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1.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(5): e0007399, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Imported strongyloidiasis is increasingly being diagnosed in non-endemic areas. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological, clinical and microbiological characteristics of patients with imported strongyloidiasis in Spain. METHODOLOGY: This is an observational retrospective study that included all patients diagnosed of strongyloidiasis registered in the +REDIVI Collaborative Network from 2009 to 2017. Demographic, epidemiological and clinical information was collected from the +REDIVI database, and extra information regarding microbiological techniques, treatment and follow-up was requested to participant centers. FINDINGS: Overall, 1245 cases were included. Most of them were immigrants (66.9%), and South America was the most frequent area of origin. Detection of larvae in stool samples was observed in 21.9% of the patients, and serological tests allowed making the diagnosis in the rest of the cases. Eosinophilia was present in 82.2% of cases. Treatment with ivermectin (compared with albendazole) was the most strongly associated factor to achieve the cure (OR 2.34). CONCLUSIONS: Given the long latency of the infection and the risk of developing a severe presentation, screening of S. stercoralis infection should be mandatory in patients coming from or had traveling to endemic areas, especially in those with immunosuppressant conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/uso terapêutico , Estrongiloidíase/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Eosinofilia/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Ivermectina/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , América do Sul , Espanha/epidemiologia , Strongyloides stercoralis/efeitos dos fármacos , Strongyloides stercoralis/isolamento & purificação , Strongyloides stercoralis/fisiologia , Estrongiloidíase/complicações , Estrongiloidíase/diagnóstico , Estrongiloidíase/parasitologia , Viagem , Adulto Jovem
3.
Eur J Intern Med ; 64: 63-71, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30904433

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to analyse the characteristics of patients with IE in three groups of age and to assess the ability of age and the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) to predict mortality. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of all patients with IE included in the GAMES Spanish database between 2008 and 2015.Patients were stratified into three age groups:<65 years,65 to 80 years,and ≥ 80 years.The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (AUROC) curve was calculated to quantify the diagnostic accuracy of the CCI to predict mortality risk. RESULTS: A total of 3120 patients with IE (1327 < 65 years;1291 65-80 years;502 ≥ 80 years) were enrolled.Fever and heart failure were the most common presentations of IE, with no differences among age groups.Patients ≥80 years who underwent surgery were significantly lower compared with other age groups (14.3%,65 years; 20.5%,65-79 years; 31.3%,≥80 years). In-hospital mortality was lower in the <65-year group (20.3%,<65 years;30.1%,65-79 years;34.7%,≥80 years;p < 0.001) as well as 1-year mortality (3.2%, <65 years; 5.5%, 65-80 years;7.6%,≥80 years; p = 0.003).Independent predictors of mortality were age ≥ 80 years (hazard ratio [HR]:2.78;95% confidence interval [CI]:2.32-3.34), CCI ≥ 3 (HR:1.62; 95% CI:1.39-1.88),and non-performed surgery (HR:1.64;95% CI:11.16-1.58).When the three age groups were compared,the AUROC curve for CCI was significantly larger for patients aged <65 years(p < 0.001) for both in-hospital and 1-year mortality. CONCLUSION: There were no differences in the clinical presentation of IE between the groups. Age ≥ 80 years, high comorbidity (measured by CCI),and non-performance of surgery were independent predictors of mortality in patients with IE.CCI could help to identify those patients with IE and surgical indication who present a lower risk of in-hospital and 1-year mortality after surgery, especially in the <65-year group.

4.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 74(6): 1713-1717, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30789210

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tropheryma whipplei has been detected in 3.5% of the blood culture-negative cases of endocarditis in Spain. Experience in the management of T. whipplei endocarditis is limited. Here we report the long-term outcome of the treatment of previously reported patients who were diagnosed with infective endocarditis (IE) caused by T. whipplei from the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis-Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis Infecciosa en España (GAMES) and discuss potential options for antimicrobial therapy for IE caused by T. whipplei. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with T. whipplei endocarditis were recruited between 2008 and 2014 in 25 Spanish hospitals. Patients were classified according to the therapeutic regimen: ceftriaxone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, doxycycline + hydroxychloroquine and other treatment options. RESULTS: Follow-up data were obtained from 14 patients. The median follow-up was 46.5 months. All patients completed the antibiotic treatment prescribed, with a median duration of 13 months. Six patients were treated with ceftriaxone and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (median duration 13 months), four with doxycycline + hydroxychloroquine (median duration 13.8 months) and four with other treatment options (median duration 22.3 months). The follow-up after the end of the treatments was between 5 and 84 months (median 24 months). CONCLUSIONS: All treatment lines were effective and well tolerated. Therapeutic failures were not detected during the treatment. None of the patients died or experienced a relapse during the follow-up. Only six patients received antibiotic treatment in accordance with guidelines. These data suggest that shorter antimicrobial treatments could be effective.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 69(10): 1690-1700, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649282

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Outpatient parenteral antibiotic treatment (OPAT) has proven efficacious for treating infective endocarditis (IE). However, the 2001 Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) criteria for OPAT in IE are very restrictive. We aimed to compare the outcomes of OPAT with those of hospital-based antibiotic treatment (HBAT). METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data from a multicenter, prospective cohort study of 2000 consecutive IE patients in 25 Spanish hospitals (2008-2012) was performed. RESULTS: A total of 429 patients (21.5%) received OPAT, and only 21.7% fulfilled IDSA criteria. Males accounted for 70.5%, median age was 68 years (interquartile range [IQR], 56-76), and 57% had native-valve IE. The most frequent causal microorganisms were viridans group streptococci (18.6%), Staphylococcus aureus (15.6%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (14.5%). Median length of antibiotic treatment was 42 days (IQR, 32-54), and 44% of patients underwent cardiac surgery. One-year mortality was 8% (42% for HBAT; P < .001), 1.4% of patients relapsed, and 10.9% were readmitted during the first 3 months after discharge (no significant differences compared with HBAT). Charlson score (odds ratio [OR], 1.21; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.42; P = .01) and cardiac surgery (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, .09-.63; P = .04) were associated with 1-year mortality, whereas aortic valve involvement (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, .22-.98; P = .007) was the only predictor of 1-year readmission. Failing to fulfill IDSA criteria was not a risk factor for mortality or readmission. CONCLUSIONS: OPAT provided excellent results despite the use of broader criteria than those recommended by IDSA. OPAT criteria should therefore be expanded.

6.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 35(10): 617-623, dic. 2017. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-169560

RESUMO

Algunas enfermedades infecciosas han adquirido más relevancia por el aumento de los movimientos poblacionales. La eosinofilia es un hallazgo frecuente en inmigrantes y en viajeros. Una de las causas más frecuentes de eosinofilia es la infección por helmintos y algunos protozoos intestinales. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos con eosinofilia y su asociación con la presencia de parásitos en la red de datos REDIVI. Se trata de un estudio observacional multicéntrico prospectivo, donde se incluyen los casos diagnosticados de eosinofilia registrados en la Red cooperativa para el estudio de las infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes (+REDIVI) desde enero de 2009 hasta diciembre de 2012. Se registraron en la red un total de 5.255 episodios durante el periodo de estudio, y la eosinofilia fue un hallazgo en el 8,1 al 31,3% de los casos (dependiendo del tipo migratorio). Fueron hombres el 60,2%, con una mediana de 31,0años, inmigrantes el 72,4% y asintomáticos el 81,2%. Los parásitos más frecuentemente identificados fueron S.stercoralis(34,4%), Schistosoma sp. (11,0%) y uncinarias (8,6%). Existía asociación entre eosinofilia y presencia de parásitos para todos los helmintos (excepto para larva migrans cutánea). La sintomatología y la duración del viaje no determinaron significativamente la presencia de eosinofilia. Ante una eosinofilia en una persona que ha vivido en zonas endémicas de helmintiasis es aconsejable realizar estudios dirigidos para su diagnóstico, independientemente del tipo migratorio, la duración de la estancia o la presencia de sintomatología (AU)


The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travelers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicenter prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travelers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Eosinofilia/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Viajante , Fatores de Risco , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Protocolos Clínicos , Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Eosinofilia/microbiologia , Medicina de Viagem/normas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia
7.
J Travel Med ; 24(5)2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28931128

RESUMO

Background: Understanding and detecting imported diseases is a priority in the prevention and management of prevalent and emergent infectious diseases acquired abroad. The +Redivi network measures the burden of imported infections in Spain and is essential for closing the gap in travel medicine. Methods: Demographic characteristics, travel information, syndromes and confirmed travel-related diagnoses were registered in a standardised online database. Results: A total of 10 767 cases of imported infectious diseases were registered between October 2009 and December 2015. Of these, 60.8% of cases were immigrants seen for the first time after arrival, 20.6% were travellers, and 18.4% were individuals visiting friends and relatives (VFR [immigrants and travellers]). The median time between arrival and medical consultation was 5.5 years for immigrants, 2.0 weeks for travellers, 3.1 weeks for VFR-travellers and 11.4 for VFR-immigrants. The most prevalent diagnoses were Chagas disease in immigrants and nonspecific acute diarrhoea in travellers. Malaria by P. falciparum was one of the most prevalent diagnoses among VFR. More than half the travellers saw a physician before travelling, although one-third of those for whom antimalarial medication was indicated did not take their medication correctly. As for VFR, only 10.4% of VFR-immigrants and 32.5% of VFR-travellers sought pre-travel advice. Only 23 and 21%, respectively, of those for whom antimalarial prophylaxis was indicated took the medication properly. Conclusions : +Redivi provides a clear picture of the prevalence of imported infectious diseases among travellers and immigrants in Spain. The data collected could be used to improve everyday health care provided to travellers and immigrants after travel, to guide pre-travel consultations and to monitor the potential occurrence of tropical or exotic infectious diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/etiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Importadas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
8.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 35(10): 617-623, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27032297

RESUMO

The population movements during the last decades have resulted in a progressively increasing interest in certain infectious diseases. Eosinophilia is a common finding in immigrants and travellers. One of the most common causes of eosinophilia is helminth infection, and some intestinal protozoa. The aim of this paper is to describe the epidemiological characteristics of cases with eosinophilia and its association with the presence of parasites in the REDIVI data network. This is a multicentre prospective observational study that includes patients diagnosed with eosinophilia registered in the cooperative network for the study of infectious diseases in travellers and immigrants (+REDIVI) from January 2009 to December 2012. A total of 5,255 episodes were recorded in the network during the study period, and eosinophilia was observed in 8.1-31.3% of cases (depending on the immigration group). There were 60.2% men, with a median age of 31years. There were 72.4% immigrants, and 81.2% were asymptomatic. The most commonly identified parasites were S.stercoralis (34.4%), Schistosoma sp. (11.0%), and hookworm (8.6%). The relationship between eosinophilia and parasite infection was significant for all helminths (except for cutaneous larva migrans). The symptoms and duration of the journey did not significantly determine the presence of eosinophilia. In the case of eosinophilia in a person who has lived in helminth endemic areas, it is advisable to carry out targeted studies to diagnose the infection, regardless of immigration type, length of stay, or the presence of symptoms.


Assuntos
Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Eosinofilia/epidemiologia , Helmintíase/epidemiologia , Infecções por Protozoários/epidemiologia , Viagem , África/etnologia , Américas/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Doenças Endêmicas , Eosinofilia/parasitologia , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Helmintíase/sangue , Helmintíase/parasitologia , Helmintíase/transmissão , Humanos , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Protozoários/sangue , Infecções por Protozoários/parasitologia , Infecções por Protozoários/transmissão , Sistema de Registros , Espanha/epidemiologia
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(26): e4058, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27368042

RESUMO

Tropheryma whipplei endocarditis is an uncommon condition with very few series and <90 cases reported in the literature. The aim of the study was to analyze the epidemiological, clinical, and outcome characteristics of 17 cases of T. whipplei endocarditis recruited in our country from a multicentric cohort from 25 Spanish hospitals from the Spanish Collaboration on Endocarditis-Grupo de Apoyo al Manejo de la Endocarditis infecciosa en España.From a total of 3165 cases included in the cohort, 14.2% were diagnosed of blood culture negative endocarditis (BCNE) and 3.5% of these had T. whipplei endocarditis. This condition was more frequent in men. The average age was 60.3 years. Previous cardiac condition was present in 35.3% of the cases. The main clinical manifestation was cardiac failure (76.5%) while fever was only present in the 35.3%. Ecocardiography showed vegetations in 64.7% of patients. Surgery was performed in all but 1 cases and it allowed the diagnosis when molecular assays were performed. A broad range rRNA 16S polymerase chain reaction was used for first instance in all laboratories and different specific targets for T. whipplei were employed for confirmation. A concomitant Whipple disease was diagnosed in 11.9% of patients. All patients received specific antimicrobial treatment for at least 1 year, with no relapse and complete recovery.T. whipplei endocarditis is an uncommon condition with an atypical presentation that must be considered in the diagnosis of BCNE. The prognosis is very good when an appropriate surgical management and antimicrobial-specific treatment is given.


Assuntos
Infecções por Actinomycetales , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Tropheryma , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Espanha
10.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 34(2): 108-113, feb. 2016. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-148624

RESUMO

Introduction: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. Methods: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. Results: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV− (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV− travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P = .001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P < .001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P = .078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV− travelers the main diagnoses were “healthy” (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). Conclusions: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening (AU)


Introducción: La mejoría en el pronóstico de la infección por el VIH, sumada al incremento de los viajes y la inmigración, han aumentado la frecuencia del binomio viajero-VIH+. El objetivo de este trabajo es describir la epidemiología y hallazgos clínicos de los viajeros VIH+ en comparación con los VIH-. Métodos: Estudio observacional y prospectivo, de los viajeros e inmigrantes viajeros que se desplazan para visitar familiares y amigos (VFR) incluidos en la red +REDIVI (enero-2009; octubre-2014). +REDIVI es una red nacional que recopila información sobre infecciones importadas por viajeros e inmigrantes en 21 centros mediante un protocolo estandarizado de recogida de datos. Resultados: Se identificaron 3.464 viajeros: 72 VIH+ (2,1%) y 3.392 VIH− (98%). Los VIH+ en contraste con los VIH−, eran mayores (40 vs. 34 años; p = 0,001), predominantemente VFR (79,7% vs 44,4%. p < 0,001), y solicitan menos consejo pre-viaje (27% vs 37%. p = 0,078). Los destinos predominantes para ambos grupos fueron África Subsahariana y Latinoamérica. Los motivos de consulta más frecuentes al retorno del viaje fueron la fiebre, solicitar un examen de salud, molestias gastrointestinales, y anomalías en los resultados de laboratorio (principalmente eosinofilia y anemia) los cuales variaron según el grupo. Los diagnósticos más frecuentes en los VIH+ fueron la malaria (38,8%), nuevo diagnóstico de VIH (25%) y parasitosis intestinales (19,4%), mientras que en los sujetos VIH− los principales diagnósticos fueron “sano” (17,9%), parásitos intestinales (17,3%) y malaria (14%). Conclusiones: El perfil más común del viajero VIH+ atendido en +Redivi es el de un inmigrante VFR que no solicita consejo pre-viaje y hace viajes de alto riesgo. Esto puede suponer un mayor riesgo de adquisición de infecciones relacionadas con el viaje, las cuales en un viajero VIH+ pueden tener un efecto deletéreo adicional. La consulta tras el viaje es una buena oportunidad para el cribado de la infección por VIH (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Soropositividade para HIV/epidemiologia , Saúde do Viajante , Estudos Prospectivos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo
11.
Liver Transpl ; 22(4): 427-35, 2016 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26709146

RESUMO

Targeted prophylaxis has proven to be an efficient strategy in liver transplantation recipients (LTRs). The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of caspofungin with that of fluconazole in high-risk (HR) LTRs. Caspofungin and fluconazole were compared in a multicenter, retrospective, cohort study in HR-LTRs in Spain. Outcomes were assessed at 180 days after transplantation. A propensity score approach was applied. During the study period (2005-2012), we analyzed 195 HR-LTRs from 9 hospitals. By type of prophylaxis, 97 patients received caspofungin and 98 received fluconazole. Of a total of 17 (8.7%) global invasive fungal infections (IFIs), breakthrough IFIs accounted for 11 (5.6%) and invasive aspergillosis (IA) accounted for 6 (3.1%). By univariate analysis, no differences were observed in the prevention of global IFIs. However, caspofungin was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of breakthrough IFIs (2.1% versus 9.2%, P = 0.04). In patients requiring dialysis (n = 62), caspofungin significantly reduced the frequency of breakthrough IFIs (P = 0.03). The propensity score analysis confirmed a significant reduction in the frequency of IA in patients receiving caspofungin (absolute risk reduction, 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.001-0.11; P = 0.044). Linear regression analysis revealed a significant decrease in blood alanine aminotransferase levels and a significant increase in bilirubin levels after administration of caspofungin. Caspofungin and fluconazole have similar efficacy for the prevention of global IFIs in HR-LTRs in this observational, multicenter cohort study. However, caspofungin was associated with a significant reduction of breakthrough IFIs and, after adjusting for confounders, caspofungin was associated with a lower rate of IA. This benefit is probably more favorable in patients on dialysis. Caspofungin is safe in HR-LTRs, although bilirubin levels may be increased.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/prevenção & controle , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/prevenção & controle , Lipopeptídeos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Fígado/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Bilirrubina/sangue , Caspofungina , Estudos de Coortes , Equinocandinas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/epidemiologia , Lipopeptídeos/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatias/cirurgia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição/métodos , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Espanha/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
12.
Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin ; 34(2): 108-13, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26021187

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The improvement in the prognosis of HIV infection, coupled with the increase in international travel and migration, has led to a rising number of HIV infected travelers. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical features of returning travelers, according to their HIV status. METHODS: An observational prospective study was conducted including travelers and immigrants who traveled to visit friends and relatives (VFRs) registered in the +REDIVI collaborative network (January-2009; October-2014). +REDIVI is a national network that registers information regarding infections imported by travelers and immigrants at 21 different centers using a standardized protocol. RESULTS: A total of 3464 travellers were identified: 72 were HIV+ (2.1%) and 3.392 HIV- (98%). HIV+ vs. HIV- travelers were often older (40.5y vs. 34.2y P=.001), VFRs (79.1% vs. 44.4%; P<.001), and consulted less for pre-travel advice (27% vs. 37%; P=.078). The main destinations for both groups were sub-Saharan Africa and Latin America. The most frequent reasons for consultation after travel were fever, request for a health examination, gastrointestinal complaints, and abnormal laboratory tests (mainly eosinophilia and anemia), which differed between groups. The most frequent diagnoses in HIV+ travelers were malaria (38.8%), newly diagnosed HIV infection (25%), and intestinal parasites (19.4%), while for HIV- travelers the main diagnoses were "healthy" (17.9%), malaria (14%), and intestinal parasites (17.3%). CONCLUSIONS: The typical profile of an HIV+ traveler in +REDIVI was that of a VFR traveler who did not seek pre-travel advice and made high-risk trips. This may increase the chance of acquiring travel-related infections which may pose a special risk for HIV-infected travelers. The post-travel visit was a good opportunity for HIV infection screening.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Viagem , Adulto , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco
17.
Curr HIV Res ; 7(5): 526-32, 2009 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19925403

RESUMO

To report long-term data on safety and effectiveness of antiretroviral regimens, including nevirapine. HIV-1-infected patients who received nevirapine-based approaches for at least 4 years were identified in the databases of five centers and included in a retrospective cohort study. Data collected included plasma HIV-RNA (viral load) and CD4+ T-cell counts, lipid and liver function tests, at baseline, 2-year and > 4-year time points. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection, adverse events, and reasons for using nevirapine were also recorded. Two hundred and twenty-nine patients (139 males/90 females) were included. The mean age was 37 years (range 20-59). Most patients (n = 124; 54%) were former intravenous drug users. One hundred and thirty-five of the patients (59%) were coinfected with HCV. Median time on nevirapine was 72.6 months. The main reasons for nevirapine use included: second- or third-line therapy (39%), simplification of therapy (29%), first-line therapy (18%) and efavirenz intolerance (9%). LDL cholesterol and triglycerides decreased during the >4-year follow-up (135 mg/dl to 109 mg/dl, p = 0.04; and 216 mg/dl to 153 mg/dl, p<0.01, respectively), and HDL cholesterol increased from 48 mg/dl at baseline to 62 mg/dl (p<0.01). Liver enzymes remained without significant changes during follow-up. The reported follow-up pattern of laboratory tests was also found in the subset of HCV-coinfected patients, where men and women were compared and patients with a CD4+ cell count cut-off value of 250/mm(3) were stratified. Mean CD4+ T-cell counts increased from 439/mm(3) at baseline to 628/mm(3) at the last available visit (p<0.001). Ninety-four per cent (172 out of 184) of patients who remained on nevirapine-based therapy at last visit maintained viral load values below the limit of detection (<50 copies/ml). Throughout the follow-up nevirapine was stopped or withdrawn in 43 patients due to virological failure (n = 17), toxicity (n = 5), therapy interruption (n = 3), death (n = 2), dyslipidemia (n = 1), simplification (n = 1) or unknown reasons (n = 14). Adverse events were reported in 40 patients but none was directly attributed to nevirapine. Nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy provides sustained immunological and virological effectiveness over a more than 4-year treatment period as well as a beneficial lipid metabolic profile and a favorable safety profile, even in HCV-coinfected patients and women with CD4+ cell counts above 250/mm(3). The study data support a nevirapine-based approach as a suitable long-term strategy in the HIV-1-infected population.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-HIV/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevirapina/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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