Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 383
Filtrar
1.
J Thromb Haemost ; 2020 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32145144

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Using data from the SOX Trial, we recently developed a clinical prediction model for occurrence of the post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS) after proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT), termed the SOX-PTS score. The score includes anatomical extent of DVT; body mass index; and baseline Villalta score. OBJECTIVE: To externally validate the SOX-PTS score. METHODS: Logistic regression analysis of data from the ATTRACT Trial which evaluated pharmacomechanical catheter directed thrombolysis in patients with proximal DVT. The primary outcome was the occurrence of PTS (defined as Villalta score ≥ 5) from 6 to 24 months after DVT. Secondary outcomes included moderate-severe PTS (Villalta scale ≥ 10) and severe PTS (Villalta scale ≥ 14). Predictive performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration. An updated score was evaluated in an exploratory analysis. RESULTS: 691 ATTRACT patients were included, of whom 328 (47%) developed PTS. The c-statistic was 0.63; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.67 for PTS. The model's performance appeared to be better for the outcomes moderate to severe PTS and severe PTS (c-statistic 0.67; 95% CI 0.62 to 0.72 for moderate-severe PTS and 0.70; 0.64 to 0.77 for severe PTS). An updated model with age as an additional variable performed similarly to the original model. CONCLUSION: We externally validated the SOX-PTS score for estimating the risk of developing PTS, moderate to severe PTS, and severe PTS, in patients with proximal DVT. The score may be useful to predict PTS at the time of DVT diagnosis. Further external validation in different patient cohorts is required.

2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(2): 230-237, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32110753

RESUMO

Background: The identification of acutely ill patients at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be determined clinically or by use of integer-based scoring systems. These scores demonstrated modest performance in external data sets. Objectives: To evaluate the performance of machine learning models compared to the IMPROVE score. Methods: The APEX trial randomized 7513 acutely medically ill patients to extended duration betrixaban vs. enoxaparin. Including 68 variables, a super learner model (ML) was built to predict VTE by combining estimates from 5 families of candidate models. A "reduced" model (rML) was also developed using 16 variables that were thought, a priori, to be associated with VTE. The IMPROVE score was calculated for each patient. Model performance was assessed by discrimination and calibration to predict a composite VTE end point. The frequency of predicted risks of VTE were plotted and divided into tertiles. VTE risks were compared across tertiles. Results: The ML and rML algorithms outperformed the IMPROVE score in predicting VTE (c-statistic: 0.69, 0.68 and 0.59, respectively). The Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit P-value was 0.06 for ML, 0.44 for rML, and <0.001 for the IMPROVE score. The observed event rate in the lowest tertile was 2.5%, 4.8% in tertile 2, and 11.4% in the highest tertile. Patients in the highest tertile of VTE risk had a 5-fold increase in odds of VTE compared to the lowest tertile. Conclusion: The super learner algorithms improved discrimination and calibration compared to the IMPROVE score for predicting VTE in acute medically ill patients.

3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(2): e200107, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101311

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation at risk of stroke should receive oral anticoagulants (OAC). However, approximately 1 in 8 patients in the Global Anticoagulant Registry in the Field (GARFIELD-AF) registry are treated with antiplatelet (AP) drugs in addition to OAC, with or without documented vascular disease or other indications for AP therapy. Objective: To investigate baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients who were prescribed OAC plus AP therapy vs OAC alone. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study of the GARFIELD-AF registry, an international, multicenter, observational study of adults aged 18 years and older with recently diagnosed nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and at least 1 risk factor for stroke enrolled between March 2010 and August 2016. Data were extracted for analysis in October 2017 and analyzed from April 2018 to June 2019. Exposure: Participants received either OAC plus AP or OAC alone. Main Outcomes and Measures: Clinical outcomes were measured over 3 and 12 months. Outcomes were adjusted for 40 covariates, including baseline conditions and medications. Results: A total of 24 436 patients (13 438 [55.0%] male; median [interquartile range] age, 71 [64-78] years) were analyzed. Among eligible patients, those receiving OAC plus AP therapy had a greater prevalence of cardiovascular indications for AP, including acute coronary syndromes (22.0% vs 4.3%), coronary artery disease (39.1% vs 9.8%), and carotid occlusive disease (4.8% vs 2.0%). Over 1 year, patients treated with OAC plus AP had significantly higher incidence rates of stroke (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.49; 95% CI, 1.01-2.20) and any bleeding event (aHR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.17-1.70) than those treated with OAC alone. These patients did not show evidence of reduced all-cause mortality (aHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.98-1.51). Risk of acute coronary syndrome was not reduced in patients taking OAC plus AP compared with OAC alone (aHR, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.70-1.94). Patients treated with OAC plus AP also had higher rates of all clinical outcomes than those treated with OAC alone over the short term (3 months). Conclusions and Relevance: This study challenges the practice of coprescribing OAC plus AP unless there is a clear indication for adding AP to OAC therapy in newly diagnosed atrial fibrillation.

6.
J Thromb Thrombolysis ; 49(2): 214-219, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493287

RESUMO

Acutely ill medical patients with cancer are at increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Thromboprophylaxis is recommended in the presence of cancer, but its safety is not known. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of extended prophylaxis with betrixaban in cancer patients enrolled in the APEX trial. APEX was a randomized, double-blind trial comparing oral betrixaban 80 mg qd administered for 35-42 days with subcutaneous enoxaparin 40 mg qd administered for 10 ± 4 days. Patients with acute medical illness and a history of cancer or active cancer were eligible for inclusion. Primary efficacy outcome was VTE (composite of symptomatic VTE and asymptomatic proximal deep vein thrombosis); primary safety outcome was major bleeding. Of 7513 patients enrolled in the APEX trial, 959 patients (12.8%), 499 randomized to betrixaban and 460 to enoxaparin, had cancer. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 5.7% of cancer patients treated with betrixaban and in 6.2% treated with enoxaparin (p = 0.95). No significant interaction according to the presence or absence of cancer was observed (p = 0.36). Major bleeding events occurred in 0.8% of patients in the betrixaban group and in 0% in the enoxaparin group (p = 0.13), with no significant interaction (p = 0.07). The composite of major and clinically relevant non-major bleeds was similar between the two groups (2.9% and 2.0%, respectively, RR 1.43, 95% CI 0.63-3.27). Betrixaban was similarly effective in the reduction of VTE among subjects with and without cancer. The incidence of major bleeding was similarly low.

7.
Europace ; 22(2): 195-204, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747004

RESUMO

AIMS: Guidelines do not recommend to take pattern of atrial fibrillation (AF) into account for the indication of anticoagulation (AC). We assessed AF pattern and the risk of cardiovascular events during 2-years of follow-up. METHODS AND RESULTS: We categorized AF as paroxysmal, persistent, or permanent in 29 181 patients enrolled (2010-15) in the Global Anticoagulant Registry In the FIELD of AF (GARFIELD-AF). We used multivariable Cox regression to assess the risks of stroke/systemic embolism (SE) and death across patterns of AF, and whether this changed with AC on outcomes. Atrial fibrillation pattern was paroxysmal in 14 344 (49.2%), persistent in 8064 (27.6%), and permanent 6773 (23.2%) patients. Median CHA2DS2-VASc, GARFIELD-AF, and HAS-BLED scores assessing the risk of stroke/SE and/or bleeding were similar across AF patterns, but the risk of death, as assessed by the GARFIELD-AF risk calculator, was higher in non-paroxysmal than in paroxysmal AF patterns. During 2-year follow-up, after adjustment, non-paroxysmal AF patterns were associated with significantly higher rates of all-cause death, stroke/SE, and new/worsening congestive heart failure (CHF) than paroxysmal AF in non-anticoagulated patients only. In anticoagulated patients, a significantly higher risk of death but not of stroke/SE and new/worsening CHF persisted in non-paroxysmal compared with paroxysmal AF patterns. CONCLUSION: In non-anticoagulated patients, non-paroxysmal AF patterns were associated with higher risks of stroke/SE, new/worsening HF and death than paroxysmal AF. In anticoagulated patients, the risk of stroke/SE and new/worsening HF was similar across all AF patterns. Thus AF pattern is no longer prognostic for stroke/SE when patients are treated with anticoagulants. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01090362.

8.
J Vasc Surg Venous Lymphat Disord ; 8(1): 8-23.e18, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31843251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: After deep venous thrombosis (DVT), many patients have impaired quality of life (QOL). We aimed to assess whether pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) improves short-term or long-term QOL in patients with proximal DVT and whether QOL is related to extent of DVT. METHODS: The Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal with Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis (ATTRACT) trial was an assessor-blinded randomized trial that compared PCDT with no PCDT in patients with DVT of the femoral, common femoral, or iliac veins. QOL was assessed at baseline and 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, 18 months, and 24 months using the Venous Insufficiency Epidemiological and Economic Study on Quality of Life/Symptoms (VEINES-QOL/Sym) disease-specific QOL measure and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary general QOL measures. Change in QOL scores from baseline to assessment time were compared in the PCDT and no PCDT treatment groups overall and in the iliofemoral DVT and femoral-popliteal DVT subgroups. RESULTS: Of 692 ATTRACT patients, 691 were analyzed (mean age, 53 years; 62% male; 57% iliofemoral DVT). VEINES-QOL change scores were greater (ie, better) in PCDT vs no PCDT from baseline to 1 month (difference, 5.7; P = .0006) and from baseline to 6 months (5.1; P = .0029) but not for other intervals. SF-36 PCS change scores were greater in PCDT vs no PCDT from baseline to 1 month (difference, 2.4; P = .01) but not for other intervals. Among iliofemoral DVT patients, VEINES-QOL change scores from baseline to all assessments were greater in the PCDT vs no PCDT group; this was statistically significant in the intention-to-treat analysis at 1 month (difference, 10.0; P < .0001) and 6 months (8.8; P < .0001) and in the per-protocol analysis at 18 months (difference, 5.8; P = .0086) and 24 months (difference, 6.6; P = .0067). SF-36 PCS change scores were greater in PCDT vs no PCDT from baseline to 1 month (difference, 3.2; P = .0010) but not for other intervals. In contrast, in femoral-popliteal DVT patients, change scores from baseline to all assessments were similar in the PCDT and no PCDT groups. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with proximal DVT, PCDT leads to greater improvement in disease-specific QOL than no PCDT at 1 month and 6 months but not later. In patients with iliofemoral DVT, PCDT led to greater improvement in disease-specific QOL during 24 months.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31821482

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most clinical risk stratification models are based on measurement at a single time-point rather than serial measurements. Artificial intelligence (AI) is able to predict one-dimensional outcomes from multi-dimensional datasets. Using data from GARFIELD-AF registry, a new AI model was developed for predicting clinical outcomes in atrial fibrillation (AF) patients up to 1 year based on sequential measures of PT-INR within 30 days of enrolment. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with newly diagnosed AF who were treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKA) and had at least 3 measurements of PT-INR taken over the first 30 days after prescription were analyzed. The AI model was constructed with multilayer neural network including long short-term memory (LSTM) and one-dimensional convolution layers. The neural network was trained using PT-INR measurements within days 0-30 after starting treatment and clinical outcomes over days 31-365 in a derivation cohort (cohorts 1-3; n = 3185). Accuracy of the AI model at predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and death was assessed in a validation cohort (cohorts 4-5; n = 1523). The model's c-statistic for predicting major bleed, stroke/SE, and all-cause death was 0.75, 0.70, and 0.61, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using serial PT-INR values collected within 1 month after starting VKA, the new AI model performed better than time in therapeutic range (TTR) at predicting clinical outcomes occurring up to 12 months thereafter. Serial PT-INR values contain important information that can be analyzed by computer to help predict adverse clinical outcomes.

11.
Int J Stroke ; : 1747493019891516, 2019 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847794

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is not always possible to verify whether a patient complaining of symptoms consistent with transient ischemic attack has had an actual cerebrovascular event. RESEARCH QUESTION: To characterize the risk of cardiovascular events associated with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack in patients with atrial fibrillation. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with a history of stroke/transient ischemic attack among 52,014 patients enrolled prospectively in GARFIELD-AF registry. The diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack was not protocol defined but based on physicians' assessment. Patients' one-year risk of death, stroke/systemic embolism, and major bleeding was assessed by multivariable Cox regression. RESULTS: At enrollment, 5617 (10.9%) patients were reported to have a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. Patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack were older and had a greater burden of diabetes, moderate-to-severe kidney disease, and atherothrombosis and higher median CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores than those without history of stroke or transient ischemic attack. After adjustment, prior stroke/transient ischemic attack was associated with significantly higher risk for all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR), 1.26; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-1.42), cardiovascular death (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.48), non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.15-1.68), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.80-2.63) than patients without history of stroke/transient ischemic attack. In patients with a prior stroke alone higher risk was observed for all-cause mortality (HR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.11-1.50), non-cardiovascular death (HR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77), and stroke/systemic embolism (HR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.83-2.86). No significantly elevated risk of adverse events was seen for patients with history of transient ischemic attack alone. INTERPRETATION: A history of prior stroke or transient ischemic attack is a strong independent risk factor for mortality and stroke/systemic embolism. This excess risk is mainly attributed to a history of stroke (with or without transient ischemic attack), whereas history of transient ischemic attack is a weaker predictor. Clinical trial registration: NCT01090362.

12.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 25: 1076029619880008, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588785

RESUMO

Major medical illnesses place patients at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Some risk factors including age ≥75 years or history of cancer place them at increased risk of VTE that extends for at least 5 to 6 weeks following hospital admission. Betrixaban thromboprophylaxis is now approved in the United States for this indication. We estimated the annual number of acutely ill medical patients at extended risk of VTE discharged from US hospital. Major medical illnesses (stroke, respiratory failure/chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heart failure, pneumonia, other infections, and rheumatologic disorders) and 2 common risk factors for extended VTE risk, namely, age ≥75 years and history of cancer (active or past) were examined in 2014 US hospital discharges using the first 3 discharge diagnosis codes in the National Inpatient Sample (database of acute-care hospital discharges from the US Agency for Health Care Quality and Research). In 2014, there were 20.8 million discharges with potentially at risk of nonsurgical-related VTE. Overall, 7.2 million (35%) discharges corresponded to major medical illness that warranted thromboprophylaxis according to 2012 American College of Chest Physicians (ACCP) guideline. Among them, 2.79 million were aged ≥75 years and 1.36 million had a history of cancer (aged 40-74 years). Overall, 3.48 million discharges were at extended risk of VTE. Many medical inpatients at risk of VTE according to 2012 ACCP guideline might benefit from the awareness of continuing risk and some of these patients might benefit from extended thromboprophylaxis, depending on the risk of bleeding and comorbidities.

13.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 12(10): e005659, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31592728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In patients with acute deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pharmacomechanical catheter-directed thrombolysis (PCDT) in conjunction with anticoagulation therapy is increasingly used with the goal of preventing postthrombotic syndrome. Long-term costs and cost-effectiveness of these 2 treatment strategies from the perspective of the US healthcare system have not been compared. METHODS AND RESULTS: Between 2009 and 2014, the ATTRACT trial (Acute Venous Thrombosis: Thrombus Removal With Adjunctive Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis) randomized 692 patients with acute proximal DVT to PCDT plus anticoagulation (n=337) or standard treatment with anticoagulation alone (n=355). Costs (2017 US dollars) were assessed over a 24-month follow-up period using a combination of resource-based costing, hospital bills, Medicare reimbursement rates, and the Drug Topics Red Book. Health state utilities were obtained from the Short Form-36. In-trial results and US life tables were used to develop a Markov cohort model to evaluate lifetime cost-effectiveness. For the PCDT group, mean costs of the initial procedure were $13 600; per-patient costs associated with the index hospitalization were $21 509 for PCDT and $3877 for standard care (difference=$17 632; 95% CI, $16 117-$19 243). The 24-month difference in costs was $20 045 (95% CI, $16 093-$24 120). Utility scores increased significantly between baseline and 6 months for both groups, with no significant differences between groups at any follow-up time point. Projected differences in lifetime costs of $16 740 and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) of 0.08, yield an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for PCDT of $222 041/QALY gained. In probabilistic sensitivity analysis, the probability that PCDT would achieve a lifetime incremental cost-effectiveness ratio <$50 000/QALY or <$150 000/QALY was 1% and 25%, respectively. For iliofemoral DVT, QALY gains with PCDT were greater, yielding an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of $137 526/QALY; for femoral-popliteal DVT, standard therapy was an economically dominant strategy. CONCLUSIONS: With an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio >$200 000/QALY gained, PCDT is not an economically attractive treatment for proximal DVT. PCDT may be of intermediate value in patients with iliofemoral DVT. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00790335.

14.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost ; 25: 1076029619876030, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530176

RESUMO

Clinical uncertainty exists regarding which assay should be designated as the standard monitoring coagulation test for intravenous unfractionated heparin (UFH). Several studies have compared the use of activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and antifactor-Xa (anti-Xa) and have come out with varying results. The correlation between these 2 tests varied, markedly from strong to weak. Some have demonstrated that monitoring with anti-Xa heparin assay leads to fewer dose adjustments, resulting in fewer laboratory tests, while others have not. In the current study, we evaluated the correlation between aPTT and anti-Xa values to guide clinical management of UFH, with the intention to develop a new correlation nomogram.

15.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(12): 2089-2098, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31392827

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Extended-duration thromboprophylaxis with betrixaban reduces the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) without increasing major bleeding rates in acutely ill medical patients as compared to standard duration enoxaparin. We aimed to assess the risk-benefit of betrixaban in patients aged ≥ 80 years enrolled in the APEX trial. METHODS: APEX was a randomized, double-blind trial in which patients hospitalized for acute medical illnesses received enoxaparin 40 mg qd for 10 ± 4 days or oral betrixaban 80 mg qd for 35 to 42 days. The primary efficacy outcome was VTE, the principal safety outcome was major bleeding. Net clinical benefit (NCB) was defined by the occurrence of VTE or major bleeding. RESULTS: Of 7513 patients enrolled in the APEX trial, 2781 (37%) were aged ≥ 80 years. In this subgroup, VTE or major bleeding occurred in 7.0% of betrixaban patients and in 8.4% of enoxaparin patients, for a relative risk in the NCB of 0.82 (95% confidence interval 0.62-1.10). The relative risk reduction obtained with betrixaban was similar between those aged ≥ 80 years and patients younger than 80 years (5.0% and 6.7%, respectively, NCB 0.75, 0.58-0.96, P = .024), with no significant interaction across age groups (P = .33). CONCLUSIONS: Event rates were higher in medically ill patients aged ≥ 80 years enrolled in the APEX study than in patients younger than 80 years. The predefined NCB was reduced with extended betrixaban therapy in both groups with no signs of age-related interactions. However, the primary efficacy endpoint was not achieved with betrixaban for patients 80 years of age or older.

16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(6): 755-758, 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31395125
18.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1675-1685, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370075

RESUMO

Isolated distal deep vein thrombosis (IDDVT) represents up to half of all lower limb DVT. This study investigated treatment patterns and outcomes in 2,145 patients with IDDVT in comparison with those with proximal DVT (PDVT; n = 3,846) and pulmonary embolism (PE; n = 4,097) enrolled in the GARFIELD-VTE registry. IDDVT patients were more likely to have recently undergone surgery (14.6%) or experienced leg trauma (13.2%) than PDVT patients (11.0 and 8.7%, respectively) and PE patients (12.7 and 4.5%, respectively). Compared with IDDVT, patients with PDVT or PE were more likely to have active cancer (7.2% vs. 9.9% and 10.3%). However, influence of provoking factors on risk of recurrence in IDDVT remains controversial. Nearly all patients (IDDVT, PDVT, and PE) were given anticoagulant therapy. In IDDVT, PDVT, and PE groups the proportion of patients receiving anticoagulant therapy was 61.4, 73.9, and 81.1% at 6 months and 45.8, 54.7, and 61.9% at 12 months. Over 12 months, the incidence of all-cause mortality, cancer, and recurrence was significantly lower in IDDVT patients than PDVT patients (hazard ratio [HR], 0.61 [95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-0.77]; sub-HR [sHR], 0.60 [95% CI, 0.39-0.93]; and sHR, 0.76 [95% CI, 0.60-0.97]). Likewise, risk of death and incident cancer was significantly (both p < 0.05) lower in patients with IDDVT compared with PE. This study reveals a global trend that most IDDVT patients as well as those with PDVT and PE are given anticoagulant therapy, in many cases for at least 12 months.

19.
Thromb Haemost ; 19(10): 1686-1694, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430799

RESUMO

Although prophylaxis for venous thromboembolism (VTE) is recommended after many surgeries, evidence base for use of VTE prophylaxis after foot or ankle surgery has been elusive, leading into varying guidelines recommendations and notable practice variations. We conducted a systematic review of the literature to determine if use of VTE prophylaxis decreased the frequency of subsequent VTE, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), compared with control. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ClinicalTrials.gov through May 2018, for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or prospective controlled observational studies of VTE prophylaxis in patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery. Our search retrieved 263 studies, of which 6 were finally included comprising 1,600 patients. Patients receiving VTE prophylaxis had lower risk for subsequent DVT (risk ratio [RR]: 0.72; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55-0.94) and subsequent VTE (RR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.55-0.94). There was only one case of nonfatal PE, no cases of fatal PE, and no change in all-cause mortality (RR: 3.51; 95% CI: 0.14-84.84). There was no significant difference in the risk for bleeding (RR: 2.12; 95% CI: 0.53-8.56). Very few RCTs exist regarding the efficacy and safety of VTE prophylaxis in foot and ankle surgery. Prophylaxis appears to reduce the risk of subsequent VTE, but the event rates are low and symptomatic events are rare. Future studies should determine the subgroups of patients undergoing foot or ankle surgery in whom prophylaxis may be most useful.

SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA