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1.
Genet Med ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406321

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Despite the rapid uptake of multigene panel testing (MGPT) for hereditary cancer predisposition, there is limited guidance surrounding indications for testing and genes to include. METHODS: To inform the clinical approach to hereditary cancer MGPT, we comprehensively evaluated 32 cancer predisposition genes by assessing phenotype-specific pathogenic variant (PV) frequencies, cancer risk associations, and performance of genetic testing criteria in a cohort of 165,000 patients referred for MGPT. RESULTS: We identified extensive genetic heterogeneity surrounding predisposition to cancer types commonly referred for germline testing (breast, ovarian, colorectal, uterine/endometrial, pancreatic, and melanoma). PV frequencies were highest among patients with ovarian cancer (13.8%) and lowest among patients with melanoma (8.1%). Fewer than half of PVs identified in patients meeting testing criteria for only BRCA1/2 or only Lynch syndrome occurred in the respective genes (33.1% and 46.2%). In addition, 5.8% of patients with PVs in BRCA1/2 and 26.9% of patients with PVs in Lynch syndrome genes did not meet respective testing criteria. CONCLUSION: Opportunities to improve upon identification of patients at risk for hereditary cancer predisposition include revising BRCA1/2 and Lynch syndrome testing criteria to include additional clinically actionable genes with overlapping phenotypes and relaxing testing criteria for associated cancers.

2.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1546-1556, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31294896

RESUMO

Testing for variation in BRCA1 and BRCA2 (commonly referred to as BRCA1/2), has emerged as a standard clinical practice and is helping countless women better understand and manage their heritable risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Yet the increased rate of BRCA1/2 testing has led to an increasing number of Variants of Uncertain Significance (VUS), and the rate of VUS discovery currently outpaces the rate of clinical variant interpretation. Computational prediction is a key component of the variant interpretation pipeline. In the CAGI5 ENIGMA Challenge, six prediction teams submitted predictions on 326 newly-interpreted variants from the ENIGMA Consortium. By evaluating these predictions against the new interpretations, we have gained a number of insights on the state of the art of variant prediction and specific steps to further advance this state of the art.

3.
Genet Med ; 2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30504929

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To enhance classification of variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes in the cancer predisposition Lynch syndrome, we developed the cell-free in vitro MMR activity (CIMRA) assay. Here, we calibrate and validate the assay, enabling its integration with in silico and clinical data. METHODS: Two sets of previously classified MLH1 and MSH2 variants were selected from a curated MMR gene database, and their biochemical activity determined by the CIMRA assay. The assay was calibrated by regression analysis followed by symmetric cross-validation and Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity. CIMRA assay reproducibility was assessed in four laboratories. RESULTS: Concordance between the training runs met our prespecified validation criterion. The CIMRA assay alone correctly classified 65% of variants, with only 3% discordant classification. Bayesian integration with in silico predictions of pathogenicity increased the proportion of correctly classified variants to 87%, without changing the discordance rate. Interlaboratory results were highly reproducible. CONCLUSION: The CIMRA assay accurately predicts pathogenic and benign MMR gene variants. Quantitative combination of assay results with in silico analysis correctly classified the majority of variants. Using this calibration, CIMRA assay results can be integrated into the diagnostic algorithm for MMR gene variants.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.

5.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2018 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30099541

RESUMO

Background: Germline genetic testing with hereditary cancer gene panels can identify women at increased risk of breast cancer. However, those at increased risk of triple-negative (estrogen receptor-negative, progesterone receptor-negative, human epidermal growth factor receptor-negative) breast cancer (TNBC) cannot be identified because predisposition genes for TNBC, other than BRCA1, have not been established. The aim of this study was to define the cancer panel genes associated with increased risk of TNBC. Methods: Multigene panel testing for 21 genes in 8753 TNBC patients was performed by a clinical testing laboratory, and testing for 17 genes in 2148 patients was conducted by a Triple Negative Breast Cancer Consortium (TNBCC) of research studies. Associations between deleterious mutations in cancer predisposition genes and TNBC were evaluated using results from TNBC patients and reference controls. Results: Germline pathogenic variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D were associated with high risk (odds ratio > 5.0) of TNBC and greater than 20% lifetime risk for overall breast cancer among Caucasians. Pathogenic variants in BRIP1, RAD51C, and TP53 were associated with moderate risk (odds ratio > 2) of TNBC. Similar trends were observed for the African American population. Pathogenic variants in these TNBC genes were detected in 12.0% (3.7% non-BRCA1/2) of all participants. Conclusions: Multigene hereditary cancer panel testing can identify women with elevated risk of TNBC due to mutations in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, and RAD51D. These women can potentially benefit from improved screening, risk management, and cancer prevention strategies. Patients with mutations may also benefit from specific targeted therapeutic strategies.

6.
Cancer Res ; 78(18): 5419-5430, 2018 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30054336

RESUMO

Large-scale genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified approximately 35 loci associated with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) risk. The majority of GWAS-identified disease susceptibility variants are located in noncoding regions, and causal genes underlying these associations remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study to search for novel genetic loci and plausible causal genes at known GWAS loci. We used RNA sequencing data (68 normal ovarian tissue samples from 68 individuals and 6,124 cross-tissue samples from 369 individuals) and high-density genotyping data from European descendants of the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx V6) project to build ovarian and cross-tissue models of genetically regulated expression using elastic net methods. We evaluated 17,121 genes for their cis-predicted gene expression in relation to EOC risk using summary statistics data from GWAS of 97,898 women, including 29,396 EOC cases. With a Bonferroni-corrected significance level of P < 2.2 × 10-6, we identified 35 genes, including FZD4 at 11q14.2 (Z = 5.08, P = 3.83 × 10-7, the cross-tissue model; 1 Mb away from any GWAS-identified EOC risk variant), a potential novel locus for EOC risk. All other 34 significantly associated genes were located within 1 Mb of known GWAS-identified loci, including 23 genes at 6 loci not previously linked to EOC risk. Upon conditioning on nearby known EOC GWAS-identified variants, the associations for 31 genes disappeared and three genes remained (P < 1.47 × 10-3). These data identify one novel locus (FZD4) and 34 genes at 13 known EOC risk loci associated with EOC risk, providing new insights into EOC carcinogenesis.Significance: Transcriptomic analysis of a large cohort confirms earlier GWAS loci and reveals FZD4 as a novel locus associated with EOC risk. Cancer Res; 78(18); 5419-30. ©2018 AACR.

7.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 697, 2018 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29945567

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genes associated with hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition have been shown to play a role in pancreatic cancer susceptibility. Growing evidence suggests that pancreatic cancer may be useful as a sentinel cancer to identify families that could benefit from HBOC or CRC surveillance, but to date pancreatic cancer is only considered an indication for genetic testing in the context of additional family history. METHODS: Preliminary data generated at the Huntsman Cancer Hospital (HCH) included variants identified on a custom 34-gene panel or 59-gene panel including both known HBOC and CRC genes for respective sets of 66 and 147 pancreatic cancer cases, unselected for family history. Given the strength of preliminary data and corresponding literature, 61 sequential pancreatic cancer cases underwent a custom 14-gene clinical panel. Sequencing data from HCH pancreatic cancer cases, pancreatic cancer cases of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), and an unselected pancreatic cancer screen from the Mayo Clinic were combined in a meta-analysis to estimate the proportion of carriers with pathogenic and high probability of pathogenic variants of uncertain significance (HiP-VUS). RESULTS: Approximately 8.6% of unselected pancreatic cancer cases at the HCH carried a variant with potential HBOC or CRC screening recommendations. A meta-analysis of unselected pancreatic cancer cases revealed that approximately 11.5% carry a pathogenic variant or HiP-VUS. CONCLUSION: With the inclusion of both HBOC and CRC susceptibility genes in a panel test, unselected pancreatic cancer cases act as a useful sentinel cancer to identify asymptomatic at-risk relatives who could benefit from relevant HBOC and CRC surveillance measures.

8.
Genet Med ; 2018 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29884841

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To improve methods for predicting the impact of missense variants of uncertain significance (VUS) in BRCA1 and BRCA2 on protein function. METHODS: Functional data for 248 BRCA1 and 207 BRCA2 variants from assays with established high sensitivity and specificity for damaging variants were used to recalibrate 40 in silico algorithms predicting the impact of variants on protein activity. Additional random forest (RF) and naïve voting method (NVM) metapredictors for both BRCA1 and BRCA2 were developed to increase predictive accuracy. RESULTS: Optimized thresholds for in silico prediction models significantly improved the accuracy of predicted functional effects for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants. In addition, new BRCA1-RF and BRCA2-RF metapredictors showed area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.92 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88-0.96) and 0.90 (95% CI: 0.84-0.95), respectively. Similarly, the BRCA1-NVM and BRCA2-NVM models had AUCs of 0.93 and 0.90. The RF and NVM models were used to predict the pathogenicity of all possible missense variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2. CONCLUSION: The recalibrated algorithms and new metapredictors significantly improved upon current models for predicting the impact of variants in cancer risk-associated domains of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Prediction of the functional impact of all possible variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 provides important information about the clinical relevance of variants in these genes.

9.
JAMA Dermatol ; 154(8): 885-889, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29847610

RESUMO

Importance: Staged excision of lentigo maligna (LM) often requires multiple stages and can result in significant cosmetic morbidity. Imiquimod cream has been used off-label as monotherapy in the treatment of LM and may be used in the neoadjuvant setting prior to staged excision as a strategy to reduce the size of the surgical margins required to confirm negative histologic margins. Objective: To examine the rate of recurrence of LM in patients treated with neoadjuvant topical imiquimod, 5%, cream prior to conservatively staged excisions. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective medical record review of 334 patients with 345 biopsy-confirmed LM tumors from June 2004 to January 2012 who were treated with imiquimod prior to undergoing staged excisions at the University of Utah Medical Center and Huntsman Cancer Institute, large academic hospitals in Salt Lake City. Interventions: Patients were treated with off-label imiquimod, 5%, cream 5 nights per week for 2 to 3 months. Those deemed to have an inadequate inflammatory response were also treated with tazarotene, 0.1%, gel twice weekly. Conservatively staged excisions, beginning with 2-mm margins, were then performed. Main Outcomes and Measures: The rate of recurrence of LM after long-term follow-up. Results: Patients included 235 men (70%) and 99 women (30%) with a mean (SD) age of 67 (13) years. Patients were treated with imiquimod cream for a mean of 2.5 months prior to undergoing conservatively staged excisions. There were 12 local recurrences (a rate of 3.9%) with a mean time to recurrence of 4.3 years and a mean length of follow-up of 5.5 years. Conclusions and Relevance: Neoadjuvant topical imiquimod, 5%, cream prior to conservatively staged excisions for LM allowed for negative histologic margins with a median final margin of 2 mm and a rate of recurrence similar to reported recurrence rates with standard staged excisions by either Mohs surgery or en face permanent sections.

10.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 867, 2018 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29491469

RESUMO

Mendelian-like inheritance of germline DNA methylation in cancer susceptibility genes has been previously reported. We aimed to scan the genome for heritable methylation marks associated with breast cancer susceptibility by studying 25 Australian multiple-case breast cancer families. Here we report genome-wide DNA methylation measured in 210 peripheral blood DNA samples provided by family members using the Infinium HumanMethylation450. We develop and apply a new statistical method to identify heritable methylation marks based on complex segregation analysis. We estimate carrier probabilities for the 1000 most heritable methylation marks based on family structure, and we use Cox proportional hazards survival analysis to identify 24 methylation marks with corresponding carrier probabilities significantly associated with breast cancer. We replicate an association with breast cancer risk for four of the 24 marks using an independent nested case-control study. Here, we report a novel approach for identifying heritable DNA methylation marks associated with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Metilação de DNA , Austrália , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Ilhas de CpG , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
11.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 593-620, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446198

RESUMO

The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(2): 233-248, 2018 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29394989

RESUMO

Many variants of uncertain significance (VUS) have been identified in BRCA2 through clinical genetic testing. VUS pose a significant clinical challenge because the contribution of these variants to cancer risk has not been determined. We conducted a comprehensive assessment of VUS in the BRCA2 C-terminal DNA binding domain (DBD) by using a validated functional assay of BRCA2 homologous recombination (HR) DNA-repair activity and defined a classifier of variant pathogenicity. Among 139 variants evaluated, 54 had ?99% probability of pathogenicity, and 73 had ?95% probability of neutrality. Functional assay results were compared with predictions of variant pathogenicity from the Align-GVGD protein-sequence-based prediction algorithm, which has been used for variant classification. Relative to the HR assay, Align-GVGD significantly (p < 0.05) over-predicted pathogenic variants. We subsequently combined functional and Align-GVGD prediction results in a Bayesian hierarchical model (VarCall) to estimate the overall probability of pathogenicity for each VUS. In addition, to predict the effects of all other BRCA2 DBD variants and to prioritize variants for functional studies, we used the endoPhenotype-Optimized Sequence Ensemble (ePOSE) algorithm to train classifiers for BRCA2 variants by using data from the HR functional assay. Together, the results show that systematic functional assays in combination with in silico predictors of pathogenicity provide robust tools for clinical annotation of BRCA2 VUS.

13.
J Physician Assist Educ ; 29(1): 19-24, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29461452

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To assess the effectiveness of lectures for continuing medical education (CME) in dermatology in a global health setting and to determine provider and patient demographics of physician assistants (PAs) practicing in rural Ghana. METHODS: Physician assistants from Ghana who attended dermatology lectures at the International Seminar for Physician Assistants in 2011 or 2014 were included in this study. Surveys were administered to participants to determine dermatology resource availability, commonly encountered skin diseases, and management practices. Quizzes were administered before and after CME dermatology lectures to assess short-term retention of lecture material. RESULTS: In all, 353 PAs participated in this study. Physician assistants reported seeing an average of 55 patients per day. The most commonly seen skin diseases were infections, with antifungals and antibiotics being the most commonly prescribed medications. Dermatology-related complaints represented 9.5% of total clinic visits. Among practicing PAs, 23.2% reported having internet access. A total of 332 PAs completed the quizzes, and a statistically significant increase in test scores was noted in postlecture quizzes. CONCLUSIONS: This study reinforces the importance of dermatology education for PAs practicing in rural areas of Ghana and lends insight to critical topics for dermatology curriculum development. In addition, the increase in test scores after CME sessions suggests that lectures are an effective tool for short-term retention of dermatology-related topics. Our study indicates that as the need for health workers increases globally and a paradigm shift away from the traditional physician model of care occurs, dermatology training of PAs is not only important but also achievable.

14.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 165, 2018 02 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29422015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutation carriers is modified by risk factors that cluster in families, including genetic modifiers of risk. We considered genetic modifiers of risk for carriers of high-risk mutations in other breast cancer susceptibility genes. METHODS: In a family known to carry the high-risk mutation PALB2:c.3113G>A (p.Trp1038*), whole-exome sequencing was performed on germline DNA from four affected women, three of whom were mutation carriers. RESULTS: RNASEL:p.Glu265* was identified in one of the PALB2 carriers who had two primary invasive breast cancer diagnoses before 50 years. Gene-panel testing of BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2 and RNASEL in the Australian Breast Cancer Family Registry identified five carriers of RNASEL:p.Glu265* in 591 early onset breast cancer cases. Three of the five women (60%) carrying RNASEL:p.Glu265* also carried a pathogenic mutation in a breast cancer susceptibility gene compared with 30 carriers of pathogenic mutations in the 586 non-carriers of RNASEL:p.Glu265* (5%) (p < 0.002). Taqman genotyping demonstrated that the allele frequency of RNASEL:p.Glu265* was similar in affected and unaffected Australian women, consistent with other populations. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that RNASEL:p.Glu265* may be a genetic modifier of risk for early-onset breast cancer predisposition in carriers of high-risk mutations. Much larger case-case and case-control studies are warranted to test the association observed in this report.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Endorribonucleases/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Adulto , Idade de Início , Austrália , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Med Genet ; 55(1): 15-20, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28490613

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We previously showed that the BRCA1 variant c.5096G>A p.Arg1699Gln (R1699Q) was associated with an intermediate risk of breast cancer (BC) and ovarian cancer (OC). This study aimed to assess these cancer risks for R1699Q carriers in a larger cohort, including follow-up of previously studied families, to further define cancer risks and to propose adjusted clinical management of female BRCA1*R1699Q carriers. METHODS: Data were collected from 129 BRCA1*R1699Q families ascertained internationally by ENIGMA (Evidence-based Network for the Interpretation of Germline Mutant Alleles) consortium members. A modified segregation analysis was used to calculate BC and OC risks. Relative risks were calculated under both monogenic model and major gene plus polygenic model assumptions. RESULTS: In this cohort the cumulative risk of BC and OC by age 70 years was 20% and 6%, respectively. The relative risk for developing cancer was higher when using a model that included the effects of both the R1699Q variant and a residual polygenic component compared with monogenic model (for BC 3.67 vs 2.83, and for OC 6.41 vs 5.83). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that BRCA1*R1699Q confers an intermediate risk for BC and OC. Breast surveillance for female carriers based on mammogram annually from age 40 is advised. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy should be considered based on family history.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Segregação de Cromossomos , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco
16.
Gynecol Oncol ; 147(2): 375-380, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28888541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Given the lack of adequate screening modalities, knowledge of ovarian cancer risks for carriers of pathogenic alterations in predisposition genes is important for decisions about risk-reduction by salpingo-oophorectomy. We sought to determine which genes assayed on multi-gene panels are associated with ovarian cancer, the magnitude of the associations, and for which clinically meaningful associations could be ruled out. METHODS: 7768 adult ovarian cancer cases of European ancestry referred to a single clinical testing laboratory underwent multi-gene panel testing for detection of pathogenic alterations in known or suspected ovarian cancer susceptibility genes. A targeted capture approach was employed to assay each of 19 genes for the presence of pathogenic or likely pathogenic alterations. Mutation frequencies in ovarian cancer cases were compared to mutation frequencies in individuals from the Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC). Analyses stratified by family and personal history of other cancers and age at diagnosis were also performed. RESULTS: Significant associations (p<0.001) were identified between alterations in 11 genes and ovarian cancer, with eight of these displaying ≥5-fold increased risk (BRCA1, BRCA2, BRIP1, MSH2, MSH6, RAD51C, RAD51D). Relative risks of ovarian cancer greater than two-fold were also observed for ATM, but could reliably be ruled out for RAD50 and CHEK2. CONCLUSIONS: These results will inform clinical management of women found to carry pathogenic alterations in genes tested on multi-gene panels. The knowledge that some genes are not associated with OC can reduce concerns of women found to carry pathogenic alterations in those genes.


Assuntos
Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , RNA Helicases/genética
18.
JAMA ; 317(23): 2402-2416, 2017 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28632866

RESUMO

Importance: The clinical management of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers requires accurate, prospective cancer risk estimates. Objectives: To estimate age-specific risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer for mutation carriers and to evaluate risk modification by family cancer history and mutation location. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of 6036 BRCA1 and 3820 BRCA2 female carriers (5046 unaffected and 4810 with breast or ovarian cancer or both at baseline) recruited in 1997-2011 through the International BRCA1/2 Carrier Cohort Study, the Breast Cancer Family Registry and the Kathleen Cuningham Foundation Consortium for Research into Familial Breast Cancer, with ascertainment through family clinics (94%) and population-based studies (6%). The majority were from large national studies in the United Kingdom (EMBRACE), the Netherlands (HEBON), and France (GENEPSO). Follow-up ended December 2013; median follow-up was 5 years. Exposures: BRCA1/2 mutations, family cancer history, and mutation location. Main Outcomes and Measures: Annual incidences, standardized incidence ratios, and cumulative risks of breast, ovarian, and contralateral breast cancer. Results: Among 3886 women (median age, 38 years; interquartile range [IQR], 30-46 years) eligible for the breast cancer analysis, 5066 women (median age, 38 years; IQR, 31-47 years) eligible for the ovarian cancer analysis, and 2213 women (median age, 47 years; IQR, 40-55 years) eligible for the contralateral breast cancer analysis, 426 were diagnosed with breast cancer, 109 with ovarian cancer, and 245 with contralateral breast cancer during follow-up. The cumulative breast cancer risk to age 80 years was 72% (95% CI, 65%-79%) for BRCA1 and 69% (95% CI, 61%-77%) for BRCA2 carriers. Breast cancer incidences increased rapidly in early adulthood until ages 30 to 40 years for BRCA1 and until ages 40 to 50 years for BRCA2 carriers, then remained at a similar, constant incidence (20-30 per 1000 person-years) until age 80 years. The cumulative ovarian cancer risk to age 80 years was 44% (95% CI, 36%-53%) for BRCA1 and 17% (95% CI, 11%-25%) for BRCA2 carriers. For contralateral breast cancer, the cumulative risk 20 years after breast cancer diagnosis was 40% (95% CI, 35%-45%) for BRCA1 and 26% (95% CI, 20%-33%) for BRCA2 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] for comparing BRCA2 vs BRCA1, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.47-0.82; P=.001 for difference). Breast cancer risk increased with increasing number of first- and second-degree relatives diagnosed as having breast cancer for both BRCA1 (HR for ≥2 vs 0 affected relatives, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.41-2.82; P<.001 for trend) and BRCA2 carriers (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.08-3.37; P=.02 for trend). Breast cancer risk was higher if mutations were located outside vs within the regions bounded by positions c.2282-c.4071 in BRCA1 (HR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.11-1.93; P=.007) and c.2831-c.6401 in BRCA2 (HR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.36-2.74; P<.001). Conclusions and Relevance: These findings provide estimates of cancer risk based on BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carrier status using prospective data collection and demonstrate the potential importance of family history and mutation location in risk assessment.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
19.
JAMA Oncol ; 3(9): 1190-1196, 2017 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28418444

RESUMO

Importance: Germline pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 predispose to an increased lifetime risk of breast cancer. However, the relevance of germline variants in other genes from multigene hereditary cancer testing panels is not well defined. Objective: To determine the risks of breast cancer associated with germline variants in cancer predisposition genes. Design, Setting, and Participants: A study population of 65 057 patients with breast cancer receiving germline genetic testing of cancer predisposition genes with hereditary cancer multigene panels. Associations between pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes and breast cancer risk were estimated in a case-control analysis of patients with breast cancer and Exome Aggregation Consortium reference controls. The women underwent testing between March 15, 2012, and June 30, 2016. Main Outcomes and Measures: Breast cancer risk conferred by pathogenic variants in non-BRCA1 and non-BRCA2 predisposition genes. Results: The mean (SD) age at diagnosis for the 65 057 women included in the analysis was 48.5 (11.1) years. The frequency of pathogenic variants in 21 panel genes identified in 41 611 consecutively tested white women with breast cancer was estimated at 10.2%. After exclusion of BRCA1, BRCA2, and syndromic breast cancer genes (CDH1, PTEN, and TP53), observed pathogenic variants in 5 of 16 genes were associated with high or moderately increased risks of breast cancer: ATM (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.22-3.62), BARD1 (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.31-3.63), CHEK2 (OR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.31-1.67), PALB2 (OR, 7.46; 95% CI, 5.12-11.19), and RAD51D (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.21-7.88). Conversely, variants in the BRIP1 and RAD51C ovarian cancer risk genes; the MRE11A, RAD50, and NBN MRN complex genes; the MLH1 and PMS2 mismatch repair genes; and NF1 were not associated with increased risks of breast cancer. Conclusions and Relevance: This study establishes several panel genes as high- and moderate-risk breast cancer genes and provides estimates of breast cancer risk associated with pathogenic variants in these genes among individuals qualifying for clinical genetic testing.


Assuntos
Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina-Proteína Ligases/genética , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Inibidor de Quinase Dependente de Ciclina p18/genética , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Proteínas de Grupos de Complementação da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Proteína Homóloga a MRE11 , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Neurofibromina 1/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Helicases/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 35(20): 2240-2250, 2017 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28448241

RESUMO

Purpose BRCA1/2 mutations increase the risk of breast and prostate cancer in men. Common genetic variants modify cancer risks for female carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations. We investigated-for the first time to our knowledge-associations of common genetic variants with breast and prostate cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/ 2 mutations and implications for cancer risk prediction. Materials and Methods We genotyped 1,802 male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations from the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 by using the custom Illumina OncoArray. We investigated the combined effects of established breast and prostate cancer susceptibility variants on cancer risks for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations by constructing weighted polygenic risk scores (PRSs) using published effect estimates as weights. Results In male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations, PRS that was based on 88 female breast cancer susceptibility variants was associated with breast cancer risk (odds ratio per standard deviation of PRS, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.19 to 1.56; P = 8.6 × 10-6). Similarly, PRS that was based on 103 prostate cancer susceptibility variants was associated with prostate cancer risk (odds ratio per SD of PRS, 1.56; 95% CI, 1.35 to 1.81; P = 3.2 × 10-9). Large differences in absolute cancer risks were observed at the extremes of the PRS distribution. For example, prostate cancer risk by age 80 years at the 5th and 95th percentiles of the PRS varies from 7% to 26% for carriers of BRCA1 mutations and from 19% to 61% for carriers of BRCA2 mutations, respectively. Conclusion PRSs may provide informative cancer risk stratification for male carriers of BRCA1/2 mutations that might enable these men and their physicians to make informed decisions on the type and timing of breast and prostate cancer risk management.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Herança Multifatorial , Mutação , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Medição de Risco/métodos
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