment if they fail to respond after 3 cycles (defined as ≥ 30 % decrease in Standardised Uptake Value (SUV) compared to baseline PET/CT). The primary endpoint is pathological complete response rate. Secondary endpoints include objective response rate, MRI tumour regression grade, involved circumferential resection margin rate, T and N stage downstaging, progression-free survival, disease-free survival, overall survival, local control, 1-year colostomy rate, acute toxicity, compliance to chemotherapy. DISCUSSION: In LARC, a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen - if feasible, effective and tolerable would be suitable for testing as the novel arm against the current standards of short course preoperative radiotherapy (SCPRT) and/or fluorouracil (5FU)-based CRT in a future randomised phase III trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical trial identifier BACCHUS: NCT01650428.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Bevacizumab/uso terapêutico , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Neoplasias Retais/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Inibidores da Angiogênese/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Neoplasias Retais/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
19.
Mol Imaging Biol ; 17(5): 595-608, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26286794

RESUMO

This paper summarises key themes and discussions from the 4th international workshop dedicated to the advancement of the technical, scientific and clinical applications of combined positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems that was held in Tübingen, Germany, from February 23 to 27, 2015. Specifically, we summarise the three days of invited presentations from active researchers in this and associated fields augmented by round table discussions and dialogue boards with specific topics. These include the use of PET/MRI in cardiovascular disease, paediatrics, oncology, neurology and multi-parametric imaging, the latter of which was suggested as a key promoting factor for the wider adoption of integrated PET/MRI. Discussions throughout the workshop and a poll taken on the final day demonstrated that attendees felt more strongly that PET/MRI has further advanced in both technical versatility and acceptance by clinical and research-driven users from the status quo of last year. Still, with only minimal evidence of progress made in exploiting the true complementary nature of the PET and MRI-based information, PET/MRI is still yet to achieve its potential. In that regard, the conclusion of last year's meeting "the real work has just started" still holds true.


Assuntos
Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Alemanha , Humanos
20.
Clin Radiol ; 70(10): 1060-82, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26187890

RESUMO

Ongoing research on malignant and normal cell biology has substantially enhanced the understanding of the biology of cancer and carcinogenesis. This has led to the development of methods to image the evolution of cancer, target specific biological molecules, and study the anti-tumour effects of novel therapeutic agents. At the same time, there has been a paradigm shift in the field of oncological imaging from purely structural or functional imaging to combined multimodal structure-function approaches that enable the assessment of malignancy from all aspects (including molecular and functional level) in a single examination. The evolving molecular functional imaging using specific molecular targets (especially with combined positron-emission tomography [PET] computed tomography [CT] using 2- [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] and other novel PET tracers) has great potential in translational research, giving specific quantitative information with regard to tumour activity, and has been of pivotal importance in diagnoses and therapy tailoring. Furthermore, molecular functional imaging has taken a key place in the present era of translational cancer research, producing an important tool to study and evolve newer receptor-targeted therapies, gene therapies, and in cancer stem cell research, which could form the basis to translate these agents into clinical practice, popularly termed "theranostics". Targeted molecular imaging needs to be developed in close association with biotechnology, information technology, and basic translational scientists for its best utility. This article reviews the current role of molecular functional imaging as one of the main pillars of translational research.


Assuntos
Imagem Molecular/métodos , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Pesquisa Médica Translacional/métodos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Imagem Multimodal , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
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