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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35546420

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple techniques describe the management of the open abdomen (OA) and restoration of abdominal wall integrity after damage control laparotomy (DCL). It is unclear which operative technique provides the best method of achieving primary myofascial closure at the index hospitalization. METHODS: A writing group from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the current literature regarding OA management strategies in the adult population after DCL. The group sought to understand if fascial traction techniques or techniques to reduce visceral edema improved the outcomes in these patients. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation methodology was utilized, meta-analyses were performed, and an evidence profile was generated. RESULTS: Nineteen studies met inclusion criteria. Overall, the use of fascial traction techniques was associated with improved primary myofascial closure during the index admission (RR 0.34) and fewer hernias (RR 0.11.) The use of fascial traction techniques did not increase the risk of enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) formation nor mortality. Techniques to reduce visceral edema may improve the rate of closure; however, these studies were very limited and suffered significant heterogeneity. CONCLUSION: We conditionally recommend the use of a fascial traction system over routine care when treating a patient with an OA after DCL. This recommendation is based on the benefit of improved primary myofascial closure without worsening mortality or ECF formation. We are unable to make any recommendations regarding techniques to reduce visceral edema. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Guideline; Systematic review/meta-analysis, level IV.

2.
J Surg Res ; 275: 155-160, 2022 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35279581

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Whole blood (WB) has gained popularity in trauma resuscitation within the past 5 y. Previously, its civilian use was limited due to advances in blood component fractionation and fears of hemolysis and infectious disease transmission. Although there are studies and review articles on the efficacy of WB, the analysis of cost pertaining to the use of WB is limited. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a retrospective 1:1 propensity-matched analysis of 280 subjects comparing trauma patients receiving resuscitation with blood component therapy (BCT) to those receiving WB plus BCT between January 2014 and July 2019. WB was used for patients who arrived in hemorrhagic shock with systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg due to either penetrating or blunt trauma. Endpoints included the number of units of WB, packed red blood cells (PRBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), platelets, and cryoprecipitate each patient received. Institution costs for each component were compared in the form of price ratios. Comparisons were made using Wilcoxon rank-sum tests with a P value of ≤0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS: The use of WB was associated with a statistically significant decrease in the number of PRBCs used when compared to BCT. This holds true with the cost of PRBCs being lower among the WB group when the price is controlled. Similarly, a trend was found where FFP, platelets, and cryoprecipitate use and cost showed an absolute decrease between WB and BCT groups. The use of WB is associated with decreased total cost as well (P = 0.1660), although not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adding WB to BCT for trauma resuscitation was associated with lower red blood cell use and cost. A similar trend was found that absolute total cost and absolute cost of FFP, platelets, and cryoprecipitate use was lower when WB was added. WB wastage was minimized due to repurposing WB into PRBCs when WB lifespan ended.


Assuntos
Choque Hemorrágico , Ferimentos e Lesões , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Transfusão de Sangue , Humanos , Ressuscitação , Estudos Retrospectivos , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121705

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Police transport (PT) of penetrating trauma patients in urban locations has become routine in certain metropolitan areas; however, whether it results in improved outcomes over prehospital Advanced Life Support (ALS) transport has not been determined in a multicenter study. We hypothesized that PT would not result in improved outcomes. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study of adults (18+ years) with penetrating trauma to the torso and/or proximal extremity presenting at 25 urban trauma centers. PT and ALS patients were allocated via nearest neighbor, propensity matching. Transport mode also examined by Cox regression. RESULTS: Of 1618 total patients, 294 (18.2%) had PT and 1324 (81.8%) were by ALS. After matching, 588 (294/cohort) remained. The patients were primarily Black (n = 497, 84.5%) males (n = 525, 89.3%) injured by gunshot wound (n = 494, 84.0%) with 34.5% (n = 203) having Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥16. Overall mortality by propensity matching was not different between cohorts (15.6 ALS vs. 15.0% PT, p = 0.82). In severely injured patients (ISS ≥16), mortality did not differ between PT and ALS transport (38.8% vs 36.0% respectively; p = 0.68). Cox regression analysis controlled for relevant factors revealed no association with a mortality benefit in patients transported by ALS. CONCLUSIONS: PT of penetrating trauma patients in urban locations results in similar outcomes compared to ALS. Immediate transport to definitive trauma care should be emphasized in this patient population. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic; Level III.

4.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 91(1): 130-140, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33675330

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prehospital procedures (PHP) by emergency medical services (EMS) are performed regularly in penetrating trauma patients despite previous studies demonstrating no benefit. We sought to examine the influence of PHPs on outcomes in penetrating trauma patients in urban locations where transport to trauma center is not prolonged. We hypothesized that patients without PHPs would have better outcomes than those undergoing PHP. METHODS: This was an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma-sponsored, multicenter, prospective, observational trial of adults (18+ years) with penetrating trauma to the torso and/or proximal extremity presenting at 25 urban trauma centers. The impact of PHPs and transport mechanism on in-hospital mortality were examined. RESULTS: Of 2,284 patients included, 1,386 (60.7%) underwent PHP. The patients were primarily Black (n = 1,527, 66.9%) males (n = 1,986, 87.5%) injured by gunshot wound (n = 1,510, 66.0%) with 34.1% (n = 726) having New Injury Severity Score of ≥16. A total of 1,427 patients (62.5%) were transported by Advanced Life Support EMS, 17.2% (n = 392) by private vehicle, 13.7% (n = 312) by police, and 6.7% (n = 153) by Basic Life Support EMS. Of the PHP patients, 69.1% received PHP on scene, 59.9% received PHP in route, and 29.0% received PHP both on scene and in route. Initial scene vitals differed between groups, but initial emergency department vitals did not. Receipt of ≥1 PHP increased mortality odds (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-1.83; p = 0.04). Logistic regression showed increased mortality with each PHP, whether on scene or during transport. Subset analysis of specific PHP revealed that intubation (OR, 10.76; 95% CI, 4.02-28.78; p < 0.001), C-spine immobilization (OR, 5.80; 95% CI, 1.85-18.26; p < 0.01), and pleural decompression (OR, 3.70; 95% CI, 1.33-10.28; p = 0.01) had the highest odds of mortality after adjusting for multiple variables. CONCLUSION: Prehospital procedures in penetrating trauma patients impart no survival advantage and may be harmful in urban settings, even when performed during transport. Therefore, PHP should be forgone in lieu of immediate transport to improve patient outcomes. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic, level III.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/métodos , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Serviços Urbanos de Saúde , Ferimentos por Arma de Fogo/terapia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/terapia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 90(3): 557-564, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507026

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively evaluate whether ESS can predict the need for respiratory and/or renal support (RRS) at discharge after emergent laparotomies (EL). METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a 19-center prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, all adult patients undergoing EL were enrolled. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were systematically collected. In this analysis, patients were excluded if they died during the index hospitalization, were discharged to hospice, or transferred to other hospitals. A composite variable, the need for RRS, was defined as the need for one or more of the following at hospital discharge: tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for all patients, and the correlation between ESS and RRS was examined using the c-statistics method. RESULTS: From a total of 1,649 patients, 1,347 were included. Median age was 60 years, 49.4% were men, and 70.9% were White. The most common diagnoses were hollow viscus organ perforation (28.1%) and small bowel obstruction (24.5%); 87 patients (6.5%) had a need for RRS (4.7% tracheostomy, 2.7% dialysis, and 1.3% ventilator dependence). Emergency Surgery Score predicted the need for RRS in a stepwise fashion; for example, 0.7%, 26.2%, and 85.7% of patients required RRS at an ESS of 2, 12, and 16, respectively. The c-statistics for the need for RRS, the need for tracheostomy, ventilator dependence, or dialysis at discharge were 0.84, 0.82, 0.79, and 0.88, respectively. CONCLUSION: Emergency Surgery Score accurately predicts the need for RRS at discharge in EL patients and could be used for preoperative patient counseling and for quality of care benchmarking. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic and epidemiological, level III.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Hospitalização , Laparotomia/efeitos adversos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Diálise Renal , Respiração Artificial , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Medição de Risco
6.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 36-42, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between timing and volume of crystalloid before blood products and mortality, hypothesizing that earlier transfusion and decreased crystalloid before transfusion would be associated with improved outcomes. METHODS: A multi-institutional prospective observational study of pediatric trauma patients younger than 18 years, transported from the scene of injury with elevated age-adjusted shock index on arrival, was performed from April 2018 to September 2019. Volume and timing of prehospital, emergency department, and initial admission resuscitation were assessed including calculation of 20 ± 10 mL/kg crystalloid boluses overall and before transfusion. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models identified factors associated with mortality and extended intensive care, ventilator, and hospital days. RESULTS: In 712 children at 24 trauma centers, mean age was 7.6 years, median (interquartile range) Injury Severity Score was 9 (2-20), and in-hospital mortality was 5.3% (n = 38). There were 311 patients(43.7%) who received at least one crystalloid bolus and 149 (20.9%) who received blood including 65 (9.6%) with massive transfusion activation. Half (53.3%) of patients who received greater than one crystalloid bolus required transfusion. Patients who received blood first (n = 41) had shorter median time to transfusion (19.8 vs. 78.0 minutes, p = 0.005) and less total fluid volume (50.4 vs. 86.6 mL/kg, p = 0.033) than those who received crystalloid first despite similar Injury Severity Score (median, 22 vs. 27, p = 0.40). On multivariable analysis, there was no association with mortality (p = 0.51); however, each crystalloid bolus after the first was incrementally associated with increased odds of extended ventilator, intensive care unit, and hospital days (all p < 0.05). Longer time to transfusion was associated with extended ventilator duration (odds ratio, 1.11; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Resuscitation with greater than one crystalloid bolus was associated with increased need for transfusion and worse outcomes including extended duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization in this prospective study. These data support a crystalloid-sparing, early transfusion approach for resuscitation of injured children. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, level IV.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Ressuscitação/métodos , Tempo para o Tratamento , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Lactente , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Trauma Acute Care Surg ; 89(1): 118-124, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176177

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Emergency Surgery Score (ESS) was recently developed and retrospectively validated as an accurate mortality risk calculator for emergency general surgery. We sought to prospectively validate ESS, specifically in the high-risk nontrauma emergency laparotomy (EL) patient. METHODS: This is an Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma multicenter prospective observational study. Between April 2018 and June 2019, 19 centers enrolled all adults (aged >18 years) undergoing EL. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were prospectively and systematically collected. Emergency Surgery Score was calculated for each patient and validated using c-statistic methodology by correlating it with three postoperative outcomes: (1) 30-day mortality, (2) 30-day complications (e.g., respiratory/renal failure, infection), and (3) postoperative intensive care unit (ICU) admission. RESULTS: A total of 1,649 patients were included. The mean age was 60.5 years, 50.3% were female, and 71.4% were white. The mean ESS was 6, and the most common indication for EL was hollow viscus perforation. The 30-day mortality and complication rates were 14.8% and 53.3%; 57.0% of patients required ICU admission. Emergency Surgery Score gradually and accurately predicted 30-day mortality; 3.5%, 50.0%, and 85.7% of patients with ESS of 3, 12, and 17 died after surgery, respectively, with a c-statistic of 0.84. Similarly, ESS gradually and accurately predicted complications; 21.0%, 57.1%, and 88.9% of patients with ESS of 1, 6, and 13 developed postoperative complications, with a c-statistic of 0.74. Emergency Surgery Score also accurately predicted which patients required intensive care unit admission (c-statistic, 0.80). CONCLUSION: This is the first prospective multicenter study to validate ESS as an accurate predictor of outcome in the EL patient. Emergency Surgery Score can prove useful for (1) perioperative patient and family counseling, (2) triaging patients to the intensive care unit, and (3) benchmarking the quality of emergency general surgery care. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Prognostic study, level III.


Assuntos
Emergências , Cirurgia Geral , Medição de Risco/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Pontuação de Propensão , Estudos Prospectivos , Ferimentos e Lesões/mortalidade
8.
Am J Surg ; 219(1): 38-42, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604488

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Major venous injury (MVI) affecting the lower extremity can result in subsequent amputation. The contribution of intraoperative resuscitation efforts on the need for amputation is not well defined. We hypothesized that intraoperative large volume crystalloid resuscitation (LVCR) increases the risk of amputation after MVI, while massive transfusion (MT) does not. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with infrarenal MVI from 2005 to 2015 at seven urban level I trauma centers. The outcome of interest was the need for secondary amputation. RESULTS: 478 patients were included. 31 (6.5%) patients with MVI required amputation. LVCR(p < 0.001), combined arterial/venous injury (p = 0.001), and associated fracture (p = 0.001) were significant risk factors for amputation. MT did not significantly increase amputation risk (p = 0.44). Multivariable logistic regression model demonstrated that patients receiving ≥5L LVCR(aOR (95% CI): 9.7 (2.9, 33.0); p < 0.001), with combined arterial/venous injury (aOR (95% CI):3.6 (1.5, 8.5); p = 0.004), and with an associated fracture (aOR (95% CI):3.2 (1.5, 7.1); p = 0.004) were more likely to require amputation. CONCLUSION: Patients with MVI who receive LVCR, have combined arterial/venous injuries and have associated fractures are more likely to require amputation. MT was not associated with delayed amputation.


Assuntos
Amputação/estatística & dados numéricos , Transfusão de Sangue , Soluções Cristaloides/uso terapêutico , Cuidados Intraoperatórios , Perna (Membro)/irrigação sanguínea , Ressuscitação/métodos , Veias/lesões , Veias/cirurgia , Adulto , Soluções Cristaloides/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Cuidados Intraoperatórios/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 4(1): e000351, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31799416

RESUMO

Introduction: Gunshot wounds to the brain (GSWB) confer high lethality and uncertain recovery. It is unclear which patients benefit from aggressive resuscitation, and furthermore whether patients with GSWB undergoing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) have potential for survival or organ donation. Therefore, we sought to determine the rates of survival and organ donation, as well as identify factors associated with both outcomes in patients with GSWB undergoing CPR. Methods: We performed a retrospective, multicenter study at 25 US trauma centers including dates between June 1, 2011 and December 31, 2017. Patients were included if they suffered isolated GSWB and required CPR at a referring hospital, in the field, or in the trauma resuscitation room. Patients were excluded for significant torso or extremity injuries, or if pregnant. Binomial regression models were used to determine predictors of survival/organ donation. Results: 825 patients met study criteria; the majority were male (87.6%) with a mean age of 36.5 years. Most (67%) underwent CPR in the field and 2.1% (n=17) survived to discharge. Of the non-survivors, 17.5% (n=141) were considered eligible donors, with a donation rate of 58.9% (n=83) in this group. Regression models found several predictors of survival. Hormone replacement was predictive of both survival and organ donation. Conclusion: We found that GSWB requiring CPR during trauma resuscitation was associated with a 2.1% survival rate and overall organ donation rate of 10.3%. Several factors appear to be favorably associated with survival, although predictions are uncertain due to the low number of survivors in this patient population. Hormone replacement was predictive of both survival and organ donation. These results are a starting point for determining appropriate treatment algorithms for this devastating clinical condition. Level of evidence: Level II.

10.
Case Rep Surg ; 2016: 4173060, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27651973

RESUMO

Angiosarcoma of the spleen is a rare malignancy that arises from vascular endothelial origin. This neoplasm is highly malignant and diagnosis is often delayed due to the vague presentation of clinical symptoms. A case report and concise review of the current diagnostic criteria and surgical treatment are provided to aid in the detection and treatment of this malignancy. We present a case of a 56-year-old female who presented with massive splenomegaly secondary to angiosarcoma of the spleen. The patient suffered from longstanding symptomatic anemia and thrombocytopenia. Diagnosis of a splenic angiosarcoma can be difficult due to the vague presentation and lack of concrete risk factors. Early identification and splenectomy are paramount. However, it is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. We reviewed the literature of the current diagnostic and surgical treatment of primary splenic angiosarcoma.

11.
Am J Case Rep ; 16: 496-500, 2015 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26222965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peritoneal mesothelioma is a rare malignancy that affects the serosal surfaces of the peritoneum. The peritoneum is the second most common site of mesothelium affected following the pleura. The aggressive nature and vague presentation pose many obstacles in not only diagnosis but also the treatment of patients with this disease. CASE REPORT: We present a case of a 76-year-old woman who presented with small bowel obstruction secondary to carcinomatosis secondary to primary peritoneal mesothelioma. The patient had multiple risk factors with asbestos exposure and prior therapeutic radiation. CONCLUSIONS: We discuss the highly varied and elusive presentation of peritoneal mesothelioma. Cumulative asbestos exposure, either directly or indirectly, remains the leading cause of mesothelioma. However, there are other non-asbestos etiologies. Small bowel obstruction often is a late-presenting symptom of widespread tumor burden. A concise review of the current diagnostic and surgical treatment of primary peritoneal mesothelioma demonstrates that early diagnosis and implementation remains vital.


Assuntos
Obstrução Intestinal/etiologia , Intestino Delgado , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Obstrução Intestinal/diagnóstico , Obstrução Intestinal/terapia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/terapia , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico por imagem , Mesotelioma/terapia , Mesotelioma Maligno , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Radiografia
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