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Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 213-228, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639323


Primary defects in lung branching morphogenesis, resulting in neonatal lethal pulmonary hypoplasias, are incompletely understood. To elucidate the pathogenetics of human lung development, we studied a unique collection of samples obtained from deceased individuals with clinically and histopathologically diagnosed interstitial neonatal lung disorders: acinar dysplasia (n = 14), congenital alveolar dysplasia (n = 2), and other lethal lung hypoplasias (n = 10). We identified rare heterozygous copy-number variant deletions or single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) involving TBX4 (n = 8 and n = 2, respectively) or FGF10 (n = 2 and n = 2, respectively) in 16/26 (61%) individuals. In addition to TBX4, the overlapping ∼2 Mb recurrent and nonrecurrent deletions at 17q23.1q23.2 identified in seven individuals with lung hypoplasia also remove a lung-specific enhancer region. Individuals with coding variants involving either TBX4 or FGF10 also harbored at least one non-coding SNV in the predicted lung-specific enhancer region, which was absent in 13 control individuals with the overlapping deletions but without any structural lung anomalies. The occurrence of rare coding variants involving TBX4 or FGF10 with the putative hypomorphic non-coding SNVs implies a complex compound inheritance of these pulmonary hypoplasias. Moreover, they support the importance of TBX4-FGF10-FGFR2 epithelial-mesenchymal signaling in human lung organogenesis and help to explain the histopathological continuum observed in these rare lethal developmental disorders of the lung.

Genet Med ; 2018 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30245509


PURPOSE: TANGO2-related disorders were first described in 2016 and prior to this publication, only 15 individuals with TANGO2-related disorder were described in the literature. Primary features include metabolic crisis with rhabdomyolysis, encephalopathy, intellectual disability, seizures, and cardiac arrhythmias. We assess whether genotype and phenotype of TANGO2-related disorder has expanded since the initial discovery and determine the efficacy of exome sequencing (ES) as a diagnostic tool for detecting variants. METHODS: We present a series of 14 individuals from 11 unrelated families with complex medical and developmental histories, in whom ES or microarray identified compound heterozygous or homozygous variants in TANGO2. RESULTS: The initial presentation of patients with TANGO2-related disorders can be variable, including primarily neurological presentations. We expand the phenotype and genotype for TANGO2, highlighting the variability of the disorder. CONCLUSION: TANGO2-related disorders can have a more diverse clinical presentation than previously anticipated. We illustrate the utility of routine ES data reanalysis whereby discovery of novel disease genes can lead to a diagnosis in previously unsolved cases and the need for additional copy-number variation analysis when ES is performed.

Am J Hum Genet ; 103(2): 245-260, 2018 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30057031


Interferon regulatory factor 2 binding protein-like (IRF2BPL) encodes a member of the IRF2BP family of transcriptional regulators. Currently the biological function of this gene is obscure, and the gene has not been associated with a Mendelian disease. Here we describe seven individuals who carry damaging heterozygous variants in IRF2BPL and are affected with neurological symptoms. Five individuals who carry IRF2BPL nonsense variants resulting in a premature stop codon display severe neurodevelopmental regression, hypotonia, progressive ataxia, seizures, and a lack of coordination. Two additional individuals, both with missense variants, display global developmental delay and seizures and a relatively milder phenotype than those with nonsense alleles. The IRF2BPL bioinformatics signature based on population genomics is consistent with a gene that is intolerant to variation. We show that the fruit-fly IRF2BPL ortholog, called pits (protein interacting with Ttk69 and Sin3A), is broadly detected, including in the nervous system. Complete loss of pits is lethal early in development, whereas partial knockdown with RNA interference in neurons leads to neurodegeneration, revealing a requirement for this gene in proper neuronal function and maintenance. The identified IRF2BPL nonsense variants behave as severe loss-of-function alleles in this model organism, and ectopic expression of the missense variants leads to a range of phenotypes. Taken together, our results show that IRF2BPL and pits are required in the nervous system in humans and flies, and their loss leads to a range of neurological phenotypes in both species.

Am J Med Genet A ; 176(4): 925-935, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436146


SATB2-associated syndrome (SAS) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by significant neurodevelopmental disabilities with limited to absent speech, behavioral issues, and craniofacial anomalies. Previous studies have largely been restricted to case reports and small series without in-depth phenotypic characterization or genotype-phenotype correlations. Seventy two study participants were identified as part of the SAS clinical registry. Individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis of SAS were referred after clinical diagnostic testing. In this series we present the most comprehensive phenotypic and genotypic characterization of SAS to date, including prevalence of each clinical feature, neurodevelopmental milestones, and when available, patient management. We confirm that the most distinctive features are neurodevelopmental delay with invariably severely limited speech, abnormalities of the palate (cleft or high-arched), dental anomalies (crowding, macrodontia, abnormal shape), and behavioral issues with or without bone or brain anomalies. This comprehensive clinical characterization will help clinicians with the diagnosis, counseling and management of SAS and help provide families with anticipatory guidance.

Am J Med Genet A ; 173(12): 3127-3131, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29048727


The clinical diagnosis of malformations of cortical development (MCDs) is often challenging due to the complexity of the brain malformation by neuroimaging, the rarity of individual malformation syndromes, and the rapidly evolving genetic landscape of these disorders facilitated with the use of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) methods. While the clinical and molecular diagnosis of severe cortical malformations, such as classic lissencephaly, is often straightforward, the diagnosis of more subtle and complex types of cortical malformations, such as pachygyria and polymicrogyria (PMG), can be more challenging due to limited knowledge regarding their genetic etiologies. Here, we report two individuals with the same de novo KIF5C mutation who present with subtle MCDs, early onset epilepsy and significant neurodevelopmental and behavioral issues including absent language. Our data, combined with the limited literature on KIF5C mutations, to date, support that KIF5C mutations are associated with a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by infantile onset epilepsy, and subtle but recognizable types of brain malformations. We also show that the spectrum of KIF5C mutations is narrow, as five out of the six identified individuals have mutations affecting amino acid Glu237. Therefore, the identification of the clinical and neuroimaging features of this disorder may strongly facilitate rapid and efficient molecular diagnosis.

Epilepsia/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Cinesina/genética , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Córtex Cerebral/anormalidades , Epilepsia/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Lactente , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico por imagem , Linguagem , Lisencefalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Lisencefalia/genética , Masculino , Malformações do Desenvolvimento Cortical/diagnóstico por imagem , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/diagnóstico por imagem , Polimicrogiria/diagnóstico por imagem , Polimicrogiria/genética
J Magn Reson Imaging ; 42(6): 1611-22, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26018987


BACKGROUND: To identify quantitative MRI parameters associated with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fast bound-pool fraction imaging (FBFI) that may detect alterations in gray matter and/or white matter in adults with Fabry disease, a lysosomal storage disorder. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy controls (mean age ± standard deviation: 48.0 ± 12.4 years) and 10 participants with Fabry disease (46.7 ± 12.9 years) were imaged at 3.0 Tesla. Whole-brain parametric maps of diffusion tensor metrics (apparent diffusion coefficient [ADC] and fractional anisotropy [FA]) and the bound-pool fraction (f) were acquired. Mean voxel values of parametric maps from regions-of-interest within gray and white matter structures were compared between cases and controls using the independent t-test. Spearman's rho was used to identify associations between parametric maps and age. RESULTS: Compared with controls, the left thalamus of Fabry participants had an increase in FA (0.29 ± 0.02 versus 0.33 ± 0.05, respectively; P = 0.030) and a trend toward an increase in ADC (0.73 ± 00.02 versus 0.76 ± 0.03 µm(2) /s, respectively; P = 0.082). The left posterior white matter demonstrated a reduction in f (10.45 ± 0.37 versus 9.00 ± 1.84%, respectively; P = 0.035), an increase in ADC (0.78 ± 0.04 versus 0.94 ± 0.19 µm(2) /s, respectively; P = 0.024), and a trend toward a reduction in FA (0.42 ± 0.07 versus 0.36 ± 0.08, respectively; P = 0.052). Among all parameters, only f measured in the left posterior white matter was significantly associated with age in Fabry participants (rho = -0.71; P = 0.022). CONCLUSION: Parameters derived from DTI and FBFI detect Fabry-related changes in the adult human brain, particularly in the posterior white matter where reductions in myelin density as measured by FBFI appear age related.

Encéfalo/patologia , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão/métodos , Doença de Fabry/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Interpretação de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Substância Branca/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , História Antiga , Humanos , Imagem Tridimensional/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade