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1.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 7(1): 191, 2019 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31796102

RESUMO

The contribution of mosaic alterations to tumors of the nervous system and to non-malignant neurological diseases has been unmasked thanks to the development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) technologies. We report here the case of a young patient without any remarkable familial medical history who was first referred at 7 years of age, for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of Asperger type, not associated with macrocephaly. The patient subsequently presented at 10 years of age with multiple nodular lesions located within the trigeminal, facial and acoustic nerve ganglia and at the L3 level. Histological examination of this latter lesion revealed a glioneuronal hamartoma, exhibiting heterogeneous PTEN immunoreactivity, astrocyte and endothelial cell nuclei expressing PTEN, but not ganglion cells. NGS performed on the hamartoma allowed the detection of a PTEN pathogenic variant in 30% of the reads. The presence of this variant in the DNA extracted from blood and buccal swabs in 3.5 and 11% of the NGS reads, respectively, confirmed the mosaic state of the PTEN variant. The anatomical distribution of the lesions suggests that the mutational event affecting PTEN occurred in neural crest progenitors, thus explaining the absence of macrocephaly. This report shows that mosaic alteration of PTEN may result in multiple central and peripheral nervous system hamartomas and that the presence of such alteration should be considered in patients with multiple nervous system masses, even in the absence of cardinal features of PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, especially macrocephaly.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 2019 Dec 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31886927

RESUMO

Pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1A (PHP1A) and pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP) are two rare autosomal dominant disorders caused by loss-of-function mutations in the imprinted Guanine Nucleotide Binding Protein, Alpha Stimulating Activity (GNAS) gene, coding Gs α. PHP1A is caused by mutations in the maternal allele and results in Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy (AHO) and hormonal resistance, mainly to the parathormone (PTH), whereas PPHP, with AHO features and no hormonal resistance, is linked to mutations in the paternal allele. This study sought to investigate parental transmission of GNAS mutations. We conducted a retrospective study in a population of 204 families with 361 patients harboring GNAS mutations. To prevent ascertainment bias toward a higher proportion of affected children due to the way in which data were collected, we excluded from transmission analysis all probands in the ascertained sibships. After bias correction, the distribution ratio of the mutated alleles was calculated from the observed genotypes of the offspring of nuclear families and was compared to the expected ratio of 50% according to Mendelian inheritance (one-sample Z-test). Sex ratio, phenotype of the transmitting parent, and transmission depending on the severity of the mutation were also analyzed. Transmission analysis was performed in 114 nuclear families and included 250 descendants. The fertility rates were similar between male and female patients. We showed an excess of transmission from mother to offspring of mutated alleles (59%, p = .022), which was greater when the mutations were severe (61.7%, p = .023). Similarly, an excess of transmission was found when the mother had a PHP1A phenotype (64.7%, p = .036). By contrast, a Mendelian distribution was observed when the mutations were paternally inherited. Higher numbers of females within the carriers, but not in noncarriers, were also observed. The mother-specific transmission ratio distortion (TRD) and the sex-ratio imbalance associated to PHP1A point to a role of Gs α in oocyte biology or embryogenesis, with implications for genetic counseling. © 2019 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 2019 Dec 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876365

RESUMO

Kabuki syndrome (KS, KS1: OMIM 147920 and KS2: OMIM 300867) is caused by pathogenic variations in KMT2D or KDM6A. KS is characterized by multiple congenital anomalies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Growth restriction is frequently reported. Here we aimed to create specific growth charts for individuals with KS1, identify parameters used for size prognosis and investigate the impact of growth hormone therapy on adult height. Growth parameters and parental size were obtained for 95 KS1 individuals (41 females). Growth charts for height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and occipitofrontal circumference were generated in standard deviation values for the first time in KS1. Statural growth of KS1 individuals was compared to parental target size. According to the charts, height, weight, BMI, and occipitofrontal circumference were lower for KS1 individuals than the normative French population. For males and females, the mean growth of KS1 individuals was -2 and -1.8 SD of their parental target size, respectively. Growth hormone therapy did not increase size beyond the predicted size. This study, from the largest cohort available, proposes growth charts for widespread use in the management of KS1, especially for size prognosis and screening of other diseases responsible for growth impairment beyond a calculated specific target size.

5.
Genet Med ; 2019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31649276

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) is a rare autosomal dominant mandibulofacial dysostosis, with a prevalence of 0.2-1/10,000. Features include bilateral and symmetrical malar and mandibular hypoplasia and facial abnormalities due to abnormal neural crest cell (NCC) migration and differentiation. To date, three genes have been identified: TCOF1, POLR1C, and POLR1D. Despite a large number of patients with a molecular diagnosis, some remain without a known genetic anomaly. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing for four individuals with TCS but who were negative for pathogenic variants in the known causative genes. The effect of the pathogenic variants was investigated in zebrafish. RESULTS: We identified three novel pathogenic variants in POLR1B. Knockdown of polr1b in zebrafish induced an abnormal craniofacial phenotype mimicking TCS that was associated with altered ribosomal gene expression, massive p53-associated cellular apoptosis in the neuroepithelium, and reduced number of NCC derivatives. CONCLUSION: Pathogenic variants in the RNA polymerase I subunit POLR1B might induce massive p53-dependent apoptosis in a restricted neuroepithelium area, altering NCC migration and causing cranioskeletal malformations. We identify POLR1B as a new causative gene responsible for a novel TCS syndrome (TCS4) and establish a novel experimental model in zebrafish to study POLR1B-related TCS.

6.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31502745

RESUMO

Congenital limb malformations (CLM) comprise many conditions affecting limbs and more than 150 associated genes have been reported. Due to this large heterogeneity, a high proportion of patients remains without a molecular diagnosis. In the last two decades, advances in high throughput sequencing have allowed new methodological strategies in clinical practice. Herein, we report the screening of 52 genes/regulatory sequences by multiplex high-throughput targeted sequencing, in a series of 352 patients affected with various CLM, over a 3-year period of time. Patients underwent a clinical triage by expert geneticists in CLM. A definitive diagnosis was achieved in 35.2% of patients, the yield varying considerably, depending on the phenotype. We identified 112 single nucleotide variants and 26 copy-number variations, of which 52 are novel pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants. In 6% of patients, variants of uncertain significance have been found in good candidate genes. We showed that multiplex targeted high-throughput sequencing works as an efficient and cost-effective tool in clinical practice for molecular diagnosis of congenital limb malformations. Careful clinical evaluation of patients may maximize the yield of CLM panel testing.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2257-2262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SMG9 deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive condition originally described in three patients from two families harboring homozygous truncating SMG9 variants in a context of severe syndromic developmental disorder. To our knowledge, no additional patient has been described since this first report. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a patient exhibiting a syndromic developmental delay and in her unaffected parents and report the phenotypic features. RESULTS: Our patient presented with a syndromic association of severe global developmental delay and diverse malformations, including cleft lip and palate, facial dysmorphic features, brain abnormalities, heart defect, growth retardation, and severe infections. She carried a novel SMG9 homozygous variant NM_019108.3:c.1177C>T, p.(Gln393*), while her unaffected parents were both heterozygous. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that bi-allelic truncating SMG9 variants cause a severe developmental syndrome including brain and heart malformations associated with facial dysmorphic features, severe growth and developmental delay with or without ophthalmological abnormalities, severe feeding difficulties, and life-threatening infections.

8.
Genet Med ; 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363182

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Kabuki syndrome (KS) (OMIM 147920 and 300867) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by specific facial features, intellectual disability, and various malformations. Immunopathological manifestations seem prevalent and increase the morbimortality. To assess the frequency and severity of the manifestations, we measured the prevalence of immunopathological manifestations as well as genotype-phenotype correlations in KS individuals from a registry. METHODS: Data were for 177 KS individuals with KDM6A or KMT2D pathogenic variants. Questionnaires to clinicians were used to assess the presence of immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases both on a clinical and biological basis. RESULTS: Overall, 44.1% (78/177) and 58.2% (46/79) of KS individuals exhibited infection susceptibility and hypogammaglobulinemia, respectively; 13.6% (24/177) had autoimmune disease (AID; 25.6% [11/43] in adults), 5.6% (10/177) with ≥2 AID manifestations. The most frequent AID manifestations were immune thrombocytopenic purpura (7.3% [13/177]) and autoimmune hemolytic anemia (4.0% [7/177]). Among nonhematological manifestations, vitiligo was frequent. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura was frequent with missense versus other types of variants (p = 0.027). CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of immunopathological manifestations in KS demonstrates the importance of systematic screening and efficient preventive management of these treatable and sometimes life-threatening conditions.

9.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1153-1160, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are a major cause of genetic diseases. Simple targeted methods are required for their confirmation and segregation analysis. We developed a simple and universal CNV assay based on digital PCR (dPCR) and universal locked nucleic acid (LNA) hydrolysis probes. METHODS: We analyzed the mapping of the 90 LNA hydrolysis probes from the Roche Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL). For each CNV, selection of the optimal primers and LNA probe was almost automated; probes were reused across assays and each dPCR assay included the CNV amplicon and a reference amplicon. We assessed the assay performance on 93 small and large CNVs and performed a comparative cost-efficiency analysis. RESULTS: UPL-LNA probes presented nearly 20000000 occurrences on the human genome and were homogeneously distributed with a mean interval of 156 bp. The assay accurately detected all the 93 CNVs, except one (<200 bp), with coefficient of variation <10%. The assay was more cost-efficient than all the other methods. CONCLUSIONS: The universal dPCR CNV assay is simple, robust, and cost-efficient because it combines a straightforward design allowed by universal probes and end point PCR, the advantages of a relative quantification of the target to the reference within the same reaction, and the high flexibility of the LNA hydrolysis probes. This method should be a useful tool for genomic medicine, which requires simple methods for the interpretation and segregation analysis of genomic variations.

10.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(2): 283-301, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353023

RESUMO

The RNA polymerase II complex (pol II) is responsible for transcription of all ∼21,000 human protein-encoding genes. Here, we describe sixteen individuals harboring de novo heterozygous variants in POLR2A, encoding RPB1, the largest subunit of pol II. An iterative approach combining structural evaluation and mass spectrometry analyses, the use of S. cerevisiae as a model system, and the assessment of cell viability in HeLa cells allowed us to classify eleven variants as probably disease-causing and four variants as possibly disease-causing. The significance of one variant remains unresolved. By quantification of phenotypic severity, we could distinguish mild and severe phenotypic consequences of the disease-causing variants. Missense variants expected to exert only mild structural effects led to a malfunctioning pol II enzyme, thereby inducing a dominant-negative effect on gene transcription. Intriguingly, individuals carrying these variants presented with a severe phenotype dominated by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay. Conversely, individuals carrying variants expected to result in complete loss of function, thus reduced levels of functional pol II from the normal allele, exhibited the mildest phenotypes. We conclude that subtle variants that are central in functionally important domains of POLR2A cause a neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by profound infantile-onset hypotonia and developmental delay through a dominant-negative effect on pol-II-mediated transcription of DNA.

13.
Genet Med ; 21(9): 2025-2035, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30723320

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lanosterol synthase (LSS) gene was initially described in families with extensive congenital cataracts. Recently, a study has highlighted LSS associated with hypotrichosis simplex. We expanded the phenotypic spectrum of LSS to a recessive neuroectodermal syndrome formerly named alopecia with mental retardation (APMR) syndrome. It is a rare autosomal recessive condition characterized by hypotrichosis and intellectual disability (ID) or developmental delay (DD), frequently associated with early-onset epilepsy and other dermatological features. METHODS: Through a multicenter international collaborative study, we identified LSS pathogenic variants in APMR individuals either by exome sequencing or LSS Sanger sequencing. Splicing defects were assessed by transcript analysis and minigene assay. RESULTS: We reported ten APMR individuals from six unrelated families with biallelic variants in LSS. We additionally identified one affected individual with a single rare variant in LSS and an allelic imbalance suggesting a second event. Among the identified variants, two were truncating, seven were missense, and two were splicing variants. Quantification of cholesterol and its precursors did not reveal noticeable imbalance. CONCLUSION: In the cholesterol biosynthesis pathway, lanosterol synthase leads to the cyclization of (S)-2,3-oxidosqualene into lanosterol. Our data suggest LSS as a major gene causing a rare recessive neuroectodermal syndrome.

14.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(12): 2740-2750, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30548201

RESUMO

The oculoauriculofrontonasal syndrome (OAFNS) is a rare disorder characterized by the association of frontonasal dysplasia (widely spaced eyes, facial cleft, and nose abnormalities) and oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS)-associated features, such as preauricular ear tags, ear dysplasia, mandibular asymmetry, epibulbar dermoids, eyelid coloboma, and costovertebral anomalies. The etiology is unknown so far. This work aimed to identify molecular bases for the OAFNS. Among a cohort of 130 patients with frontonasal dysplasia, accurate phenotyping identified 18 individuals with OAFNS. We describe their clinical spectrum, including the report of new features (micro/anophtalmia, cataract, thyroid agenesis, polymicrogyria, olfactory bulb hypoplasia, and mandibular cleft), and emphasize the high frequency of nasal polyps in OAFNS (56%). We report the negative results of ALX1, ALX3, and ALX4 genes sequencing and next-generation sequencing strategy performed on blood-derived DNA from respectively, four and four individuals. Exome sequencing was performed in four individuals, genome sequencing in one patient with negative exome sequencing result. Based on the data from this series and the literature, diverse hypotheses can be raised regarding the etiology of OAFNS: mosaic mutation, epigenetic anomaly, oligogenism, or nongenetic cause. In conclusion, this series represents further clinical delineation work of the rare OAFNS, and paves the way toward the identification of the causing mechanism.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Craniofaciais/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Orelha Externa/anormalidades , Anormalidades do Olho/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Olho/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Padrões de Herança , Fenótipo , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/diagnóstico , Anormalidades do Sistema Respiratório/genética , Coluna Vertebral/anormalidades , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Facies , Feminino , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Crânio/anormalidades , Crânio/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Espiral , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
15.
Clin Case Rep ; 6(11): 2234-2239, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30455928

RESUMO

We present a case of ring chromosome 20 syndrome in a twelve-year-old girl, with resistant epileptic disease and severe behavioral impairment that both drastically improved after a lithium challenge. If replicated, this could support the use of lithium as a safe treatment in the management of this severe phenotype.

16.
J Med Genet ; 2018 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287593

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The clinical significance of 16p13.11 duplications remains controversial while frequently detected in patients with developmental delay (DD), intellectual deficiency (ID) or autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previously reported patients were not or poorly characterised. The absence of consensual recommendations leads to interpretation discrepancy and makes genetic counselling challenging. This study aims to decipher the genotype-phenotype correlations to improve genetic counselling and patients' medical care. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed data from 16 013 patients referred to 12 genetic centers for DD, ID or ASD, and who had a chromosomal microarray analysis. The referring geneticists of patients for whom a 16p13.11 duplication was detected were asked to complete a questionnaire for detailed clinical and genetic data for the patients and their parents. RESULTS: Clinical features are mainly speech delay and learning disabilities followed by ASD. A significant risk of cardiovascular disease was noted. About 90% of the patients inherited the duplication from a parent. At least one out of four parents carrying the duplication displayed a similar phenotype to the propositus. Genotype-phenotype correlations show no impact of the size of the duplicated segment on the severity of the phenotype. However, NDE1 and miR-484 seem to have an essential role in the neurocognitive phenotype. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that 16p13.11 microduplications are likely pathogenic when detected in the context of DD/ID/ASD and supports an essential role of NDE1 and miR-484 in the neurocognitive phenotype. Moreover, it suggests the need for cardiac evaluation and follow-up and a large study to evaluate the aortic disease risk.

17.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 26(11): 1611-1622, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30006632

RESUMO

Acrodysostosis (MIM 101800) is a dominantly inherited condition associating (1) skeletal features (short stature, facial dysostosis, and brachydactyly with cone-shaped epiphyses), (2) resistance to hormones and (3) possible intellectual disability. Acroscyphodysplasia (MIM 250215) is characterized by growth retardation, brachydactyly, and knee epiphyses embedded in cup-shaped metaphyses. We and others have identified PDE4D or PRKAR1A variants in acrodysostosis; PDE4D variants have been reported in three cases of acroscyphodysplasia. Our study aimed at reviewing the clinical and molecular findings in a cohort of 27 acrodysostosis and 5 acroscyphodysplasia cases. Among the acrodysostosis cases, we identified 9 heterozygous de novo PRKAR1A variants and 11 heterozygous PDE4D variants. The 7 patients without variants presented with symptoms of acrodysostosis (brachydactyly and cone-shaped epiphyses), but none had the characteristic facial dysostosis. In the acroscyphodysplasia cases, we identified 2 PDE4D variants. For 2 of the 3 negative cases, medical records revealed early severe infection, which has been described in some reports of acroscyphodysplasia. Subdividing our series of acrodysostosis based on the disease-causing gene, we confirmed genotype-phenotype correlations. Hormone resistance was consistently observed in patients carrying PRKAR1A variants, whereas no hormone resistance was observed in 9 patients with PDE4D variants. All patients with PDE4D variants shared characteristic facial features (midface hypoplasia with nasal hypoplasia) and some degree of intellectual disability. Our findings of PDE4D variants in two cases of acroscyphodysplasia support that PDE4D may be responsible for this severe skeletal dysplasia. We eventually emphasize the importance of some specific assessments in the long-term follow up, including cardiovascular and thromboembolic risk factors.


Assuntos
Subunidade RIalfa da Proteína Quinase Dependente de AMP Cíclico/genética , Nucleotídeo Cíclico Fosfodiesterase do Tipo 4/genética , Disostoses/genética , Epífises/anormalidades , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/genética , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Joelho/anormalidades , Osteocondrodisplasias/genética , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Disostoses/patologia , Epífises/patologia , Exostose Múltipla Hereditária/patologia , Feminino , Deformidades Congênitas da Mão/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/patologia , Joelho/patologia , Masculino , Mutação , Osteocondrodisplasias/patologia , Síndrome
18.
Neuromolecular Med ; 20(3): 409-417, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014449

RESUMO

A growing number of histone modifiers are involved in human neurodevelopmental disorders, suggesting that proper regulation of chromatin state is essential for the development of the central nervous system. Among them, heterozygous de novo variants in KMT2A, a gene coding for histone methyltransferase, have been associated with Wiedemann-Steiner syndrome (WSS), a rare developmental disorder mainly characterized by intellectual disability (ID) and hypertrichosis. As KMT2A is known to regulate the expression of multiple target genes through methylation of lysine 4 of histone 3 (H3K4me), we sought to investigate the transcriptomic consequences of KMT2A variants involved in WSS. Using fibroblasts from four WSS patients harboring loss-of-function KMT2A variants, we performed RNA sequencing and identified a number of genes for which transcription was altered in KMT2A-mutated cells compared to the control ones. Strikingly, analysis of the pathways and biological functions significantly deregulated between patients with WSS and healthy individuals revealed a number of processes predicted to be altered that are relevant for hypertrichosis and intellectual disability, the cardinal signs of this disease.


Assuntos
Histona-Lisina N-Metiltransferase/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Hipertricose/genética , Hipertricose/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Proteína de Leucina Linfoide-Mieloide/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Doenças Raras/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Fibroblastos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Lisina/metabolismo , Masculino , Metilação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Transdução de Sinais , Síndrome , Transcrição Genética , Adulto Jovem
19.
Pediatr Radiol ; 48(10): 1463-1471, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29926145

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The imaging features of Huntington disease are well known in adults, unlike in juvenile-onset Huntington disease. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis in three juvenile Huntington disease patients (ages 2, 4 and 6 years old) to determine whether quantitative cerebral and cerebellar morphological metrics may provide diagnostically interesting patterns of cerebellar and cerebellar atrophy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We report the cases of three siblings with extremely early presentations of juvenile Huntington disease associated with dramatic expansions of the morbid paternal allele from 43 to more than 100 CAG trinucleotide repeats. Automatic segmentation of MRI images of the cerebrum and cerebellum was performed and volumes of cerebral substructures and cerebellar lobules of juvenile Huntington disease patients were compared to those of 30 normal gender- and age-matched controls. Juvenile Huntington disease segmented volumes were compared to those of age-matched controls by using a z-score. RESULTS: Three cerebral substructures (caudate nucleus, putamen and globus pallidus) demonstrated a reduction in size of more than three standard deviations from the normal mean although it was not salient in one of them at clinical reading and was not diagnosed. The size of cerebellum lobules, cerebellum grey matter and cerebellum cortex was reduced by more than two standard deviations in the three patients. The cerebellar atrophy was predominant in the posterior lobe. CONCLUSION: Our study sheds light on atrophic cerebral and cerebellar structures in juvenile Huntington disease. Automatic segmentations of the cerebellum provide patterns that may be of diagnostic interest in this disease.


Assuntos
Doenças Cerebelares/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença de Huntington/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Atrofia/diagnóstico por imagem , Atrofia/patologia , Doenças Cerebelares/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Doença de Huntington/patologia , Lactente , Masculino , Irmãos
20.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895895

RESUMO

Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is a rare and severe form of schizophrenia defined as onset before age of 13. Here we report on two unrelated cases diagnosed with both COS and alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), and for whom two distinct pathogenic de novo variants were identified in the ATP1A3 gene. ATP1A3 encodes the α-subunit of a neuron-specific ATP-dependent transmembrane sodium-potassium pump. Using whole exome sequencing data derived from a cohort of 17 unrelated COS cases, we also examined ATP1A3 and all of its interactors known to be expressed in the brain to establish if variants could be identified. This led to the identification of a third case with a possibly damaging missense mutation in ATP1A3 and three others cases with predicted pathogenic missense variants in the FXYD gene family (FXYD1, FXYD6, and FXYD6-FXYD2 readthrough). FXYD genes encode proteins that modulate the ATP-dependant pump function. This report is the first to identify variants in the same pathway for COS. Our COS study illustrates the interest of stratifying a complex condition according to the age of onset for the identification of deleterious variants. Whereas ATP1A3 is a replicated gene in rare neuropediatric diseases, this gene has previously been linked with COS in only one case report. The association with rare variants in FXYD gene family is novel and highlights the interest of exploring these genes in COS as well as in pediatric neurodevelopmental disorders.

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