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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705908

RESUMO

Using data from infancy to adolescence, our analysis of longitudinal wheeze phenotypes allowed us to visualize four longitudinal wheeze trajectories (never/infrequent wheeze, mid-childhood onset wheeze, early transient wheeze, and persistent wheeze).

2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 2(10): e1912902, 2019 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617922

RESUMO

Importance: Air pollutants interact with estrogen nuclear receptors, but their effect on thyroid signaling is less clear. Thyroid function is of particular importance for pregnant women because of the thyroid's role in fetal brain development. Objective: To determine the short-term association of exposure to air pollution in the first trimester with thyroid function throughout pregnancy. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 9931 pregnant women from 4 European cohorts (the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study, the Generation R Study, Infancia y Medio Ambiente, and Rhea) and 1 US cohort (Project Viva) with data on air pollution exposure and thyroid function during pregnancy were included. The recruitment period for the Amsterdam Born Children and Their Development Study was January 2003 to March 2004; for Generation R, April 2002 to January 2006; for Infancia y Medio Ambiente, November 2003 to January 2008; for Rhea, February 2007 to February 2008; and for Project Viva, April 1999 to November 2002. Statistical analyses were conducted from January 2018 to April 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Residential air pollution concentrations (ie, nitrogen oxide and particulate matter [PM]) during the first trimester of pregnancy were estimated using land-use regression and satellite-derived aerosol optical depth models. Free thyroxine, thyrotropin, and thyroid peroxidase antibody levels were measured across gestation. Hypothyroxinemia was defined as free thyroxine below the fifth percentile of the cohort distribution with normal thyrotropin levels, following the American Thyroid Association guidelines. Results: Among 9931 participants, the mean (SD) age was 31.2 (4.8) years, 4853 (48.9%) had more than secondary educational levels, 5616 (56.6%) were nulliparous, 404 (4.2%) had hypothyroxinemia, and 506 (6.7%) tested positive for thyroid peroxidase antibodies. Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 µm or less (PM2.5) were lower and had less variation in women in the US cohort than those in European cohorts. No associations of nitrogen oxide with thyroid function were found. Higher exposures to PM2.5 were associated with higher odds of hypothyroxinemia in pregnant women (odds ratio per 5-µg/m3 change, 1.21; 95% CI, 1.00-1.47). Although exposure to PM with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 µm or less was not significantly associated with hypothyroxinemia, the coefficient was similar to that for the association of PM2.5 with hypothyroxinemia (odds ratio per 10-µg/m3 change, 1.18; 95% CI, 0.93-1.48). Absorbances of PM2.5 and PM with aerodynamic diameter from 2.5 to 10 µg and were not associated with hypothyroxinemia. There was substantial heterogeneity among cohorts with respect to thyroid peroxidase antibodies (P for heterogeneity, <.001), showing associations of nitrogen oxide and PM with thyroid autoimmunity only in the women in the Generation R Study. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that first-trimester exposures to PM2.5 were associated with mild thyroid dysfunction throughout pregnancy. The association of PM2.5 exposure with thyroid function during pregnancy is of global health importance because air pollution exposure is widespread and hypothyroxinemia may adversely influence the brain development of offspring.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557500

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To use spatial analysis methodology to analyze residential and school proximity to major roadways and pediatric asthma morbidity. METHODS: The School Inner-City Asthma Study (n=350) recruited school-aged children with asthma. Each participant's school and home addresses were geocoded and distances from major roadways were measured to calculate a composite measurement accounting for both home and school traffic exposure. Generalized estimated equation models were clustered by subject and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, gender, income, environmental tobacco smoke, controller medication, upper respiratory tract infections and seasonality. RESULTS: The majority of participants (62%) attended schools within 100 meters from major roadways and 40% also resided within 100 meters of major roadways. In multivariate analyses, major roadway proximity was independently associated with increased asthma symptom days. Above a threshold of 100 meters, children had 29% less odds of a symptom day over the past 2 weeks for each 100 meter increase in distance from major roadway (OR 0.71; 95% CI:0.58-0.87; p <0.01). Children farther from a major roadway also had significantly less reported health care utilization (OR 0.63; 95% CI: 0.47-0.85; p<0.01); and significantly less likely to have poor asthma control (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69-0.94; p< 0.01). There was not a meaningful association between distance to major roadway and lung function outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Proximity to major roadway, a composite measurement of home and school exposure, primarily driven by home exposure, was associated with greater asthma morbidity. More studies are needed to evaluate the independent effect of school distance to roadway on asthma morbidity.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fetal oxidative balance (achieved when protective prenatal factors counteract sources of oxidative stress) might be critical for preventing asthma and allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: We examined prenatal intakes of hypothesized protective nutrients (including antioxidants) in conjunction with potential sources of oxidative stress in models of adolescent asthma and allergic disease. METHODS: We used data from 996 mother-child pairs in Project Viva. Exposures of interest were maternal prepregnancy body mass index and prenatal nutrients (energy-adjusted intakes of vitamins D, C, and E; ß-carotene; folate; choline; and n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids [PUFAs]), air pollutant exposures (residence-specific third-trimester black carbon or particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 µm [PM2.5]), acetaminophen, and smoking. Outcomes were offspring's current asthma, allergic rhinitis, and allergen sensitization at a median age of 12.9 years. We performed logistic regression. Continuous exposures were log-transformed and modeled as z scores. RESULTS: We observed protective associations for vitamin D (odds ratio [OR], 0.69 [95% CI, 0.53-0.89] for allergic rhinitis), the sum of the n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (OR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.66-0.99] for current asthma), and the n-3 PUFA α-linolenic acid (OR, 0.78 [95% CI, 0.64-0.95] for allergen sensitization and OR, 0.80 [95% CI 0.65-0.99] for current asthma). Black carbon and PM2.5 were associated with an approximately 30% increased risk for allergen sensitization. No multiplicative interactions were observed for protective nutrient intakes with sources of oxidative stress. CONCLUSIONS: We identified potential protective prenatal nutrients (vitamin D and n-3 PUFAs), as well as adverse prenatal pro-oxidant exposures that might alter the risk of asthma and allergic disease into adolescence.

6.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(8): 87006, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433236

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identifying factors that impair bone accrual during childhood is a critical step toward osteoporosis prevention. Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) has been associated with lower bone mineral density, but data are limited, particularly in children. METHODS: We studied 576 children in Project Viva, a Boston-area cohort of mother/child pairs recruited prenatally from 1999 to 2002. We quantified plasma concentrations of several PFASs and measured areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in midchildhood. We used linear regression to examine associations between plasma concentrations of individual PFASs and aBMD z-score. We used weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression to examine the association of the PFAS mixture with aBMD z-score. All models were adjusted for maternal age, education, annual household income, census tract median household income, and child age, sex, race/ethnicity, dairy intake, physical activity, and year of blood draw. RESULTS: Children were [[Formula: see text]] [Formula: see text] of age. The highest PFAS plasma concentrations were of perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) {median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 6.4 (5.6) ng/mL} and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) [median (IQR): 4.4 (3.2) ng/mL]. Using linear regression, children with higher plasma concentrations of PFOA, PFOS, and perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) had lower aBMD z-scores [e.g., [Formula: see text]: [Formula: see text]; 95% confidence interval (CI): [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] per doubling of PFOA]. The PFAS mixture was negatively associated with aBMD z-score ([Formula: see text]: [Formula: see text]; 95% CI: [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] per IQR increment of the mixture index). CONCLUSIONS: PFAS exposure may impair bone accrual in childhood and peak bone mass, an important determinant of lifelong skeletal health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4918.

7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 144(5): 1402-1410, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415782

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early-life indoor bacterial exposure is associated with the risk of asthma, but the roles of specific bacterial genera are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether individual bacterial genera in indoor microbiota predict the development of asthma. METHODS: Dust samples from living rooms were collected at 2 months of age. The dust microbiota was characterized by using Illumina MiSeq sequencing amplicons of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Children (n = 373) were followed up for ever asthma until the age of 10.5 years. RESULTS: Richness was inversely associated with asthma after adjustments (P = .03). The phylogenetic microbiota composition in asthmatics patients' homes was characteristically different from that in nonasthmatic subjects' homes (P = .02, weighted UniFrac, adjusted association, permutational multivariate analysis of variance, PERMANOVA-S). The first 2 axis scores of principal coordinate analysis of the weighted UniFrac distance matrix were inversely associated with asthma. Of 658 genera detected in the dust samples, the relative abundances of 41 genera correlated (r > |0.4|) with one of these axes. Lactococcus genus was a risk factor for asthma (adjusted odds ratio, 1.36 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63] per interquartile range change). The abundance of 12 bacterial genera (mostly from the Actinomycetales order) was associated with lower asthma risk (P < .10), although not independently of each other. The sum relative abundance of these 12 intercorrelated genera was significantly protective and explained the majority of the association of richness with less asthma. CONCLUSION: Our data confirm that phylogenetic differences in the microbiota of infants' homes are associated with subsequent asthma risk and suggest that communities of selected bacteria are more strongly linked to asthma protection than individual bacterial taxa or mere richness.

8.
Thorax ; 74(11): 1063-1069, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391318

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ambient air pollution accelerates lung function decline among adults, however, there are limited data about its role in the development and progression of early stages of interstitial lung disease. AIMS: To evaluate associations of long-term exposure to traffic and ambient pollutants with odds of interstitial lung abnormalities (ILA) and progression of ILA on repeated imaging. METHODS: We ascertained ILA on chest CT obtained from 2618 Framingham participants from 2008 to 2011. Among 1846 participants who also completed a cardiac CT from 2002 to 2005, we determined interval ILA progression. We assigned distance from home address to major roadway, and the 5-year average of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), elemental carbon (EC, a traffic-related PM2.5 constituent) and ozone using spatio-temporal prediction models. Logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking status, packyears of smoking, household tobacco exposure, neighbourhood household value, primary occupation, cohort and date. RESULTS: Among 2618 participants with a chest CT, 176 (6.7%) had ILA, 1361 (52.0%) had no ILA, and the remainder were indeterminate. Among 1846 with a preceding cardiac CT, 118 (6.4%) had ILA with interval progression. In adjusted logistic regression models, an IQR difference in 5-year EC exposure of 0.14 µg/m3 was associated with a 1.27 (95% CI 1.04 to 1.55) times greater odds of ILA, and a 1.33 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.76) times greater odds of ILA progression. PM2.5 and O3 were not associated with ILA or ILA progression. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to EC may increase risk of progressive ILA, however, associations with other measures of ambient pollution were inconclusive.

9.
Environ Int ; 131: 104968, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295642

RESUMO

Children spend over 6 h a day in schools and have higher asthma morbidity from school environmental exposures. The present study aims to determine indoor and outdoor possible sources affecting indoor PM2.5 in classrooms. Weeklong indoor PM2.5 samples were collected from 32 inner-city schools from a Northeastern U.S. community during three seasons (fall, winter and spring) during the years 2009 to 2013. Concurrently, daily outdoor PM2.5 samples were taken at a central monitoring site located at a median distance of 4974 m (range 1065-11,592 m) from the schools. Classroom indoor concentrations of PM2.5 (an average of 5.2 µg/m3) were lower than outdoors (an average of 6.5 µg/m3), and these averages were in the lower range compared to the findings in other schools' studies. The USEPA PMF model was applied to the PM2.5 components measured simultaneously from classroom indoor and outdoor to estimate the source apportionment. The major sources (contributions) identified across all seasons of indoor PM2.5 were secondary pollution (41%) and motor vehicles (17%), followed by Calcium (Ca)-rich particles (12%), biomass burning (15%), soil dust (6%), and marine aerosols (4%). Likewise, the major sources of outdoor PM2.5 across all seasons were secondary pollution (41%) and motor vehicles (26%), followed by biomass burning (17%), soil dust (7%), road dust (3%), and marine aerosols (1%). Secondary pollution was the greatest contributor to indoor and outdoor PM2.5 over all three seasons, with the highest contribution during spring with 53% to indoor PM2.5 and 45% to outdoor PM2.5. Lower contributions of this source during fall and winter are most likely attributed to less infiltration indoors. In contrast, the indoor contribution of motor vehicles source was highest in the fall (29%) and winter (25%), which was presumably categorized by a local source. From the relationship between indoor-to-outdoor sulfur ratios and each source contribution, we also estimated the local and regional influence on indoor PM2.5 concentration. Overall, the observed differences to indoor PM2.5 are related to seasonality, and the distinct characteristics and behavior of each classroom/school.

10.
Diabetes Care ; 42(9): 1824-1832, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are suspected endocrine disruptors widely detected across populations. We examine the extent to which PFASs are associated with diabetes incidence and microvascular disease. Secondarily, we tested whether a lifestyle intervention modifies associations and decreases concentrations. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 957 participants from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) trial and Diabetes Prevention Program Outcomes Study (DPPOS). At baseline, participants were randomized to an intensive lifestyle intervention of diet, physical activity, and behavior modification or a placebo medication. We quantified plasma concentrations of six PFASs at baseline and 2 years after randomization. Participants were monitored for ∼15 years, repeatedly tested for diabetes, and evaluated for microvascular disease at the end of the follow-up. RESULTS: A doubling in baseline branched perfluorooctanoic acid concentration was associated with a 14% increase in diabetes risk for the placebo (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.04, 1.25) but not in the lifestyle intervention group (HR 1.01, 95% CI 0.92, 1.11, P interaction = 0.11). Mean change in plasma baseline branched perfluorooctanoic acid concentration was greater for the placebo (0.96 ng/mL; 95% CI 0.71, 1.22) compared with the lifestyle intervention group (0.31 ng/mL; 95% CI 0.14, 0.48) 2 years after randomization. Each doubling in N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid was associated with 17% greater odds of prevalent microvascular disease (OR 1.17, 95% CI 1.05, 1.31), and a similar association was observed for perfluorodimethylhexane sulfonic acid (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.04, 1.35), regardless of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Some plasma PFASs were associated with diabetes and microvascular disease. Our results suggest that exercise and diet may attenuate the diabetogenic association of PFASs.

11.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3095, 2019 07 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300640

RESUMO

The nasal cellular epigenome may serve as biomarker of airway disease and environmental response. Here we collect nasal swabs from the anterior nares of 547 children (mean-age 12.9 y), and measure DNA methylation (DNAm) with the Infinium MethylationEPIC BeadChip. We perform nasal Epigenome-Wide Association analyses (EWAS) of current asthma, allergen sensitization, allergic rhinitis, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and lung function. We find multiple differentially methylated CpGs (FDR < 0.05) and Regions (DMRs; ≥ 5-CpGs and FDR < 0.05) for asthma (285-CpGs), FeNO (8,372-CpGs; 191-DMRs), total IgE (3-CpGs; 3-DMRs), environment IgE (17-CpGs; 4-DMRs), allergic asthma (1,235-CpGs; 7-DMRs) and bronchodilator response (130-CpGs). Discovered DMRs annotated to genes implicated in allergic asthma, Th2 activation and eosinophilia (EPX, IL4, IL13) and genes previously associated with asthma and IgE in EWAS of blood (ACOT7, SLC25A25). Asthma, IgE and FeNO were associated with nasal epigenetic age acceleration. The nasal epigenome is a sensitive biomarker of asthma, allergy and airway inflammation.


Assuntos
Asma/diagnóstico , Metilação de DNA/imunologia , Inflamação/diagnóstico , Mucosa Nasal/imunologia , Adolescente , Asma/genética , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Criança , Ilhas de CpG/genética , Ilhas de CpG/imunologia , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Epigenômica/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Masculino , Mucosa Nasal/patologia
14.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 115, 2019 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31182091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Single birth cohort studies have been the basis for many discoveries about early life risk factors for childhood asthma but are limited in scope by sample size and characteristics of the local environment and population. The Children's Respiratory and Environmental Workgroup (CREW) was established to integrate multiple established asthma birth cohorts and to investigate asthma phenotypes and associated causal pathways (endotypes), focusing on how they are influenced by interactions between genetics, lifestyle, and environmental exposures during the prenatal period and early childhood. METHODS AND RESULTS: CREW is funded by the NIH Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) program, and consists of 12 individual cohorts and three additional scientific centers. The CREW study population is diverse in terms of race, ethnicity, geographical distribution, and year of recruitment. We hypothesize that there are phenotypes in childhood asthma that differ based on clinical characteristics and underlying molecular mechanisms. Furthermore, we propose that asthma endotypes and their defining biomarkers can be identified based on personal and early life environmental risk factors. CREW has three phases: 1) to pool and harmonize existing data from each cohort, 2) to collect new data using standardized procedures, and 3) to enroll new families during the prenatal period to supplement and enrich extant data and enable unified systems approaches for identifying asthma phenotypes and endotypes. CONCLUSIONS: The overall goal of CREW program is to develop a better understanding of how early life environmental exposures and host factors interact to promote the development of specific asthma endotypes.

15.
Environ Int ; 129: 343-353, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150976

RESUMO

Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) may interfere with lipid regulation. However, most previous studies were cross-sectional with the risk of reverse causation, suggesting a need for long-term prospective studies. We examined the relationship of baseline plasma PFAS concentrations with repeated measures of blood lipids. We included 888 prediabetic adults from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and DPP Outcomes Study, who had measurements of 6 plasma PFAS concentrations at baseline (1996-1999) and repeated measures of blood lipids over 15 years of follow-up, and were initially randomized to placebo or a lifestyle intervention. We used linear regression to examine cross-sectional associations of PFAS concentrations and lipid levels at baseline, and evaluated prospective risks of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia using Cox proportional hazard models, and tested for effect modification by study arm. Participants (65.9% female, 57.0% White, 65.9% aged 40-59 years) had comparable PFAS concentrations [e.g., median (IQR) perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) 4.9 ng/mL (3.2)] with the general U.S. population in 1999-2000. We observed higher total cholesterol at baseline per doubling of PFOA (ß: 6.1 mg/dL, 95% CI: 3.1, 9.04), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS, ß: 2.2 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.2, 4.3), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA, ß: 2.9 mg/dL, 95% CI: 0.7, 5.0). Prospectively, baseline concentrations of several PFASs, including PFOA, PFOS, PFHxS and PFNA, predicted higher risks of incident hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia, but only in the placebo group and not the lifestyle intervention group. For example, participants in the placebo group with PFOA concentration > median (4.9 ng/mL) were almost twice as likely (HR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.88) to develop hypertriglyceridemia compared to those ≤median. Findings suggest adverse effects of some PFASs on lipid profiles in prediabetic adults. However, the detrimental effect was attenuated with a lifestyle intervention.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Lipídeos/sangue , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Adulto , Caprilatos/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Projetos de Pesquisa
16.
Environ Int ; 130: 104795, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200155

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested increased risk of respiratory diseases and mortality following short-term exposures to ionizing radiation. However, the short-term respiratory effects of low-level environmental radiation associated with air pollution particles have not been considered. Although ambient particulate matter (PM) has been reproducibly linked to decreased lung function and to increased respiratory related morbidity, the properties of PM promoting its toxicity are uncertain. As such, we evaluated whether lung function was associated with exposures to radioactive components of ambient PM, referred to as particle radioactivity (PR). For this, we performed a repeated-measures analysis of 839 men to examine associations between PR exposure and lung function using mixed-effects regression models, adjusting for potential confounders. We examined whether PR-lung function associations changed after adjusting for PM2.5 (particulate matter≤2.5 µm) or black carbon, and vice versa. PR was measured by the USEPA's radiation monitoring network. We found that higher PR exposure was associated with a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). An IQR increase in 28-day PR exposure was associated with a 2.4% lower FVC [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.4, 3.4% p < 0.001] and a 2.4% lower FEV1 (95% CI: 1.3, 3.5%, p < 0.001). The PR-lung function associations were partially attenuated with adjustment for PM2.5 and black carbon. This is the first study to demonstrate associations between PR and lung function, which were independent of and similar in magnitude to those of PM2.5 and black carbon. If confirmed, future research should account for PR exposure in estimating respiratory health effects of ambient particles. Because of widespread exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation, our findings may have important implications for research, and environmental health policies worldwide.

18.
Environ Health Perspect ; 127(5): 57012, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31148503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prenatal exposure to air pollution has been associated with childhood respiratory disease and other adverse outcomes. Epigenetics is a suggested link between exposures and health outcomes. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate associations between prenatal exposure to particulate matter (PM) with diameter [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) or [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and DNA methylation in newborns and children. METHODS: We meta-analyzed associations between exposure to [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) and [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]) at maternal home addresses during pregnancy and newborn DNA methylation assessed by Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450K BeadChip in nine European and American studies, with replication in 688 independent newborns and look-up analyses in 2,118 older children. We used two approaches, one focusing on single cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) sites and another on differentially methylated regions (DMRs). We also related PM exposures to blood mRNA expression. RESULTS: Six CpGs were significantly associated [false discovery rate (FDR) [Formula: see text]] with prenatal [Formula: see text] and 14 with [Formula: see text] exposure. Two of the [Formula: see text] CpGs mapped to FAM13A (cg00905156) and NOTCH4 (cg06849931) previously associated with lung function and asthma. Although these associations did not replicate in the smaller newborn sample, both CpGs were significant ([Formula: see text]) in 7- to 9-y-olds. For cg06849931, however, the direction of the association was inconsistent. Concurrent [Formula: see text] exposure was associated with a significantly higher NOTCH4 expression at age 16 y. We also identified several DMRs associated with either prenatal [Formula: see text] and or [Formula: see text] exposure, of which two [Formula: see text] DMRs, including H19 and MARCH11, replicated in newborns. CONCLUSIONS: Several differentially methylated CpGs and DMRs associated with prenatal PM exposure were identified in newborns, with annotation to genes previously implicated in lung-related outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP4522.

19.
Psychosom Med ; 81(4): 320-327, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048634

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to examine the association of lifetime maternal depression with regulation of immune responses in the infant, measured by cytokine levels and lymphocyte proliferation (LP) in cord blood mononuclear cells collected at delivery. METHODS: We studied women recruited in early pregnancy into the Project Viva longitudinal cohort who had cord blood assayed after delivery (N = 463). Women reported about depressive symptoms in midpregnancy (Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale) and depression history by questionnaire. Immune responses were assayed by an index of LP, and concentrations of five cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, IL-10, IL-13, tumor necrosis tumor necrosis factor factor α, and interferon γ) after incubation of cord blood mononuclear cells either in medium alone or stimulated with phytohemagglutinin (PHA), cockroach extract, or house dust mite extract. We examined associations of maternal depression with these sets of cytokine measures using multivariable linear or tobit regression analyses. RESULTS: After adjustment for confounders (mother's age, race/ethnicity, education, household income, season of birth, and child sex), levels of IL-10 after stimulation with cockroach or dust mite allergen were lower in cord blood from ever versus never depressed women, and a similar trend was evident in IL-10 stimulated with PHA (percentage difference: cockroach extract = -41.4, p = .027; house dust mite extract = 1-36.0, p = .071; PHA = -24.2, p = .333). No significant differences were seen in levels of other cytokines or LP. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal depression is associated with offspring immune responses at birth, which may have implications for later life atopic risk or immune function.

20.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 29(4): 539-547, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of genetics in the respiratory response of asthmatic children to air pollution, with a genome-wide level analysis of gene by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) interaction on lung function and to identify biological pathways involved. METHODS: We used a two-step method for fast linear mixed model computations for genome-wide association studies, exploring whether variants modify the longitudinal relationship between 4-month average pollution and post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 522 Caucasian and 88 African-American asthmatic children. Top hits were confirmed with classic linear mixed-effect models. We used the improved gene set enrichment analysis for GWAS (i-GSEA4GWAS) to identify plausible pathways. RESULTS: Two SNPs near the EPHA3 (rs13090972 and rs958144) and one in TXNDC8 (rs7041938) showed significant interactions with NO2 in Caucasians but we did not replicate this locus in African-Americans. SNP-CO interactions did not reach genome-wide significance. The i-GSEA4GWAS showed a pathway linked to the HO-1/CO system to be associated with CO-related FEV1 changes. For NO2-related FEV1 responses, we identified pathways involved in cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic responses. CONCLUSION: The host lung function response to long-term exposure to pollution is linked to genes involved in cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, inflammatory, and metabolic pathways.

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