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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 731, 2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection require lifelong effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The goal of ART in HIV-infected persons is sustained viral suppression. There is limited information on virological non-suppression or failure and its associated factors in children in resource limited countries, particularly Ghana. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 250 children aged 8 months to 15 years who had been on ART for at least 6 months attending the Paediatric HIV clinic at Korle Bu Teaching hospital in Ghana was performed. Socio-demographic, clinical, laboratory and ART Adherence related data were collected using questionnaires as well as medical records review. Blood samples were obtained for viral load and CD4+ count determination. Viral load levels > 1000 copies/ml on ART was considered virological non-suppression. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with virological non-suppression. RESULTS: The mean (±SD) age of the study participants was 11.4 ± 2.4 years and the proportion of males was 53.2%. Of the 250 study participants, 96 (38.4%) had virological non-suppression. After adjustment for significant variables, the factors associated with non-suppressed viral load were female gender (AOR 2.51 [95% CI 1.04-6.07], p = 0.041), having a previous history of treatment of tuberculosis (AOR 4.95 [95% CI 1.58-15.5], p = 0.006), severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment (AOR 24.93 [95% CI 4.92-126.31], p < 0.001) and being on a nevirapine (NVP) based regimen (AOR 7.93 [95% CI 1.58-1.15], p = 0.005). CONCLUSION: The prevelance of virological non-suppression was high. Virological non-suppression was associated with a previous history of TB treatment, female gender, severe CD4 immune suppression status at study recruitment and being on a NVP based regimen. Early initiation of ART and phasing out NVP-based regimen might improve viral load suppression in children. In addition, children with a history of TB may need focused measures to maximize virological suppression.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Contagem de Linfócito CD4 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gana , HIV/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Lactente , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Nevirapina/uso terapêutico , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Falha de Tratamento , Tuberculose/complicações , Carga Viral
2.
J Blood Med ; 11: 421-427, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33177908

RESUMO

Background: Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) are susceptible to infective conditions that predispose them to hemolysis and anemia. Folic acid is recommended as a preventative measure against anemia in SCD patients; however, there is scarce literature on the implications of this practice. Patients and Methods: Plasma concentrations of folate were measured in acutely ill pediatric SCD patients presenting with malaria or bacteremia and compared with those of SCD patients in steady state, or acutely ill non-SCD patients with confirmed malaria. Results: The proportion of individuals with high (>45.3 nmol/L) folate concentrations was 29.5% (13/44), 18.2% (8/44), 33.3% (6/18), and 0% in the SCD-malaria, SCD steady state, SCD bacteremia, and the non-SCD malaria groups, respectively. The proportion of SCD patients with high folate levels did not vary significantly at steady state and during confirmed malaria (p = 0.216), and during acute bacteremia (p = 0.20). The median (interquartile range) plasma folate levels were 34.50 (24.40-52.00 nmol/L), 33.40 (15.83-60.85 nmol/L), 30.85 (24.68-39.65 nmol/L), and 13.30 (10.03-17.18 nmol/L), respectively, in the SCD malaria, SCD bacteremia, SCD steady state, and the non-SCD malaria sub-groups. The median folate levels of SCD steady state, SCD malaria, and SCD bacteremia sub-groups differed significantly (p < 0.0001) when compared with non-SCD patients, but the levels in the SCD bacteremia and malaria groups were not significantly different from the SCD steady state group. Conclusion: Elevated levels of plasma folate were found in a high proportion of pediatric SCD patients. The implications of such elevated folate levels in pediatric SCD patients are unknown but may suggest a need for review of current recommendations for prophylactic doses of folic acid in SCD patients.

3.
BMC Pediatr ; 19(1): 509, 2019 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31870340

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For every newborn who dies within the first month, as many as eight more suffer life-threatening complications but survive (termed 'neonatal near-misses' (NNM)). However, there is no universally agreed-upon definition or assessment tool for NNM. This study sought to describe the development of the Neonatal Near-Miss Assessment Tool (NNMAT) for low-resource settings, as well as findings when implemented in Ghana. METHODS: This prospective, observational study was conducted at two tertiary care hospitals in southern Ghana from April - July 2015. Newborns with evidence of complications and those admitted to the NICUs were screened for inclusion using the NNMAT. Incidence of suspected NNM at enrollment and confirmed near-miss (surviving to 28 days) was determined and compared against institutional neonatal mortality rates. Suspected NNM cases were compared with newborns not classified as a suspected near-miss, and all were followed to 28 days to determine odds of survival. Confirmed near-misses were those identified as suspected near-misses at enrollment who survived to 28 days. The main outcome measures were incidence of NNM, NNM:mortality ratio, and factors associated with NNM classification. RESULTS: Out of 394 newborns with complications, 341 (86.5%) were initially classified as suspected near-misses at enrollment using the NNMAT, with 53 (13.4%) being classified as a non-near-miss. At 28-day follow-up, 68 (17%) had died, 52 (13%) were classified as a non-near-miss, and 274 were considered confirmed near-misses. Those newborns with complications who were classified as suspected near-misses using the NNMAT at enrollment had 12 times the odds of dying before 28 days than those classified as non-near-misses. While most confirmed near-misses qualified as NNM via intervention-based criteria, nearly two-thirds qualified based on two or more of the four NNMAT categories. When disaggregated, the most predictive elements of the NNMAT were gestational age < 33 weeks, neurologic dysfunction, respiratory dysfunction, and hemoglobin < 10 gd/dl. The ratio of near-misses to deaths was 0.55: 1, yet this varied across the study sites. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that the NNMAT is an effective tool for assessing neonatal near-misses in low-resource settings. We believe this approach has significant systems-level, continuous quality improvement, clinical and policy-level implications.


Assuntos
Doenças do Recém-Nascido/epidemiologia , Near Miss/estatística & dados numéricos , Gana/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
Curr Ther Res Clin Exp ; 90: 9-15, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30766619

RESUMO

Background: There is limited information on the safety or efficacy of currently recommended antimalarial drugs in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), a population predisposed to worse outcomes if affected by acute malaria. Artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) is the first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria (UM) in many malaria-endemic countries and is also used for treatment of UM in SCD patients. There is, however, no information to date, on the pharmacokinetics (PK) of amodiaquine or artesunate or the metabolites of these drugs in SCD patients. Objectives: This study sought to determine the PK of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the main active metabolite of amodiaquine, among paediatric SCD patients with UM treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ). Methods: Plasma concentration-time data (median DEAQ levels) of SCD children (n = 16) was initially compared with those of concurrently recruited non-SCD paediatric patients with acute UM (n = 13). A population PK modelling approach was then used to analyze plasma DEAQ concentrations obtained between 64 and 169 hours after oral administration of ASAQ in paediatric SCD patients with acute UM (n = 16). To improve PK modeling, DEAQ concentration-time data (n = 21) from SCD was merged with DEAQ concentration-time data (n = 169) of a historical paediatric population treated with ASAQ (n = 103) from the same study setting. Results: The median DEAQ concentrations on days 3 and 7 were comparatively lower in the SCD patients compared to the non-SCD patients. A two-compartment model best described the plasma DEAQ concentration-time data of the merged data (current SCD data and historical data). The estimated population clearance of DEAQ was higher in the SCD patients (67 L/h, 21% relative standard error (RSE) compared with the non-SCD population (15.5 L/h, 32% RSE). The central volume of distribution was larger in the SCD patients compared with the non-SCD patients (4400 L, 43% RSE vs. 368 L, 34% RSE). Conclusions: The data shows a tendency towards lower DEAQ concentration in SCD patients and the exploratory population PK estimates suggest altered DEAQ disposition in SCD patients with acute UM. These findings, which if confirmed, may reflect pathophysiological changes associated with SCD on DEAQ disposition, have implications for therapeutic response to amodiaquine in SCD patients. The limited number of recruited SCD patients and sparse sampling approach however, limits extrapolation of the data, and calls for further studies in a larger population.

5.
Int Health ; 10(1): 4-7, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29401244

RESUMO

Despite the high mortality, pneumonia retains a relatively low profile among researchers, funders and policymakers. Here we reflect on the problems and priorities of pneumonia in Ghana, briefly review the evidence base and reflect upon in-person discussions between Southampton-based authors MGH and JB and academic, clinical and policy colleagues in Ghana. The discussions took place in Accra in August 2017.


Assuntos
Prioridades em Saúde , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Gana/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Pneumonia/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa
6.
Genet Epigenet ; 8: 7-14, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27279750

RESUMO

Malaria pathogenesis may be influenced by IgE responses and cytokine cross-regulation. Several mutations in the IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathway can alter cytokine cross-regulation and IgE responses during a Plasmodium falciparum malarial infection. This study investigated the relationship between a STAT6 intronic single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs3024974), total IgE, cytokines, and malaria severity in 238 Ghanaian children aged between 0.5 and 13 years. Total IgE and cytokine levels were measured by ELISA, while genotyping was done by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP). Compared with healthy controls, heterozygosity protected against clinical malaria: uncomplicated malaria (odds ratios [OR] = 0.13, P < 0.001), severe malarial anemia (OR = 0.18, P < 0.001), and cerebral malaria (OR = 0.39, P = 0.022). Levels of total IgE significantly differed among malaria phenotypes (P = 0.044) and rs3024974 genotypes (P = 0.037). Neither cytokine levels nor IL-6/IL-10 ratios were associated with malaria phenotypes or rs3024974 genotypes. This study suggests a role for rs3024974 in malaria pathogenesis and offers further insights into an IL-4/STAT6 pathway mutation in malaria pathogenesis.

7.
Malar J ; 14: 153, 2015 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25888733

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Haem oxygenase-1 (HO-1) catabolizes haem and has both cytotoxic and cytoprotective effects. Polymorphisms in the promoter of the Haem oxygenase-1 (HMOX1) gene encoding HO-1 have been associated with several diseases including severe malaria. The objective of this study was to determine the allele and genotype frequencies of two single nucleotide polymorphisms; A(-413)T and G(-1135)A, and a (GT)n repeat length polymorphism in the HMOX1 promoter in paediatric malaria patients and controls to determine possible associations with malaria disease severity. METHODS: Study participants were Ghanaian children (n=296) admitted to the emergency room at the Department of Child Health, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana during the malaria season from June to August in 1995, 1996 and 1997, classified as having uncomplicated malaria (n=101) or severe malaria (n=195; defined as severe anaemia (n=63) or cerebral malaria (n=132)). Furthermore, 287 individuals without a detectable Plasmodium infection or asymptomatic carriers of the parasite were enrolled as controls. Blood samples from participants were extracted for DNA and allele and genotype frequencies were determined with allele-specific PCR, restriction fragment length analysis and microsatellite analysis. RESULTS: The number of (GT)n repeats in the study participants varied between 21 and 46 with the majority of alleles having lengths of 26 (8.1%), 29/30 (13.2/17.9%) and 39/40 (8.0/13.8%) repeats, and was categorized into short, medium and long repeats. The (-413)T allele was very common (69.8%), while the (-1135)A allele was present in only 17.4% of the Ghanaian population. The G(-1135)A locus was excluded from further analysis after failing the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test. No significant differences in allele or genotype distribution of the A(-413)T and (GT)n repeat polymorphisms were found between the controls and the malaria patients, or between the disease groups, for any of the analysed polymorphisms and no associations with malaria severity were found. CONCLUSION: These results contribute to the understanding of the role of HMOX1/HO-1. This current study did not find any evidence of association between HMOX1 promoter polymorphisms and malaria susceptibility or severe malaria and hence contradicts previous findings. Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the relationship between HMOX1 polymorphisms and malarial disease.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heme Oxigenase-1/genética , Malária Falciparum/genética , Malária Falciparum/patologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
8.
Malar J ; 13: 369, 2014 Sep 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25236838

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a genetic disorder common in malaria endemic areas. In endemic areas, malaria is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among SCD patients. This suggests the need for prompt initiation of efficacious anti-malarial therapy in SCD patients with acute malaria. However, there is no information to date, on the efficacy or safety of artemisinin combination therapy when used for malaria treatment in SCD patients. METHODS: Children with SCD and acute uncomplicated malaria (n=60) were randomized to treatment with artesunate-amodiaquine (AA), or artemether-lumefantrine (AL). A comparison group of non-SCD children (HbAA genotype; n=59) with uncomplicated malaria were also randomized to treatment with AA or AL. Recruited children were followed up and selected investigations were done on days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 28, 35, and 42. Selected clinical and laboratory parameters of the SCD patients were also compared with a group of malaria-negative SCD children (n=82) in steady state. RESULTS: The parasite densities on admission were significantly lower in the SCD group, compared with the non-SCD group (p=0.0006). The parasite reduction ratio (PRR) was lower, clearance was slower (p<0.0001), and time for initial parasitaemia to decline by 50 and 90% were longer for the SCD group. Adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) on day 28 was 98.3% (58/59) in the SCD group and 100% (57/57) in the non-SCD group. Corresponding ACPR rates on day 42 were 96.5% (55/57) in the SCD group and 96.4% (53/55) in the non-SCD group. The fractional changes in haemoglobin, platelets and white blood cell counts between baseline (day 0) and endpoint (day 42) were 16.9, 40.6 and 92.3%, respectively, for the SCD group, and, 12.3, 48.8 and 7.5%, respectively, for the non-SCD group. There were no differences in these indices between AA- and AL-treated subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The parasite clearance of SCD children with uncomplicated malaria was slower compared with non-SCD children. AA and AL showed similar clinical and parasitological effects in the SCD and non-SCD groups. The alterations in WBC and platelet counts may have implications for SCD severity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trials ISRCTN96891086.


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Anemia Falciforme/parasitologia , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/sangue , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Anemia Falciforme/fisiopatologia , Artemeter , Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Gana , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lumefantrina , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Carga Parasitária , Análise de Sobrevida
9.
Malar J ; 12: 400, 2013 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24200236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The complex interactions between the human host and the Plasmodium falciparum parasite and the factors influencing severity of disease are still not fully understood. Human single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs associated with Knops blood group system; carried by complement receptor 1 may be associated with the pathology of P. falciparum malaria, and susceptibility to disease. METHODS: The objective of this study was to determine the genotype and haplotype frequencies of the SNPs defining the Knops blood group antigens; Kna/b, McCoya/b, Swain-Langley1/2 and KCAM+/- in Ghanaian patients with malaria and determine possible associations between these polymorphisms and the severity of the disease. Study participants were patients (n = 267) admitted to the emergency room at the Department of Child Health, Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana during the malaria season from June to August in 1995, 1996 and 1997, classified as uncomplicated malaria (n = 89), severe anaemia (n = 57) and cerebral malaria (n = 121) and controls who did not have a detectable Plasmodium infection or were symptomless carriers of the parasite (n = 275). The frequencies were determined using a post-PCR ligation detection reaction-fluorescent microsphere assay, developed to detect the SNPs defining the antigens. Chi-square/Fisher's exact test and logistic regression models were used to analyse the data. RESULTS: As expected, high frequencies of the alleles Kna, McCb, Sl2 and KCAM- were found in the Ghanaian population. Apart from small significant differences between the groups at the Sl locus, no significant allelic or genotypic differences were found between the controls and the disease groups or between the disease groups. The polymorphisms define eight different haplotypes H1(2.4%), H2(9.4%), H3(59.8%), H4(0%), H5(25.2%), H6(0.33%), H7(2.8%) and H8(0%). Investigating these haplotypes, no significant differences between any of the groups were found. CONCLUSION: The results confirm earlier findings of high frequencies of certain CR1 alleles in Africa; and shed more light on earlier conflicting findings; the alleles McCb, Sl2, Knb and KCAM- or combined haplotypes do not seem to confer any protective advantage against malaria infection or resulting disease severity. Based on these findings, in a very well-characterized population, malaria does not seem to be the selective force on these alleles.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Grupos Sanguíneos/genética , Resistência à Doença , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Malária Falciparum/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Complemento 3b/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Gana , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino
10.
J Trop Med ; 2013: 360540, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23554819

RESUMO

Background. Plasmodium falciparum malaria, as well as certain antimalarial drugs, is associated with hearing impairment in adults. There is little information, however, on the extent, if any, of this effect in children, and the evidence linking artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) with hearing is inconclusive. Methods. Audiometry was conducted in children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n = 37), artemether-lumefantrine (n = 35), or amodiaquine (n = 8) in Accra, Ghana. Audiometry was repeated 3, 7, and 28 days later and after 9 months. Audiometric thresholds were compared with those of a control group of children (n = 57) from the same area. Findings. During the acute stage, hearing threshold levels of treated children were significantly elevated compared with controls (P < 0.001). The threshold elevations persisted up to 28 days, but no differences in hearing thresholds were evident between treated children and controls after 9 months. The hearing thresholds of children treated with the two ACT regimens were comparable but lower than those of amodiaquine-treated children during acute illness. Interpretation. Malaria is the likely cause of the elevated hearing threshold levels during the acute illness, a finding that has implications for learning and development in areas of intense transmission, as well as for evaluating potential ototoxicity of new antimalarial drugs.

11.
PLoS One ; 8(12): e84181, 2013.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24386348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cerebral malaria (CM) is responsible for most of the malaria-related deaths in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Although, not well understood, the pathogenesis of CM involves parasite and host factors which contribute to parasite sequestration through cytoadherence to the vascular endothelium. Cytoadherence to brain microvasculature is believed to involve host endothelial receptor, CD54 or intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, while other receptors such as CD36 are generally involved in cytoadherence of parasites in other organs. We therefore investigated the contributions of host ICAM-1 expression and levels of antibodies against ICAM-1 binding variant surface antigen (VSA) on parasites to the development of CM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Paediatric malaria patients, 0.5 to 13 years were recruited and grouped into CM and uncomplicated malaria (UM) patients, based on well defined criteria. Standardized ELISA protocol was used to measure soluble ICAM-1 (sICAM-1) levels from acute plasma samples. Levels of IgG to CD36- or ICAM-1-binding VSA were measured by flow cytometry during acute and convalescent states. Wilcoxon sign rank-test analysis to compare groups revealed association between sICAM-1 levels and CM (p<0.0037). Median levels of antibodies to CD36-binding VSA were comparable in the two groups at the time of admission and 7 days after treatment was initiated (p>0.05). Median levels of antibodies to CD36-binding VSAs were also comparable between acute and convalescent samples within any patient group. Median levels of antibodies to ICAM-1-binding VSAs were however significantly lower at admission time than during recovery in both groups. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: High levels of sICAM-1 were associated with CM, and the sICAM-1 levels may reflect expression levels of the membrane bound form. Anti-VSA antibody levels to ICAM-binding parasites was more strongly associated with both UM and CM than antibodies to CD36 binding parasites. Thus, increasing host sICAM-1 levels were associated with CM whilst antibodies to parasite expressing non-ICAM-1-binding VSAs were not.


Assuntos
Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/sangue , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/química , Malária Cerebral/sangue , Adolescente , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/imunologia , Antígenos de Protozoários/imunologia , Antígenos CD36/imunologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Molécula 1 de Adesão Intercelular/imunologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Plasmodium falciparum/imunologia , Plasmodium falciparum/fisiologia , Análise de Regressão , Solubilidade
12.
Malar J ; 11: 420, 2012 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23244570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several anti-malarial drugs are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects. These effects may be exacerbated when different anti-malarials are used in combination. There has been no report yet on the potential cardiac effects of the combination artesunate-amodiaquine. METHODS: Electrocardiographic (ECG) intervals in Ghanaian children with uncomplicated malaria treated with artesunate-amodiaquine (n=47), were compared with that of children treated with artemether-lumefantrine (n=30). The ECG measurements were repeated one, two, three, seven and 28 days after treatment. The ECG intervals of artesunate-amodiaquine treated subjects were correlated with plasma concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the main metabolite of amodiaquine. RESULTS: The mean ECG intervals were similar in both groups before treatment. After treatment (day 3), ECG intervals changed significantly from baseline in all subjects, but there were no differences between the two treatment groups. A significantly higher proportion of children treated with artesunate-amodiaquine developed sinus bradycardia compared with artemether-lumefantrine treated subjects (7/47 vs 0/30; χ² p=0.03). Subjects who developed bradycardia were significantly older, and had higher DEAQ concentrations than those who did not develop bradycardia. The proportion of subjects with QTc interval prolongations did not differ significantly between the groups, and no relationship between prolonged QTc intervals and DEAQ levels were observed. No clinically significant rhythm disturbances were observed in any of the subjects. CONCLUSION: Artesunate-amodiaquine treatment resulted in a higher incidence of sinus bradycardia than artemether-lumefantrine treatment in children with uncomplicated malaria, but no clinically significant rhythm disturbances were induced by combining artesunate with amodiaquine. These findings, although reassuring, may imply that non-amodiaquine based artemisinin combination therapy may be preferable for malaria treatment in patients who are otherwise at risk of cardiac effects.


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia , Etanolaminas/efeitos adversos , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Amodiaquina/administração & dosagem , Amodiaquina/análogos & derivados , Amodiaquina/sangue , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Bradicardia/sangue , Bradicardia/induzido quimicamente , Bradicardia/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/sangue , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
13.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 7(6): 669-81, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19681693

RESUMO

Artemether-lumefantrine (AL; Coartem, Riamet) is the first fixed-dose artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) regimen to be manufactured under Good Manufacturing Practice conditions, and is the most widely adopted ACT regimen used in malaria control programs. AL is approved for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in adults, children and infants, and as treatment of uncomplicated malaria in nonimmune travelers returning from malarious areas. AL is efficacious for treating uncomplicated malaria in children and the frequency of associated adverse events is not higher than other available ACT regimens. In this review, available evidence on efficacy and safety of AL in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria, with emphasis on children where appropriate, and focusing on characteristics that are potentially important for malaria control policy decisions, are presented and discussed.


Assuntos
Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Etanolaminas , Fluorenos , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Antimaláricos/química , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Artemisininas/química , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Etanolaminas/efeitos adversos , Etanolaminas/química , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/administração & dosagem , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Fluorenos/química , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Plasmodium falciparum/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 52(12): 4400-6, 2008 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18779360

RESUMO

Artesunate (AS) is used in combination with amodiaquine (AQ) as first-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria in many countries. We investigated the effect of concomitant AS administration on the pharmacokinetics of AQ and compared concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the main metabolite of AQ, in plasma between patients with different variants of the cytochrome P4502C8 (CYP2C8) gene. A two-compartment model was fitted to 169 plasma DEAQ concentrations from 103 Ghanaian children aged 1 to 14 years with uncomplicated malaria treated either with AQ alone (n = 15) or with AS plus AQ (n = 88). The population clearance of DEAQ appeared to increase nonlinearly with body weight, and the central volume of distribution of DEAQ was higher (P < 0.001) in the AS-plus-AQ group than in the AQ-only group. The maximum plasma DEAQ concentration was higher (P < 0.001), and the population distribution half-life was shorter (P < 0.01), in the AQ-only group than in the AS-plus-AQ group. The total areas under the plasma DEAQ concentration-time curves (P = 0.68) and elimination half-lives (P = 0.39) were similar for the two groups. There was a high frequency (0.179) of the non-wild-type allele of CYP2C8, but no differences between CYP2C8 genotypes with regard to AQ efficacy or safety were evident. The sample size, however, was limited, so monitoring of AQ toxicity in the study area is still indicated. The nonlinear clearance of DEAQ and the wide variability in kinetic parameters have safety implications for weight-based dosing of higher-body-weight children with AQ. The pharmacokinetics of artemisinin combination therapies should be studied in malaria patients, because the rapid parasite clearance caused by the artemisinin may affect the kinetics of the partner drug and the combination.


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/administração & dosagem , Amodiaquina/farmacocinética , Antimaláricos , Artemisininas , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Polimorfismo Genético , Amodiaquina/análogos & derivados , Amodiaquina/metabolismo , Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/administração & dosagem , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Artesunato , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C8 , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Gana , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Clin Vaccine Immunol ; 15(9): 1456-60, 2008 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18632918

RESUMO

CD163 is an acute-phase-regulated monocyte/macrophage membrane receptor expressed late in inflammation. It is involved in the haptoglobin-mediated removal of free hemoglobin from plasma, has been identified as a naturally soluble plasma glycoprotein with potential anti-inflammatory properties, and is possibly linked to an individual's haptoglobin phenotype. High levels of soluble CD163 (sCD163) in a malaria episode may therefore downregulate inflammation and curb disease severity. In order to verify this, the relationships between sCD163 levels, malaria severity, and selected inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor alpha [TNF-alpha], interleukin-6 [IL-6], and IL-10) were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using plasma samples obtained from pediatric malaria patients with uncomplicated malaria (UM [n = 38]), cerebral malaria (CM [n = 52]), and severe malarial anemia (SA [n = 55]) during two consecutive malaria transmission seasons (2002 and 2003). Median sCD163 levels were higher in UM (11.9 microg/ml) patients than in SA (7.7 microg/ml; P = 0.010) and CM (8.0 microg/ml; P = 0.031) patients. Levels of sCD163 were also higher in all patient groups than in a group of 81 age-matched healthy controls. The higher sCD163/TNF-alpha ratio in UM patients, coupled with the fact that sCD163 levels correlated with TNF-alpha levels in UM patients but not in CM and SA patients, suggests inflammatory dysregulation in the complicated cases. The study showed that sCD163 levels are elevated during acute malaria. High sCD163 levels in UM patients may be due to the induction of higher-level anti-inflammatory responses, enabling them to avoid disease complications. It is also possible that UM patients simply lost their CD163 receptors from macrophages in inflammatory sites while complicated-malaria patients still had their receptors attached to activated macrophages, reflecting ongoing and higher-level inflammation associated with complicated malaria.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/sangue , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/sangue , Malária/patologia , Malária/fisiopatologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/sangue , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocinas/sangue , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Estatística como Assunto
16.
Malar J ; 7: 127, 2008 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18620577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Artesunate-amodiaquine (AS+AQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AM-L) are efficacious artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) regimens that have been widely adopted in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there is little information on the efficacy of these regimens on subsequent episodes beyond 28 days, or on the safety of repeated treatments. METHODS: Children aged six months to 14 years with uncomplicated malaria were randomly assigned to treatment with AS+AQ (n = 116), or AM-L (n = 111). Recruited subjects were followed-up, initially for 28 days, and then monthly for up to one year. All subsequent attacks of uncomplicated malaria after 28 days were treated with the same regimen as at randomization. Investigations aimed at determining efficacy and side effects were conducted. RESULTS: Adequate clinical and parasitological response in subjects with evaluable end-points were, 97.1% (100/103) and 98.2% (107/109) on day 14, and 94.2% (97/103) and 95.3% (102/107) on day 28 in the AM-L and AS+AQ groups, respectively. Similar results were obtained after PCR correction. The incidence of malaria attacks in the year following recruitment was similar between the two treatment groups (p = 0.93). There was a high incidence of potentially AQ-resistant parasites in the study area. The incidence of adverse events, such as pruritus, fatigue and neutropaenia were similar in the two treatment groups. No patient showed signs of hearing impairment, and no abnormal neurological signs were observed during one year of follow-up. Other adverse events were mild in intensity and overlapped with known malaria symptomatology. No adverse event exacerbation was observed in any of the subjects who received multiple treatment courses with these ACT regimens during one year follow-up. CONCLUSION: AS+AQ and AM-L were efficacious for treatment of children with uncomplicated malaria in Ghana and drug-related adverse events were rare in treated subjects during one year of follow-up. The high prevalence of potentially AQ resistant parasites raises questions about the utility of AQ as a partner drug for ACT in Ghana. The efficacy of AS+AQ in Ghana requires, therefore, continuous monitoring and evaluation. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT 00406146 http://www.clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Antimaláricos/uso terapêutico , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Etanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Fluorenos/uso terapêutico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Amodiaquina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Antimaláricos/efeitos adversos , Combinação Arteméter e Lumefantrina , Artemisininas/efeitos adversos , Sangue/parasitologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Combinação de Medicamentos , Etanolaminas/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fluorenos/efeitos adversos , Seguimentos , Gana , Humanos , Lactente , Contagem de Leucócitos , Malária Falciparum/parasitologia , Malária Falciparum/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Neutrófilos , Plasmodium falciparum/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Malar J ; 6: 165, 2007 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18086298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe anaemia (SA), intravascular haemolysis (IVH) and respiratory distress (RD) are severe forms of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, with RD reported to be of prognostic importance in African children with malarial anaemia. Complement factors have been implicated in the mechanism leading to excess anaemia in acute P. falciparum infection. METHODS: The direct Coombs test (DCT) and flow cytometry were used to investigate the mean levels of RBC-bound complement fragments (C3d and C3balphabeta) and the regulatory proteins [complement receptor 1 (CD35) and decay accelerating factor (CD55)] in children with discrete clinical forms of P. falciparum malaria. The relationship between the findings and clinical parameters including coma, haemoglobin (Hb) levels and RD were investigated. RESULTS: Of the 484 samples tested, 131(27%) were positive in DCT, out of which 115/131 (87.8%) were positive for C3d alone while 16/131 (12.2%) were positive for either IgG alone or both. 67.4% of the study population were below 5 years of age and DCT positivity was more common in this age group relative to children who were 5 years or older (Odds ratio, OR = 3.8; 95%CI, 2.2-6.7, p < 0.001). DCT correlated significantly with RD (beta = -304, p = 0.006), but multiple regression analysis revealed that, Hb (beta = -0.341, p = 0.012) and coma (beta = -0.256, p = 0.034) were stronger predictors of RD than DCT (beta = 0.228, p = 0.061). DCT was also not associated with IVH, p = 0.19, while spleen size was inversely correlated with Hb (r = -402, p = 0.001). Flow cytometry showed similar mean fluorescent intensity (MFI) values of CD35, CD55 and C3balphabeta levels on the surfaces of RBC in patients and asymptomatic controls (AC). However, binding of C3balphabeta correlated significantly with CD35 or CD55 (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: These results suggest that complement activation contributed to anaemia in acute childhood P. falciparum malaria, possibly through induction of erythrophagocytosis and haemolysis. In contrast to other studies, this study did not find association between levels of the complement regulatory proteins, CD35 and CD55 and malarial anaemia. These findings suggest that complement activation could also be involved in the pathogenesis of RD but larger studies are needed to confirm this finding.


Assuntos
Anemia/etiologia , Ativação do Complemento/fisiologia , Malária Cerebral/etiologia , Malária Falciparum/imunologia , Doenças Respiratórias/etiologia , Fatores Etários , Anemia/imunologia , Antígenos CD55/análise , Antígenos CD55/imunologia , Antígenos CD55/metabolismo , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ativação do Complemento/imunologia , Complemento C3b/análise , Complemento C3b/imunologia , Complemento C3b/metabolismo , Complemento C3d/análise , Complemento C3d/imunologia , Complemento C3d/metabolismo , Teste de Coombs , Eritrócitos/imunologia , Citometria de Fluxo , Gana , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Malária Cerebral/imunologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Receptores de Complemento 3b/análise , Receptores de Complemento 3b/imunologia , Receptores de Complemento 3b/metabolismo , Doenças Respiratórias/imunologia , Estatística como Assunto
20.
J Trop Pediatr ; 52(4): 254-9, 2006 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16326751

RESUMO

A major manifestation of complicated malaria especially among children is severe anaemia, the pathogenesis of which is not well understood. Among other factors, suppression of the bone marrow's response to erythropoietin, which is rapidly reversed after successful treatment of the malaria, has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Since resolution of malaria restores erythropoiesis, we hypothesized that drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum would increase the risk of severe anaemia developing from initially uncomplicated malaria. Using both in vivo and in vitro drug-sensitivity tests we compared the prevalence of drug-resistant malaria between severe malarial anaemia SA and non-anaemic malaria NAM patients. Assessment of treatment outcome using the WHO in vivo criteria showed no significant difference in parasite resistance between the two groups. The mean parasite clearance time was also comparable. Treatment failures of about 14 per cent and 12 per cent were observed between SA and NAM patients respectively. The in vitro drug susceptibility test showed overall mean IC50 values of 0.41x10(-6) mol/l and 0.32x10(-6) mol/l blood for SA and NAM groups respectively. Geometric mean pre-treatment blood levels of chloroquine did not differ much between the two groups. Findings from this study could not therefore implicate drug-resistant parasites in the pathogenesis of severe malarial anaemia.


Assuntos
Anemia/parasitologia , Malária/sangue , Plasmodium falciparum , Amodiaquina/uso terapêutico , Animais , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Artesunato , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Humanos , Lactente , Malária/complicações , Malária/tratamento farmacológico , Malária/parasitologia , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico
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