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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33091637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases of children in the United States (US). Mold exposures have been linked to asthma development and exacerbation. In homes, mold exposures have been quantified using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI), and higher home ERMI values have been linked to occupant asthma. OBJECTIVE: In this analysis of the School Inner-City Asthma Study (SICAS, we aimed to evaluate the ERMI's applicability to measuring mold in schools compared with homes and to examine the prevalence of asthma in relationship to students' demographics and the physical characteristics of school buildings. METHODS: Northeastern US schools (n = 32) and homes (n = 33) were selected, and the 36 ERMI molds were quantified in a dust sample from each classroom (n = 114) or home. School building characteristics data were collected from SICAS. Asthma prevalence and student demographics data were obtained from government websites. Linear regression and mixed models were fit to assess the association of the current asthma prevalence and physical characteristics of the school, make-up of the student body, and the ERMI metric. RESULTS: Levels of outdoor group 2 molds were significantly (P < .01) greater in schools compared with homes. The presence of air-conditioning in school buildings correlated significantly (P = .02) with lower asthma prevalence. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of asthma in student bodies is associated with many factors in schools and homes.

4.
Circulation ; 142(9): 858-867, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Individuals are exposed to air pollution and ionizing radiation from natural sources through inhalation of particles. This study investigates the association between cardiac arrhythmias and short-term exposures to fine particulate matter (particulate matter ≤2.5 µm aerodynamic diameter; PM2.5) and particle radioactivity. METHODS: Ventricular arrhythmic events were identified among 176 patients with dual-chamber implanted cardioverter-defibrillators in Boston, Massachusetts between September 2006 and June 2010. Patients were assigned exposures based on residential addresses. Daily PM2.5 levels were estimated at 1-km×1-km grid cells from a previously validated prediction model. Particle gross ß activity was used as a surrogate for particle radioactivity and was measured from several monitoring sites by the US Environmental Protection Agency's monitoring network. The association of the onset of ventricular arrhythmias (VA) with 0- to 21-day moving averages of PM2.5 and particle radioactivity (2 single-pollutant models and a 2-pollutant model) before the event was examined using time-stratified case-crossover analyses, adjusted for dew point and air temperatures. RESULTS: A total of 1,050 VA were recorded among 91 patients, including 123 sustained VA among 25 of these patients. In the single-pollutant model of PM2.5, each interquartile range increase in daily PM2.5 levels for a 21-day moving average was associated with 39% higher odds of a VA event (95% CI, 12%-72%). In the single-pollutant model of particle radioactivity, each interquartile range increase in particle radioactivity for a 2-day moving average was associated with 13% higher odds of a VA event (95% CI, 1%-26%). In the 2-pollutant model, for the same averaging window of 21 days, each interquartile range increase in daily PM2.5 was associated with an 48% higher odds of a VA event (95% CI, 15%-90%), and each interquartile range increase of particle radioactivity with a 10% lower odds of a VA event (95% CI, -29% to 14%). We found that with higher levels of particle radioactivity, the effect of PM2.5 on VAs is reduced. CONCLUSIONS: In this high-risk population, intermediate (21-day) PM2.5 exposure was associated with higher odds of a VA event onset among patients with known cardiac disease and indication for implanted cardioverter-defibrillator implantation independently of particle radioactivity.

5.
Environ Int ; 142: 105849, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593049

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that greater exposure to natural vegetation, or "green space" is associated with lower diabetes risk, possibly through increasing physical activity. However, there is limited research on green space and insulin resistance in youth. We hypothesized greater green space at early-life sensitive time periods would be associated with lower insulin resistance in youth. METHODS: We used data from Project Viva (N = 460), a pre-birth cohort study that recruited pregnant women in eastern Massachusetts, 1999-2002, and followed offspring into adolescence. We defined residential green space exposure at infancy (median age - 1.1 years), early childhood (3.2 years), mid-childhood (7.7 years), and early adolescence (12.8 years), using 30 m resolution Landsat satellite imagery to estimate the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]. Our main outcome was early adolescence estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). We used multiple imputation to account for missing data and multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, parental education, household income, and neighborhood median household income. RESULTS: The highest green space tertile had the highest percentage of white participants (85%), college-educated mothers (87%) and fathers (85%), and households with income higher than US$70,000 (86%). Unadjusted models showed that participants living in the highest green space tertile at infancy had a 0.15 unit lower HOMA-IR (95% CI: -0.23, -0.06) in early adolescence, than those living in the lowest tertile. However, in adjusted models, we did not observe evidence of associations between green space from infancy to early adolescence and HOMA-IR in early adolescence, although some point estimates were in the hypothesized direction. For example, participants in the highest green space tertile in infancy had 0.03 units lower HOMA-IR (95%CI: -0.14, 0.08) than those living in the lowest tertile. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to green space at early life sensitive time periods was not associated with HOMA-IR in youth. Early-life longitudinal studies across diverse populations are needed to confirm or refute our results.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139144, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-196797

RESUMO

The spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has challenged governments to develop public policies to reduce the load of the COVID-19 on health care systems, which is commonly referred to as "flattening the curve". This study aims to address this issue by proposing a spatial multicriteria approach to estimate the risk of the Brazilian health care system, by municipality, to exceed the health care capacity because of an influx of patients infected with the COVID-19. We estimated this risk for 5572 municipalities in Brazil using a combination of a multicriteria decision-making approach with spatial analysis to estimate the exceedance risk, and then, we examined the risk variation by designing 5 control intervention scenarios (3 scenarios representing reduction on social contacts, and 2 scenarios representing investment on health care system). For the baseline scenario using an average infection rate across Brazil, we estimated a mean Hospital Bed Capacity (HBC) value of -16.73, indicating that, on average, the Brazilian municipalities will have a deficit of approximately 17 beds. This deficit is projected to occur in 3338 municipalities with the north and northeast regions being at the greatest risk of exceeding health care capacity due to the COVID-19. The intervention scenarios indicate across all of Brazil that they could address the bed shortage, with an average of available beds between 23 and 32. However, when we consider the shortages at a municipal scale, bed exceedances still occur for at least 2119 municipalities in the most effective intervention scenario. Our findings are essential to identify priority areas, to compare populations, and to provide options for government agencies to act. This study can be used to provide support for the creation of effective health public policies for national, regional, and local intervention.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Brasil , Cidades , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139144, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380368

RESUMO

The spread of the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has challenged governments to develop public policies to reduce the load of the COVID-19 on health care systems, which is commonly referred to as "flattening the curve". This study aims to address this issue by proposing a spatial multicriteria approach to estimate the risk of the Brazilian health care system, by municipality, to exceed the health care capacity because of an influx of patients infected with the COVID-19. We estimated this risk for 5572 municipalities in Brazil using a combination of a multicriteria decision-making approach with spatial analysis to estimate the exceedance risk, and then, we examined the risk variation by designing 5 control intervention scenarios (3 scenarios representing reduction on social contacts, and 2 scenarios representing investment on health care system). For the baseline scenario using an average infection rate across Brazil, we estimated a mean Hospital Bed Capacity (HBC) value of -16.73, indicating that, on average, the Brazilian municipalities will have a deficit of approximately 17 beds. This deficit is projected to occur in 3338 municipalities with the north and northeast regions being at the greatest risk of exceeding health care capacity due to the COVID-19. The intervention scenarios indicate across all of Brazil that they could address the bed shortage, with an average of available beds between 23 and 32. However, when we consider the shortages at a municipal scale, bed exceedances still occur for at least 2119 municipalities in the most effective intervention scenario. Our findings are essential to identify priority areas, to compare populations, and to provide options for government agencies to act. This study can be used to provide support for the creation of effective health public policies for national, regional, and local intervention.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Brasil , Cidades , Número de Leitos em Hospital , Humanos
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 733: 139340, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32464573

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation increases the risk of chronic metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Internal ionizing radiation from inhaled radioactive aerosol may contribute to the associations between fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). METHODS: We used the Massachusetts Registry of Vital Records to study 1,061,937 pregnant women from 2001 to 2015 with a singleton pregnancy without pre-existing diabetes. Gross ß activity measured by seven monitors of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's RadNet monitoring network was utilized to represent ambient particle radioactivity (PR). We obtained GDM status from birth certificates and used logistic regression analyses adjusted for socio-demographics, maternal comorbidities, PM2.5, temperature and relative humidity. We also examined effect modification by smoking habits. RESULTS: Ambient particle radioactivity exposure during first and second trimester of pregnancy was associated with higher odds of GDM (OR: 1.18 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.22). Controlling for PM2.5 did not substantially change the effects of PR on GDM. In women that reported being former or current smokers, the association between PR and GDM was null. In the full cohort, the overall effect of PM2.5 on GDM without adjusting for PR was not significant. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study to examine the association between particle radioactivity and gestational diabetes mellitus - one of the most common pregnancy-related diseases with lifelong effects for the mother and the fetus. This finding has important public health policy implications because it enhances our understanding about the toxicity of PR, a modifiable risk factor, which to date, has been considered only as an indoor and occupational air quality risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Gestacional , Radioatividade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Massachusetts , Material Particulado/análise , Gravidez , Estados Unidos
9.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(5): 482-492, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32380068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: African ancestry is associated with a higher prevalence and greater severity of asthma than European ancestries, yet genetic studies of the most common locus associated with childhood-onset asthma, 17q12-21, in African Americans have been inconclusive. The aim of this study was to leverage both the phenotyping of the Children's Respiratory and Environmental Workgroup (CREW) birth cohort consortium, and the reduced linkage disequilibrium in African Americans, to fine map the 17q12-21 locus. METHODS: We first did a genetic association study and meta-analysis using 17q12-21 tag single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for childhood-onset asthma in 1613 European American and 870 African American children from the CREW consortium. Nine tag SNPs were selected based on linkage disequilibrium patterns at 17q12-21 and their association with asthma, considering the effect allele under an additive model (0, 1, or 2 effect alleles). Results were meta-analysed with publicly available summary data from the EVE consortium (on 4303 European American and 3034 African American individuals) for seven of the nine SNPs of interest. Subsequently, we tested for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) among the SNPs associated with childhood-onset asthma and the expression of 17q12-21 genes in resting peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 85 African American CREW children and in upper airway epithelial cells from 246 African American CREW children; and in lower airway epithelial cells from 44 European American and 72 African American adults from a case-control study of asthma genetic risk in Chicago (IL, USA). FINDINGS: 17q12-21 SNPs were broadly associated with asthma in European Americans. Only two SNPs (rs2305480 in gasdermin-B [GSDMB] and rs8076131 in ORMDL sphingolipid biosynthesis regulator 3 [ORMDL3]) were associated with asthma in African Americans, at a Bonferroni-corrected threshold of p<0·0055 (for rs2305480_G, odds ratio [OR] 1·36 [95% CI 1·12-1·65], p=0·0014; and for rs8076131_A, OR 1·37 [1·13-1·67], p=0·0010). In upper airway epithelial cells from African American children, genotype at rs2305480 was the most significant eQTL for GSDMB (eQTL effect size [ß] 1·35 [95% CI 1·25-1·46], p<0·0001), and to a lesser extent showed an eQTL effect for post-GPI attachment to proteins phospholipase 3 (ß 1·15 [1·08-1·22], p<0·0001). No SNPs were eQTLs for ORMDL3. By contrast, in PBMCs, the five core SNPs were associated only with expression of GSDMB and ORMDL3. Genotype at rs12936231 (in zona pellucida binding protein 2) showed the strongest associations across both genes (for GSDMB, eQTLß 1·24 [1·15-1·32], p<0·0001; and for ORMDL3 (ß 1·19 [1·12-1·24], p<0·0001). The eQTL effects of rs2305480 on GSDMB expression were replicated in lower airway cells from African American adults (ß 1·29 [1·15-1·44], p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: Our study suggests that SNPs regulating GSDMB expression in airway epithelial cells have a major role in childhood-onset asthma, whereas SNPs regulating the expression levels of 17q12-21 genes in resting blood cells are not central to asthma risk. Our genetic and gene expression data in African Americans and European Americans indicated GSDMB to be the leading candidate gene at this important asthma locus. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health, Office of the Director.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Asma/genética , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Estudos de Associação Genética , Criança , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estados Unidos
12.
Environ Int ; 139: 105735, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32304940

RESUMO

Although ionizing radiation is known to have detrimental effects on red blood cells, the effect of environmental radioactivity associated with ambient particulate matter (PM) is unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to ambient PM-associated beta particle radioactivity (PRß) would be associated with a lower hemoglobin concentration. We studied 1.704 participants from the Normative Aging Study (NAS) over 36 years (1981-2017) who lived in Eastern, MA and the surrounding area. Exposures to PRß was assessed using USEPA's RadNet monitoring network that measures gross beta radiation associated with ambient PM. Mixed effect models with a random intercept adjusting for potential confounders was used, including ambient black carbon (BC) and particulate matter ≤2.5 µm (PM2.5) concentrations. Greater cumulative PRß activities at 7-, 14-, 21- and 28-days before the hemoglobin determination were associated with lower hemoglobin concentrations. The greatest effect was for a 28-day moving average. An IQR of 0.83 × 10-4 Bq/m3 of ambient PRß was associated with a 0.12 g/dL decrease in hemoglobin concentration (95%CI: -0.18 to -0.05). The effects of PRß were similar when the models were adjusted for ambient BC or PM2.5. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between environmental ionizing radiation released from particulate matter with a lower hemoglobin concentration, suggesting that ambient radiation may contribute to the development of anemia.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Radioatividade , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Partículas beta , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Hemoglobinas , Humanos , Masculino , Tamanho da Partícula , Material Particulado/análise
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344059

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tocopherol isoforms may regulate child lung growth and spirometric measures. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the extent to which plasma α-tocopherol (α-T) or γ-tocopherol (γ-T) isoform levels in early childhood or in utero are associated with childhood lung function. METHODS: We included 622 participants in the Project Viva cohort who had lung function at a mid-childhood visit (age 6-10 years). Maternal and child tocopherol isoform levels were measured by HPLC at the second trimester and 3 years of age, respectively. Multivariable linear regression models (adjusted for mid-childhood body mass index z scores, maternal education, smoking in pregnancy, and prenatal particulate matter with diameter of <2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) particulate exposure) stratified by tertiles of child γ-T level were used to assess the association of α-T levels with FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) percent predicted. Similarly, models stratified by child α-T tertile evaluated associations of γ-T levels with lung function. We performed similar analyses with maternal second trimester tocopherol isoform levels. RESULTS: The median maternal second trimester α-T level was 63 µM (interquartile range = 47-82). The median early-childhood level was 25 µM (interquartile range = 20-33 µM). In the lowest tertile of early-childhood γ-T, children with a higher α-T level (per 10 µM) had a higher mid-childhood FEV1 percent predicted (ß = 3.09; 95% CI = 0.58-5.59 and a higher FVC percent predicted (ß = 2.77; 95% CI = 0.47-5.06). This protective association of α-T was lost at higher γ-T levels. We did not see any consistent associations of second trimester levels of either α-T or γ-T with mid-childhood FEV1 or FVC. CONCLUSION: When γ-T levels were in the lowest tertile, a higher early-childhood α-T level was associated with better lung function at mid-childhood. Second trimester maternal plasma α-T concentration was 3-fold higher than in the adult nonpregnant female population.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 721: 137793, 2020 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172126

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent studies have found that particulate matter (PM) attached radioactivity was associated with certain adverse health effects including increased blood pressure and lung dysfunction. However, there has been no investigation on the direct effect of PM radioactivity on mortality. METHODS: Exposures to ambient PM gamma activities were determined using U.S. EPA RadNet data. Data on daily deaths were obtained from individual state Departments of Public Health. We used a generalized additive quasi-Poisson model to estimate the associations between two-day average ambient PM gamma activities (gamma2 through gamma9) with all-cause non-accidental and cardiovascular daily deaths for each of 18 US cities, for each season, adjusting for two-day average PM2.5 exposure, temperature, relative humidity, day of week and long-term trends. Subsequently, we used random-effects meta-analysis to estimate the overall effect in the 18 cities for each season. RESULTS: We found that all-cause non-accidental daily mortality in spring season was positively associated with two-day average ambient PM gamma activities in spring, with significant results for gamma2, gamma5 and gamma6. Similarly, cardiovascular daily mortality was positively associated with two-day average ambient PM gamma activities, with significant results for gamma2, gamma4, gamma5, gamma6, gamma7 and gamma9. For the spring season, each interquartile range (IQR) increase of two-day averaged ambient PM gamma activity was associated with increase in all-cause daily deaths, ranging from 0.15% (95% Confidence Interval (CI): -0.36%, 0.65%) to 1.03 (95%CI: 0.18%, 1.89%). Each IQR was also associated with increase in cardiovascular daily deaths, ranging from 0.01% (95%CI: -0.89, 0.92) to 2.95% (95%CI: 1.33, 4.59). For other seasons overall we found statistically insignificant associations of PM radioactivity with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that there are potential systemic toxic effects of inhalation of radionuclides attached to ambient air particles.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Radioatividade , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Humanos , Mortalidade , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Tempo
15.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(4): 813-820.e2, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32197971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sparse data address the effects of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) exposure in inner-city schools on obese students with asthma. OBJECTIVE: We sought to evaluate relationships between classroom NO2 exposure and asthma symptoms and morbidity by body mass index (BMI) category. METHODS: The School Inner-City Asthma Study enrolled students aged 4 to 13 years with asthma from 37 inner-city schools. Students had baseline determination of BMI percentile. Asthma symptoms, morbidity, pulmonary inflammation, and lung function were monitored throughout the subsequent academic year. Classroom NO2 data, linked to enrolled students, were collected twice per year. We determined the relationship between classroom NO2 levels and asthma outcomes by BMI stratification. RESULTS: A total of 271 predominantly black (35%) or Hispanic students (35%) were included in analyses. Fifty percent were normal weight (5-84th BMI percentile), 15% overweight (≥85-94th BMI percentile), and 35% obese (≥95th BMI percentile). For each 10-parts per billion increase in NO2, obese students had a significant increase in the odds of having an asthma symptom day (odds ratio [OR], 1.86; 95% CI, 1.15-3.02) and in days caregiver changed plans (OR, 4.24; 95% CI, 2.33-7.70), which was significantly different than normal weight students who exhibited no relationship between NO2 exposure and symptom days (OR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.57-1.42; pairwise interaction P = .03) and change in caregiver plans (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.67-2.82; pairwise interaction P = .02). Relationships between NO2 levels and lung function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide did not differ by BMI category. If we applied a conservative Holm-Bonferroni correction for 16 comparisons (obese vs normal weight and overweight vs normal weight for 8 outcomes), these findings would not meet statistical significance (all P > .003). CONCLUSIONS: Obese BMI status appears to increase susceptibility to classroom NO2 exposure effects on asthma symptoms in inner-city children. Environmental interventions targeting indoor school NO2 levels may improve asthma health for obese children. Although our findings would not remain statistically significant after adjustment for multiple comparisons, the large effect sizes warrant future study of the interaction of obesity and pollution in pediatric asthma.

16.
Environ Int ; 137: 105573, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088543

RESUMO

The relationship of plasma concentration of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) with blood pressure (BP) is uncertain. This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations of PFAS with BP and hypertension. We quantified plasma PFAS concentrations from 957 participants enrolled in the lifestyle and placebo arms of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), a randomized controlled trial with approximately 15 years of follow-up. We used multivariable linear and logistic regressions to test cross-sectional associations of six PFAS, including perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (EtFOSAA), N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido acetic acid (MeFOSAA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), with BP and hypertension prevalence, respectively, at baseline. We used generalized linear mixed models to estimate longitudinal associations between baseline PFAS and the rate of BP changes, and Cox-Proportional hazard models to estimate risk of developing hypertension relative to baseline PFAS. Models were adjusted for baseline age, sex, race/ethnicity, treatment arm, educational attainment, income, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol drinking, and diet. We tested for effect modification by the treatment arm and sex, and accounted for multiple comparisons using the False-Discovery Rate (FDR). PFAS concentrations and hypertension prevalence within the study population (65.3% female, 57.7% White, 65.3% aged 40-59 years) were comparable to the general U.S. population. Cross-sectionally, we found small but statistically significant associations of baseline plasma concentrations of PFOA with systolic BP (ß per doubling: 1.49 mmHg, 95% CI: 0.29, 2.70); and MeFOSAA with hypertension (RR = 1.09 per doubling, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19). Estimates were not statistically significant after FDR adjustment. Longitudinally, we observed null associations in the placebo arm, but some inverse associations of baseline PFOS and MeFOSAA with systolic BP in the lifestyle arm, perhaps due to regression toward the mean. Baseline PFAS concentrations also were not prospectively associated with hypertension risk. Overall, there were modest and mostly null associations of plasma PFAS concentrations with BP and hypertension.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Estado Pré-Diabético , Adulto , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/toxicidade , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
17.
Environ Int ; 137: 105217, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086073

RESUMO

Diet is assumed to be the main source of exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in non-occupationally exposed populations, but studies on the diet-PFAS relationship in the United States are scarce. We extracted multiple dietary variables, including daily intakes of food group, diet scores, and dietary patterns, from self-reported dietary data collected at baseline (1996-1999) from adults with pre-diabetes enrolled in the Diabetes Prevention Program, and used linear regression models to evaluate relationships of each dietary variable with plasma concentrations of six PFAS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), 2-(N-ethyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (EtFOSAA), 2-(N-methyl-perfluorooctane sulfonamido) acetic acid (MeFOSAA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) adjusting for covariates. Participants (N = 941, 65% female, 58% Caucasian, 68% married, 75% with higher education, 95% nonsmoker) had similar PFAS concentrations compared to the general U.S. population during 1999-2000. Using a single food group approach, fried fish, other fish/shellfish, meat and poultry had positive associations with most PFAS plasma concentrations. The strongest effect estimate detected was between fried fish and PFNA [13.6% (95% CI: 7.7, 19.9) increase in median concentration per SD increase]. Low-carbohydrate and high protein diet score had positive association with plasma PFHxS. Some food groups, mostly vegetables and fruits, and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet score had inverse associations with PFOS and MeFOSAA. A vegetable diet pattern was associated with lower plasma concentrations of MeFOSAA, while high-fat meat and low-fiber and high-fat grains diet patterns were associated with higher plasma concentrations of PFOS, PFHxS, MeFOSAA and PFNA. We summarized four major dietary characteristics associated with variations in PFAS plasma concentrations in this population. Specifically, consuming more meat/fish/shellfish (especially fried fish, and excluding Omega3-rich fish), low-fiber and high-fat bread/cereal/rice/pasta, and coffee/tea was associated with higher plasma concentrations while dietary patterns of vegetables, fruits and Omega-3 rich fish were associated with lower plasma concentrations of some PFAS.


Assuntos
Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Dieta , Poluentes Ambientais , Fluorcarbonetos , Estado Pré-Diabético , Ácidos Alcanossulfônicos/sangue , Animais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fluorcarbonetos/sangue , Masculino , Alimentos Marinhos , Estados Unidos
19.
Pediatr Pulmonol ; 55(2): 503-509, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805224

RESUMO

Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a marker of airway inflammation that is well-characterized in allergic disease states. However, FeNO is also involved in nonallergic inflammatory and pulmonary vascular mechanisms or responses to environmental stimuli. We sought to determine the extent to which obesity or sedentary lifestyle is associated with FeNO in adolescents not selected on the basis of allergic disease. In Project Viva, a prebirth cohort study, we measured body mass index (BMI), skinfold thicknesses, waist circumference, body fat, hours watching television, hours of physical activity, and heart rate after exercise among 929 adolescents (median age, 12.9). We measured FeNO twice and averaged these as a continuous, log-transformed outcome. We performed linear regression models, adjusted for child age, sex, height, and race/ethnicity, maternal education and smoking during pregnancy, household income and smoking, and neighbourhood characteristics. In secondary analysis, we additionally adjusted for asthma. More than 2 hours spent watching TV was associated with 10% lower FeNO (95% confidence interval [CI]: -20, 0%). Higher body fat percentage was also associated with lower FeNO. After additional adjustment for asthma, teens who are underweight (BMI <5th %tile, 3%) had 22% lower FeNO (95%CI: -40, 2%) and teens who are overweight (BMI ≥85th %ile, 28%) had 13% lower FeNO (95%CI: -23, -2%). Each of these associations of lifestyle and body weight with lower FeNO were greater in magnitude after adjusting for asthma. In summary, sedentary lifestyle, high and low BMI were all associated with lower FeNO in this adolescent cohort.

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