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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481615

RESUMO

Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these populations will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population structure analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and "Celtic" to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural cohorts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.

2.
Int J Cancer ; 2019 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.

4.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 262, 2018 Nov 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498225

RESUMO

An association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and autism may be biologically plausible, but the evidence to date is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring autism using conventional analysis and causal inference methods. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children we investigated the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy (exposure) with offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or possible ASD diagnosis (n = 11,946) and high scores on four autism-related traits (outcomes) (n = 7402-9152). Maternal smoking was self-reported and also measured using an epigenetic score (n = 866-964). Partner's smoking was used as a negative control for intrauterine exposure (n = 6616-10,995). Mendelian randomisation (n = 1002-2037) was carried out using a genetic variant at the CHRNA3 locus in maternal DNA as a proxy for heaviness of smoking. In observational analysis, we observed an association between smoking during pregnancy and impairments in social communication [OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.29, 1.87] and repetitive behaviours, but multivariable adjustment suggested evidence for confounding. There was weaker evidence of such association for the other traits or a diagnosis of autism. The magnitude of association for partner's smoking with impairments in social communication was similar [OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.30, 1.87] suggesting potential for shared confounding. There was weak evidence for an association of the epigenetic score or genetic variation at CHRNA3 with ASD or any of the autism-related traits. In conclusion, using several analytic methods, we did not find enough evidence to support a causal association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring autism or related traits.

6.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.

7.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2018, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410460

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to assess the stability of locus of control (LOC) scores over time using data gathered from tests constructed to be consistent with Rotter's definition of LOC. We compared LOC scores of parents (measured prior to the birth of the index child and at 6 and 18 years later) and their offspring (at ages 8 and 16) to explore how stable adult and child LOC was over time and to see how parental LOC was associated with the LOC of the child aged 8 and again at 16. Locus of control was measured using modified versions of adult (ANSIE, Nowicki and Duke, 1974) and child (CNSIE, Nowicki and Strickland, 1973) LOC scales, administered to participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. We predicted that: (1) adult scores would be more stable than children's and (2) parents' and children's LOC scores would be related to one another. Analyses of the data found that individual's LOC scores were significantly associated over time, with adult scores (r ∼ 0.50) more highly correlated than children's (r ∼ 0.20). Correlations suggest more stability for adults than children, but also indicate the occurrence of substantial change across time. Although statistically significant, correlations between family members were small at both childhood and adolescent time points. Additional analyses suggested that mother and father LOC scores were more highly correlated with opposite rather than with same sex children, but again though significant the coefficients were small. We also analyzed the binary outcomes of externality to assess parental contributions to externality in the 8 and 16-year-old children and found correlations were significant, but small. Possible explanations are offered for why the associations between parent and child LOC were not higher. We concluded that researchers need to focus more on clarifying how children's LOC is acquired.

8.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2032, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443228

RESUMO

Children's external locus of control has been linked to a wide variety of negative academic achievement, personality, and social adjustment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to discover which features of early home environment may facilitate the development of external as opposed to internal control expectancies in children. We use an exposome approach to analyze data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort study, a longitudinal study starting in pregnancy in England in 1990-1992. Details of parents and their study children were collected prospectively, and children's locus of control was assessed at age 8 using an abbreviated form of the most frequently used measure of children's locus of control (Nowicki-Strickland Internal External locus of control scale). A series of stepwise logistic regression analyses were undertaken to determine the strongest independent associations. The final model (n = 4,075 children) comprised 13 variables - those with the strongest associations with the child becoming externally oriented were two that were positive indicators of the mother being distracted (TV on almost the whole time, and a consideration that pets should be treated as members of the family), three that were indicators of protective (negative) effects of interaction between mother and child (child was breast fed, mother read stories to the child, mother cuddled the baby when he/she woke at night), and two divergent indicators of maternal health behavior (more frequent cleaning of the child's hands before a meal which was associated with a heightened risk of become external, and providing a healthy-type of diet, which was associated with a reduced risk of becoming external). The findings suggest that inadequate early maternal interaction with the child is associated with an increased risk of the child being externally oriented by the age of 8.

9.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 28, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363869

RESUMO

Background: The concept of locus of control of reinforcement was introduced by Julian Rotter and has been the focus of intense research for nearly half a century.  Surprisingly little research has been directed at clarifying antecedents of locus of control (LOC) orientations in adult men apart from a few small studies. We previously identified a number of independent antecedents associated with women's LOC, including features of their parents and early childhood. This raised the question as to whether these factors were also associated with the development of LOC in men. Methods: To identify antecedents of LOC orientations in a representative population of women we previously analysed information concerning characteristics of their parents and their own childhood experiences using pregnant women taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).  Here we use the same design to determine whether their male partners have similar antecedents of LOC orientation. As previously, we use a hypothesis-free exposome technique using all available information on the parents and childhood of the individuals. Results: We show that men had many of the same antecedent characteristics as the women - in particular, their mother's year of birth and father's social group, being exposed to cigarette smoke prenatally, starting to smoke regularly before the age of 11, and having a friend die were all associated with being external. Associations of internality common to both were warm maternal care, being breast fed, being born in an area other than that where they currently live, attending boarding school and having a parent admitted to hospital. Conclusions: In general, the antecedents of male external and internal personalities have many similarities to those of women, thus providing some features to inform the possible theoretical background as to how LOC might develop over time.

10.
Data Brief ; 19: 2195-2204, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30229096

RESUMO

Locus of control (LOC) measures an individual׳s expectancy regarding their ability to affect what happens to them based on their behavior. Those with an internal LOC (ILOC) believe their own behavior influences what happens to them. Those with an external LOC (ELOC) perceive that what happens to them is beyond their control (i.e. determined by luck, fate, chance or powerful others) [1]. A vast amount of research (mainly cross-sectional) suggests that an ELOC is associated with many adverse personal, social, academic and health outcomes. LOC data were uniquely collected prenatally from over 12,000 pregnant women and their partners enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The LOC measure used was a shortened version of the adult version of the Nowicki-Strickland Internal-External locus of control scale. This was administered to the mothers within self-completion questionnaires at three-time points: during pregnancy, at 6 and at 18 years post-partum. In parallel, self-completion questionnaires containing the same LOC questions were completed by their partners during pregnancy, at 6 and 20 years later. ALSPAC LOC data are unique in that they measured orientation over time and on a much larger sample of respondents than is usual. We describe the scale used, why it was chosen and how individual scores changed over time.

11.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1427, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135674

RESUMO

A previous study from our group showed that parents' locus of control (LOC) obtained before the birth of their child was associated with the child's behavior at school in School Years 3 (ages 7-8) and 6 (ages 10-11). Here we examine whether a change in parental LOC over the first 6 years of the child's life was associated with differences in his or her behavior as rated by their teachers. As before, we use data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). A modified version of the adult Nowicki-Strickland internal-external LOC scale was completed by mothers and fathers in their own home during pregnancy and 6 years later. Externality was defined as a score greater than the median and internality as equal to, or less than, the median. Outcomes were the five individual subscales and the total difficulties of Goodman's Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by the children's class teachers at the end of School Years 3 and 6. As predicted, we found that parents who remained externally oriented, or became external, had children with more behavioral difficulties in primary school compared with parents who remained or became internal. Type of behavior difficulties varied somewhat with whether mothers or fathers remained or changed toward externality. These results support the possibility that changes in parental LOC are associated with children's personal and social adjustment. Consequently, programs to change parental LOC may be worth evaluating.

12.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 10(7): 1542-1555, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30001219

RESUMO

Few modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline have been identified. Despite an external locus of control (LoC) being adversely associated with many psychological and physical health outcomes, few studies have examined whether it is related to cognitive function in adulthood. In 1178 women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, we examined whether LoC, and change in LoC over time, is associated with cognitive function in midlife. LoC was prospectively measured at mean ages 30 and 48 years using the validated Nowicki-Strickland scale. Cognitive function was examined at mean age 51 years. At both time points, greater externality was associated with lower cognitive function. For example, the group of women classified as being external at mean age 48 years had, on average, a 0.18 lower cognitive function score (95% CI: (0.11 to 0.25) than the group classified as being internal (p<0.001). Participants who changed from external to internal over time, on average, had better cognitive function than those who remained external or changed to become external. In summary, an external LoC may be detrimental to cognitive function. Thus, interventions to increase internality may help to minimise the adverse consequences on cognitive health later in life.

13.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2018 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether parental external locus of control (ELOC) measured in pregnancy is related to obesity in their adolescent offspring and whether the child's own ELOC measured at age 8 contributes. To determine whether associations are due to types of behaviour used by externally oriented participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Longitudinal pre-birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents & Children (ALSPAC)) set in south-west England. Families whose adolescent offspring had their fat mass measured using DXA scans at any of ages 9, 11, 13, 15 or 17 (range, n = 7329 at 9 to n = 4850 at 17). The primary outcome measures were mean fat mass, and obesity measured as ≥85th centile of fat mass at each age. RESULTS: We found that parent and child externality was associated with greater fat mass [e.g., mean difference at age 15 associated with maternal ELOC was 1.70 kg (+1.17, +2.24), paternal ELOC 1.49 kg (+0.89, +2.09) and child's ELOC 1.50 kg (+0.93, +2.06) (P < 0.0001)]. Further analyses showed that factors associated with parent behaviour such as smoking in pregnancy, failure to breast feed, and early introduction of solids accounted for a third of the excess fat mass associated with maternal externality, whereas aspects of diet and energetic activity in later childhood were not. Further analyses demonstrated that the child's own ELOC only became independently important for adolescent obesity from age 13, whereas the mothers' and to a lesser extent the fathers' ELOC were associated at each age. CONCLUSIONS: There is increased interest in determining factors that may be involved in the aetiology and maintenance of excessive weight in adolescents. We demonstrate that parental locus of control is a promising candidate. We suggest interventions to change parents' locus of control towards internality in pregnancy might have long-term preventative benefits on the likelihood of obesity in the offspring.

14.
Data Brief ; 19: 189-197, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29892633

RESUMO

As part of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), measures of child motor skills were collected in research clinics. The ALSPAC Coordination Test was derived from subtests of the Movement ABC at age 7 years in children participating in ALSPAC. Maternal blood lead, cadmium and mercury concentrations were measured by inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry in samples from women at a median gestation age of 11 weeks. Maternal reports at 32 weeks' gestation were used to generate data on a range of potential confounders. The data were used to determine the associations between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury and child motor skills at age 7 years. For results, please see Taylor et al. [1].

15.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 75(8): 835-843, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898212

RESUMO

Importance: Population-based studies following trajectories of depression in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) from childhood into early adulthood are rare. The role of genetic confounding and of potential environmental intermediaries, such as bullying, in any associations is unclear. Objectives: To compare trajectories of depressive symptoms from ages 10 to 18 years for children with or without ASD and autistic traits, to assess associations between ASD and autistic traits and an International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision (ICD-10) depression diagnosis at age 18 years, and to explore the importance of genetic confounding and bullying. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal study of participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children birth cohort in Bristol, United Kingdom, followed up through age 18 years. Data analysis was conducted from January to November 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire (SMFQ) at 6 time points between ages 10 and 18 years. An ICD-10 depression diagnosis at age 18 years was established using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised. Exposures were ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized autistic traits (social communication, coherence, repetitive behavior, and sociability). An autism polygenic risk score was derived using the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium autism discovery genome-wide association study summary data. Bullying was assessed at ages 8, 10, and 13 years. Results: The maximum sample with complete data was 6091 for the trajectory analysis (48.8% male) and 3168 for analysis of depression diagnosis at age 18 years (44.4% male). Children with ASD and autistic traits had higher average SMFQ depressive symptom scores than the general population at age 10 years (eg, for social communication 5.55 [95% CI, 5.16-5.95] vs 3.73 [95% CI, 3.61-3.85], for ASD 7.31 [95% CI, 6.22-8.40] vs 3.94 [95% CI, 3.83-4.05], remaining elevated in an upward trajectory until age 18 years (eg, for social communication 7.65 [95% CI, 6.92-8.37] vs 6.50 [95% CI, 6.29-6.71], for ASD 7.66 [95% CI, 5.96-9.35] vs 6.62 [95% CI, 6.43-6.81]). Social communication impairments were associated with depression at age 18 years (adjusted relative risk, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.05-2.70), and bullying explained a substantial proportion of this risk. There was no evidence of confounding by the autism polygenic risk score. Analysis in larger samples using multiple imputation led to similar but more precise results. Conclusions and Relevance: Children with ASD and ASD traits have higher depressive symptom scores than the general population by age 10 years, which persist to age 18 years, particularly in the context of bullying. Social communication impairments are an important autistic trait in relation to depression. Bullying, as an environmental intermediary, could be a target for interventions.

16.
Environ Int ; 117: 40-47, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723752

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lead and mercury are freely transferred across the placenta, while cadmium tends to accumulate in the placenta. Each contributes to adverse neurological outcomes for the child. Although prenatal heavy metal exposure has been linked with an array of neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, its association with the development of motor skills in children has not been robustly studied. AIMS/OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between prenatal exposure to lead, cadmium and mercury, measured as maternal blood concentrations during pregnancy, and motor skills, measured as subtests of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Movement ABC) at age 7 years in a large sample of mother-child pairs enrolled in a UK observational birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, ALSPAC). METHODS: Whole blood samples from pregnant women enrolled in ALSPAC were analysed for lead, cadmium and mercury. In a complete case analysis (n = 1558), associations between prenatal blood concentrations and child motor skills assessed by Movement ABC subtests of manual dexterity, ball skills and balance at 7 years were examined in adjusted regression models. Associations with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) were also investigated. RESULTS: The mean prenatal blood levels were: lead 3.66 ±â€¯1.55 µg/dl; cadmium 0.45 ±â€¯0.54 µg/l; mercury 2.23 ±â€¯1.14 µg/l. There was no evidence for any adverse associations of prenatal lead, cadmium or mercury exposure with motor skills measured at age 7 years with Movement ABC subtests in adjusted regression models. Further, there were no associations with probable DCD. CONCLUSIONS: There was no evidence to support a role of prenatal exposure to heavy metals at these levels on motor skills in the child at age 7 years measured using the Movement ABC. Early identification of symptoms of motor skills impairment is important, however, to enable investigation, assessment and treatment.

17.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry ; 57(5): 313-320.e6, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29706160

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that autism spectrum disorders (ASD) diagnosis and traits in childhood are associated with suicidal thoughts, plans and self-harm at 16 years, and that any observed associations are explained by depression at 12 years. METHOD: We examined associations between ASD diagnosis and 4 dichotomized ASD traits (social communication, pragmatic language, repetitive behavior, and sociability) with suicidal and nonsuicidal self-harm, suicidal thoughts, and suicidal plans at age 16 years in 5,031 members of the United Kingdom-based birth cohort study the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We assessed whether any associations were explained by depressive symptoms in early adolescence measured by the Short Moods and Feelings Questionnaire at 12 years. RESULTS: Children with impaired social communication had a higher risk of self-harm with suicidal intent (relative risk [RR] = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.28-3.58), suicidal thoughts (RR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.06-1.91), and suicidal plans (RR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.09-3.47) by age 16 years as compared to those without. There was no evidence for an association between ASD diagnosis and outcomes, although these analyses were imprecise because of small numbers. There was also no evidence of an association between other autism traits and the outcomes. Approximately 32% of the total estimated association between social communication impairment and self-harm was explained by depressive symptoms at 12 years. CONCLUSION: Social communication impairments are an important autistic trait in relation to suicidality. Early identification and management of depression may be a preventative mechanism, and future research identifying other potentially modifiable mechanisms may lead to interventions against suicidal behavior in this high-risk group.

18.
Pers Individ Dif ; 126: 85-92, 2018 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725146

RESUMO

Although locus of control (LOC) has been the focus of thousands of studies we know little about how or if it changes over time and what is associated with change. Our lack of knowledge stems in part from the past use of cross-sectional and not longitudinal methodologies to study small numbers of participants from non-representative populations. The purpose of the present study was to use a longitudinal design with a large representative population to provide relevant information concerning the stability and change of adult LOC. Before the birth of their child, and again six years later, mothers and their partners participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed LOC tests and structured stressful events surveys. Analyses revealed that stresses experienced in relationships with spouses, friends and family, financial stability and job security, and illness/smoking were associated with changes in LOC. Results suggest substantial variation of LOC within spousal/parent dyads and moderate stability of LOC over time for both men and women. Stressors associated with change in LOC may be possible candidates when considering interventions to modify LOC expectancies.

19.
Mol Autism ; 9: 30, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713443

RESUMO

Background: Mercury (Hg) has been suspected of causing autism in the past, especially a suspected link with vaccinations containing thiomersal, but a review of the literature shows that has been largely repudiated. Of more significant burden is the total quantity of Hg in the environment. Here, we have used the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to test whether prenatal exposure from total maternal blood Hg in the first half of pregnancy is associated with the risk of autism or of extreme levels of autistic traits. This is the largest longitudinal study to date to have tested this hypothesis and the only one to have considered early pregnancy. Methods: We have used three strategies: (1) direct comparison of 45 pregnancies resulting in children with diagnosed autism from a population of 3840, (2) comparison of high scores on each of the four autistic traits within the population at risk (n~2800), and (3) indirect measures of association of these outcomes with proxies for increased Hg levels such as frequency of fish consumption and exposure to dental amalgam (n > 8000). Logistic regression adjusted for social conditions including maternal age, housing circumstances, maternal education, and parity. Interactions were tested between risks to offspring of fish and non-fish eaters. Results: There was no suggestion of an adverse effect of total prenatal blood Hg levels on diagnosed autism (AOR 0.89; 95% CI 0.65, 1.22) per SD of Hg (P = 0.485). The only indication of adverse effects concerned a measure of poor social cognition when the mother ate no fish, where the AOR was 1.63 [95% CI 1.02, 2.62] per SD of Hg (P = 0.041), significantly different from the association among the offspring of fish-eaters (AOR = 0.74 [95% CI 0.41, 1.35]). Conclusion: In conclusion, our study identifies no adverse effect of prenatal total blood Hg on autism or autistic traits provided the mother ate fish. Although these results should be confirmed in other populations, accumulating evidence substantiates the recommendation to eat fish during pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/epidemiologia , Mercúrio/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Contaminação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Gravidez
20.
Environ Int ; 116: 108-115, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29665469

RESUMO

There is a public perception that relatively low doses of mercury found in seafood are harmful to the fetal brain but little consistent evidence to support this. In earlier publications we have shown no adverse associations between maternal total blood mercury levels and child behaviour, early development or cognitive function as measured by IQ. However, for IQ the lack of adverse association was conditional upon the mother being a fish eater. In this paper we analyse further data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), this time examining whether prenatal exposure to total mercury is associated with the child's scholastic abilities in reading, spelling, phoneme awareness, mathematics and science; the number of participants with prenatal mercury and relevant test results varied from 1500 to 2200. Multiple regression was used to assess relationships between prenatal total blood mercury concentrations and 16 different test results, after taking account of a variety of potential confounders; in parallel, logistic regression was used to determine associations with the risk of the child being in the lowest 15% of each score. Analyses were repeated stratifying for fish consumption and sex of the child. There was no evidence of harm associated with the level of total mercury, provided the mother ate fish during pregnancy. This was particularly true for tests of mathematics and science. We conclude that women should be confident that eating fish in pregnancy is beneficial for their unborn child.

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