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1.
Chronobiol Int ; 37(7): 1034-1047, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32233647

RESUMO

Experimental evidence suggests that perinatal light imprinting of circadian clocks and systems may affect downstream physiology and cancer risk in later life. For humans, the predominant circadian stimulus is the daily light-dark cycle. Herein, we explore associations between perinatal photoperiod characteristics (photoperiod: duration of daylight as determined by time-of-year and location) and childhood cancer risk. We use pooled data on 182,856 mothers and babies from prospective birth cohorts in six countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway, UK, USA) within the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium (I4C). Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In line with predicted differential dose-responses, restricted cubic splines indicate a potential non-linear, non-monotonic relationship between perinatal mean daily photoperiod (0-24 h) and childhood cancer risk. In a restricted analysis of 154,121 individuals who experienced third trimester photoperiods exclusively within the 8-16-h range, the relative risk of developing childhood cancer decreased by 9% with every hour increase in third trimester mean daily photoperiod [HR: 0.91 (95%CIs: 0.84-0.99)]. In conclusion, in this first study of perinatal photoperiod and childhood cancer, we detected an inverse ["protective"] linear association between third trimester mean daily photoperiod and childhood cancer risk in the 8-16-h set of the total study population. Limited statistical power impeded the investigation of risks with individuals exposed to more extreme photoperiods. Future studies are needed to confirm differential photoperiod-associated risks and further investigations into the hypothesized circadian imprinting mechanism are warranted.

2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229323, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092095

RESUMO

Recent research using the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) demonstrated an association between maternal grandmother smoking in pregnancy and the autistic traits of impaired social communication and repetitive behaviour in granddaughters but not grandsons, but of paternal grandmother smoking and early development of myopia in the grandchild. Here we investigate whether grandmaternal smoking in pregnancy is associated with intolerance to loud sounds. ALSPAC collected information during the index pregnancy from the study parents on the smoking habits, social and other features of their own parents. Maternal report when the child was aged 6 and 13 included hating loud sounds; at age 11 the child was tested for volume preference for listening to music through headphones. Statistical analysis compared results for grandchildren in relation to whether a parent had been exposed in utero to maternal smoking, adjusted for their grandparents' social and demographic attributes. We hypothesised that there would be sex differences in the effects of grandmaternal prenatal smoking, based on previous intergenerational studies. For 6-year-old children maternal report of intolerance to loud noise was more likely in grandsons if the maternal grandmother had smoked [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 1.27; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.03,1.56; P = 0.025], but less likely in girls [AOR 0.82; 95%CI 0.63,1.07] Pinteraction <0.05. If the paternal grandmother had smoked the grandchildren were less likely to be intolerant, especially girls. The objective measure of choice of volume for music through headphones showed that grandsons of both maternal and paternal smoking grandmothers were less likely to choose high volumes compared with granddaughters (P<0.05). In line with our prior hypothesis of sex differences, we showed that grandsons were more intolerant of loud sounds than granddaughters particularly at age 6, and this was confirmed by objective measures at age 11.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etiologia , Doença Ambiental/etiologia , Avós , Relação entre Gerações , Som/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco , Adolescente , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Doença Ambiental/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Social , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
3.
Int J Cancer ; 146(4): 943-952, 2020 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054169

RESUMO

Parental occupational exposures to pesticides, animals and organic dust have been associated with an increased risk of childhood cancer based mostly on case-control studies. We prospectively evaluated parental occupational exposures and risk of childhood leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors in the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. We pooled data on 329,658 participants from birth cohorts in five countries (Australia, Denmark, Israel, Norway and United Kingdom). Parental occupational exposures during pregnancy were estimated by linking International Standard Classification of Occupations-1988 job codes to the ALOHA+ job exposure matrix. Risk of childhood (<15 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL; n = 129), acute myeloid leukemia (AML; n = 31) and CNS tumors (n = 158) was estimated using Cox proportional hazards models to generate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Paternal exposures to pesticides and animals were associated with increased risk of childhood AML (herbicides HR = 3.22, 95% CI = 0.97-10.68; insecticides HR = 2.86, 95% CI = 0.99-8.23; animals HR = 3.89, 95% CI = 1.18-12.90), but not ALL or CNS tumors. Paternal exposure to organic dust was positively associated with AML (HR = 2.38 95% CI = 1.12-5.07), inversely associated with ALL (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.31-0.99) and not associated with CNS tumors. Low exposure prevalence precluded evaluation of maternal pesticide and animal exposures; we observed no significant associations with organic dust exposure. This first prospective analysis of pooled birth cohorts and parental occupational exposures provides evidence for paternal agricultural exposures as childhood AML risk factors. The different risks for childhood ALL associated with maternal and paternal organic dust exposures should be investigated further.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Paterna/efeitos adversos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Animais Domésticos , Austrália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Poeira , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Israel/epidemiologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Masculino , Noruega/epidemiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(3): 257-266, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523834

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The majority of epidemiological studies concerning possible adverse effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in pregnancy have been focussed on childhood asthma. Initial results of a robust association have been confirmed in several studies. Recently, a few cohort studies have looked at particular neurocognitive outcomes, and several have implicated hyperactivity. OBJECTIVES: In order to confirm these findings, further information and results are required. Here, we assess whether paracetamol intake between 18 and 32 weeks gestation is associated with childhood behavioural and cognitive outcomes using a large population. METHODS: Data collected by the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) at 32 weeks gestation and referring to the period from 18 to 32 weeks, identified 43.9% of women having taken paracetamol. We used an exposome analysis first to determine the background factors associated with pregnant women taking the drug, and then allowed for those factors to assess associations with child outcomes (measured using regression analyses). RESULTS: We identified 15 variables independently associated with taking paracetamol in this time period, which were used as potential confounders. Of the 135 neurocognitive variables considered, adjusting for the likelihood of false discovery, we identified 56 outcomes for adjusted analyses. Adjustment identified 12 showing independent associations with paracetamol use at P < .05, four of which were at P < .0001 (all related to child behaviours reported by the mother at 42 and 47 months; eg conduct problems: adjusted mean score + 0.22 (95% confidence interval 0.10, 0.33)). There were few associations with behavioural or neurocognitive outcomes after age 7-8 years, whether reported by the mother or the teacher. CONCLUSIONS: If paracetamol use in mid-to-late pregnancy has an adverse effect on child neurocognitive outcome, it appears to mainly relate to the pre-school period. It is important that these results be tested using other datasets or methodologies before assuming that they are causal.

5.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19449, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844120

RESUMO

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31739098

RESUMO

Abundant data are now available to evaluate relationships between seafood consumption in pregnancy and childhood and neurocognitive development. We conducted two systematic reviews utilizing methodologies detailed by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Scientific Advisory Committee 2020-2025. After reviewing 44 publications on 106,237 mother-offspring pairs and 25,960 children, our technical expert committee developed two conclusion statements that included the following: "Moderate and consistent evidence indicates that consumption of a wide range of amounts and types of commercially available seafood during pregnancy is associated with improved neurocognitive development of offspring as compared to eating no seafood. Overall, benefits to neurocognitive development began at the lowest amounts of seafood consumed (∼4 oz/wk) and continued through the highest amounts, above 12 oz/wk, some range up to >100 oz/wk.", "This evidence does not meet the criteria for "strong evidence" only due to a paucity of randomized controlled trials that may not be ethical or feasible to conduct for pregnancy" and "Moderate and consistent evidence indicates that consumption of >4 oz/wk and likely >12 oz/wk of seafood during childhood has beneficial associations with neurocognitive outcomes." No net adverse neurocognitive outcomes were reported among offspring at the highest ranges of seafood intakes despite associated increases in mercury exposures. Data are insufficient for conclusive statements regarding lactation, optimal amounts, categories or specific species characterized by mercury content and neurocognitive development; although there is some evidence that dark/oily seafood may be more beneficial. Research was conducted in healthy women and children and is generalizable to US populations. Assessment of seafood as a whole food integrates inherently integrates any adverse effects from neurotoxicants, if any, and benefits to neurocognition from omega-3 fats, as well as other nutrients critical to optimal neurological development. Understanding of the effects of seafood consumption on neurocognition can have significant public health implications.

7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669935

RESUMO

The relationship between seafood eaten during pregnancy and neurocognition in offspring has been the subject of considerable scientific study for over 25 years. Evaluation of this question led two scientific advisory committees to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGAC), the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations with the World Health Organization (FAO/WHO), Health Canada, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), and the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to conclude through 2014 that seafood consumed by pregnant women is likely to benefit the neurocognitive development of their children. The evidence they reviewed included between four and ten studies of seafood consumption during pregnancy that reported beneficial associations. In contrast there are now 29 seafood consumption studies available describing over 100,000 mothers-child pairs and 15 studies describing over 25,000 children who ate seafood. A systematic review of these studies using Nutrition Evaluation Systematic Review methodology is warranted to determine whether recent research corroborates, builds on, or significantly alters the previous conclusions. Studies that evaluate the integrated effects of seafood as a complete food more directly and completely evaluate impacts on neurocognition as compared to studies that evaluate individual nutritients or toxicological constituents in isolation. Here we address how the findings could add to our understanding of whether seafood consumed during pregnancy and early childhood affects neurocognition, including whether such effects are clinically meaningful, lasting, related to amounts consumed, and affected by any neurotoxicants that may be present, particularly mercury, which is present at varying levels in essentially all seafood. We provide the history, context and rationale for reexamining these questions in light of currently available data.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 15413, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31659193

RESUMO

Myopia (near sightedness) is the most common vision disorder resulting in visual impairment worldwide. We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational, non-genetic heritable effects influence refractive development, using grandparental prenatal smoking as a candidate exposure. Using data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), we found that the prevalence of myopia at age 7 was lower if the paternal grandmother had smoked in pregnancy, an association primarily found among grandsons compared to granddaughters. There was a weaker, non-sex-specific, reduction in the prevalence of myopia at age 7 if the maternal grandmother had smoked in pregnancy. For children who became myopic later (between 7 and 15 years of age) there were no associations with either grandmother smoking. Differences between early and late-onset myopia were confirmed with DNA methylation patterns: there were very distinct and strong associations with methylation for early-onset but not later-onset myopia.

9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(38): 19064-19070, 2019 09 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481615

RESUMO

Britain and Ireland are known to show population genetic structure; however, large swathes of Scotland, in particular, have yet to be described. Delineating the structure and ancestry of these populations will allow variant discovery efforts to focus efficiently on areas not represented in existing cohorts. Thus, we assembled genotype data for 2,554 individuals from across the entire archipelago with geographically restricted ancestry, and performed population structure analyses and comparisons to ancient DNA. Extensive geographic structuring is revealed, from broad scales such as a NE to SW divide in mainland Scotland, through to the finest scale observed to date: across 3 km in the Northern Isles. Many genetic boundaries are consistent with Dark Age kingdoms of Gaels, Picts, Britons, and Norse. Populations in the Hebrides, the Highlands, Argyll, Donegal, and the Isle of Man show characteristics of isolation. We document a pole of Norwegian ancestry in the north of the archipelago (reaching 23 to 28% in Shetland) which complements previously described poles of Germanic ancestry in the east, and "Celtic" to the west. This modern genetic structure suggests a northwestern British or Irish source population for the ancient Gaels that contributed to the founding of Iceland. As rarer variants, often with larger effect sizes, become the focus of complex trait genetics, more diverse rural cohorts may be required to optimize discoveries in British and Irish populations and their considerable global diaspora.


Assuntos
DNA Antigo/análise , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Variação Genética , Genética Populacional , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Irlanda , Ilhas , Escócia
10.
Wellcome Open Res ; 4: 38, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31245631

RESUMO

There is evidence that, in general, the West is becoming more secular. Religious belief has been shown in some studies to positively impact on outcomes such as coping with serious illness and other life events and general well-being. In this paper, we describe the data collected from parents enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) on their religious behaviour and beliefs on three occasions. These data are available for researchers to use in association with other longitudinally collected data on social, biological, genetic and epigenetic features of this culturally largely protestant Christian population. Data were collected antenatally and then subsequently at 5 and 9 years post-delivery from self-completion questionnaires completed by each parent independently.  Strong sex differences (all P<0.001) were noted regarding religious beliefs and behaviour: for example, 49.9% of women stated that they believed in God or some divine being compared with 37% of men. Almost twice as many men (28.6%) than women (14.9%) declared they were atheists. Men were less likely to have stated that they had been helped by a divine presence; to appeal to God if they were in trouble, to attend religious services or obtain help from members of religious groups. Among the 6256 women and 2355 men who answered the questions at all three time points, there was evidence of a slight reduction in professed belief and a slight increase in the proportion stating that they were atheists. Information is available from this resource, which is rich in data on the environment, traumatic incidents, health and genetic background. It can be used for research into various aspects of the antecedents and consequences of religious belief and behaviour.

11.
Front Genet ; 10: 314, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31024624

RESUMO

Animal experiments demonstrate ways in which an exposure in one generation can be reflected in a variety of outcomes in later generations. In parallel human observational studies have shown associations between grandparental and parental exposures to cigarette smoking and/or nutrition and growth and survival of the grandchild. These studies have controlled for just a few confounders selected ad hoc. Here we use an exposome approach (using all available measures of exposure) to determine trans/inter-generational factors that may be important in studying environmental factors associated with fat mass in young human adults. The study takes advantage of the rich data available in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We test associations with features of grandparents (G0) and the childhood of the parents (G1) of 24-year olds (G2). We hypothesized that intergenerational associations would be revealed, particularly with exposure to cigarette smoke, and that these would vary with the sexes of all three generations. The study exposome analyzed 172 exposures to the maternal line and 182 to the paternal line. A series of stepwise regression analyses reduced the initial 40 unadjusted factors (P < 0.05) to eight independent features on the maternal line, and of 26 on the paternal line to five. We found strong associations between the father starting to smoke cigarettes regularly before age 11 and increased fat mass in his adult children (unadjusted = +7.82 [95% CI +2.75, +12.90] Kg; adjusted = +11.22 [+5.23, +17.22] Kg); this association was stronger in male offspring. In addition, when the paternal grandmother had smoked in pregnancy her adult granddaughters, but not grandsons had elevated mean fat mass (interaction with sex after adjustment, P = 0.001). The exposome technique identified other factors that were independently associated with fat mass in young adults. These may be useful in identifying appropriate confounders in other more proximal analyses, but also may identify features that may be on epigenetic pathways leading to increased fat mass in subsequent generations. We acknowledge that the results need to be replicated in other cohorts and encourage further linkage of outcomes with previous generational exposures, particularly along the paternal line.

13.
Front Psychol ; 10: 194, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30800088

RESUMO

A personality scale that identifies individuals' general attitude to what happens to them as largely a matter of luck or fate or of powerful others (externality) or whether they feel they can influence the consequences (internality) is known as locus of control (LOC). A continuous scale can distinguish those who are more external from those who are more internal. Lower scholastic achievement is associated with externality and higher achievement with internality, but little is known about the association of parental LOC on children's academic performance. Data collected within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) are analyzed to assess associations between mothers' LOC orientation, measured during pregnancy, and their children's abilities in mathematics and science reasoning. We found that maternal external LOC is associated with lower scores for her child assessed by tests measuring mental arithmetic as well as understanding of mathematical and scientific concepts. Additionally, we determined the extent to which three separate sets of factors previously found to positively influence the developing child's ability mediate these findings: (a) perinatal and infant exposures, such as prenatal smoking, binge drinking, consumption of oily fish, and postnatal breast feeding; (b) parenting attitudes and strategies; and (c) the interface of the parents with their child's school. The three factors identify at least 50% of the mechanism by which maternal externality is associated with poor academic outcomes in her child and may be candidates for further investigation as possible intervention targets.

14.
Int J Cancer ; 144(1): 26-33, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30098208

RESUMO

The "delayed infection hypothesis" states that a paucity of infections in early childhood may lead to higher risks of childhood leukemia (CL), especially acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Using prospectively collected data from six population-based birth cohorts we studied the association between birth order (a proxy for pathogen exposure) and CL. We explored whether other birth or parental characteristics modify this association. With 2.2 × 106 person-years of follow-up, 185 CL and 136 ALL cases were ascertained. In Cox proportional hazards models, increasing birth order (continuous) was inversely associated with CL and ALL; hazard ratios (HR) = 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): (0.77-0.99) and 0.85: (0.73-0.99), respectively. Being later-born was associated with similarly reduced hazards of CL and ALL compared to being first-born; HRs = 0.78: 95% CI: 0.58-1.05 and 0.73: 0.52-1.03, respectively. Successive birth orders were associated with decreased CL and ALL risks (P for trend 0.047 and 0.055, respectively). Multivariable adjustment somewhat attenuated the associations. We found statistically significant and borderline interactions between birth weight (p = 0.024) and paternal age (p = 0.067), respectively, in associations between being later-born and CL, with the lowest risk observed for children born at <3 kg with fathers aged 35+ (HR = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.06-0.50). Our study strengthens the theory that increasing birth order confers protection against CL and ALL risks, but suggests that this association may be modified among subsets of children with different characteristics, notably advanced paternal age and lower birth weight. It is unclear whether these findings can be explained solely by infectious exposures.


Assuntos
Ordem de Nascimento , Peso ao Nascer , Idade Paterna , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 43(4): 724-734, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29983415

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether parental external locus of control (ELOC) measured in pregnancy is related to obesity in their adolescent offspring and whether the child's own ELOC measured at age 8 contributes. To determine whether associations are due to types of behaviour used by externally oriented participants. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Longitudinal pre-birth cohort study (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents & Children (ALSPAC)) set in south-west England. Families whose adolescent offspring had their fat mass measured using DXA scans at any of ages 9, 11, 13, 15 or 17 (range, n = 7329 at 9 to n = 4850 at 17). The primary outcome measures were mean fat mass, and obesity measured as ≥85th centile of fat mass at each age. RESULTS: We found that parent and child externality was associated with greater fat mass [e.g., mean difference at age 15 associated with maternal ELOC was 1.70 kg (+1.17, +2.24), paternal ELOC 1.49 kg (+0.89, +2.09) and child's ELOC 1.50 kg (+0.93, +2.06) (P < 0.0001)]. Further analyses showed that factors associated with parent behaviour such as smoking in pregnancy, failure to breast feed, and early introduction of solids accounted for a third of the excess fat mass associated with maternal externality, whereas aspects of diet and energetic activity in later childhood were not. Further analyses demonstrated that the child's own ELOC only became independently important for adolescent obesity from age 13, whereas the mothers' and to a lesser extent the fathers' ELOC were associated at each age. CONCLUSIONS: There is increased interest in determining factors that may be involved in the aetiology and maintenance of excessive weight in adolescents. We demonstrate that parental locus of control is a promising candidate. We suggest interventions to change parents' locus of control towards internality in pregnancy might have long-term preventative benefits on the likelihood of obesity in the offspring.


Assuntos
Dieta/psicologia , Controle Interno-Externo , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Adolescente , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Ganho de Peso
16.
Transl Psychiatry ; 8(1): 262, 2018 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30498225

RESUMO

An association between maternal smoking in pregnancy and autism may be biologically plausible, but the evidence to date is inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the causal relationship between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring autism using conventional analysis and causal inference methods. In the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children we investigated the association of maternal smoking during pregnancy (exposure) with offspring autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or possible ASD diagnosis (n = 11,946) and high scores on four autism-related traits (outcomes) (n = 7402-9152). Maternal smoking was self-reported and also measured using an epigenetic score (n = 866-964). Partner's smoking was used as a negative control for intrauterine exposure (n = 6616-10,995). Mendelian randomisation (n = 1002-2037) was carried out using a genetic variant at the CHRNA3 locus in maternal DNA as a proxy for heaviness of smoking. In observational analysis, we observed an association between smoking during pregnancy and impairments in social communication [OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.29, 1.87] and repetitive behaviours, but multivariable adjustment suggested evidence for confounding. There was weaker evidence of such association for the other traits or a diagnosis of autism. The magnitude of association for partner's smoking with impairments in social communication was similar [OR = 1.56, 95% CI = 1.30, 1.87] suggesting potential for shared confounding. There was weak evidence for an association of the epigenetic score or genetic variation at CHRNA3 with ASD or any of the autism-related traits. In conclusion, using several analytic methods, we did not find enough evidence to support a causal association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring autism or related traits.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Mães , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Adulto Jovem
17.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2018, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30410460

RESUMO

The purpose of the present study was to assess the stability of locus of control (LOC) scores over time using data gathered from tests constructed to be consistent with Rotter's definition of LOC. We compared LOC scores of parents (measured prior to the birth of the index child and at 6 and 18 years later) and their offspring (at ages 8 and 16) to explore how stable adult and child LOC was over time and to see how parental LOC was associated with the LOC of the child aged 8 and again at 16. Locus of control was measured using modified versions of adult (ANSIE, Nowicki and Duke, 1974) and child (CNSIE, Nowicki and Strickland, 1973) LOC scales, administered to participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the United Kingdom. We predicted that: (1) adult scores would be more stable than children's and (2) parents' and children's LOC scores would be related to one another. Analyses of the data found that individual's LOC scores were significantly associated over time, with adult scores (r ∼ 0.50) more highly correlated than children's (r ∼ 0.20). Correlations suggest more stability for adults than children, but also indicate the occurrence of substantial change across time. Although statistically significant, correlations between family members were small at both childhood and adolescent time points. Additional analyses suggested that mother and father LOC scores were more highly correlated with opposite rather than with same sex children, but again though significant the coefficients were small. We also analyzed the binary outcomes of externality to assess parental contributions to externality in the 8 and 16-year-old children and found correlations were significant, but small. Possible explanations are offered for why the associations between parent and child LOC were not higher. We concluded that researchers need to focus more on clarifying how children's LOC is acquired.

18.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2032, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30443228

RESUMO

Children's external locus of control has been linked to a wide variety of negative academic achievement, personality, and social adjustment outcomes. The purpose of this study was to discover which features of early home environment may facilitate the development of external as opposed to internal control expectancies in children. We use an exposome approach to analyze data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort study, a longitudinal study starting in pregnancy in England in 1990-1992. Details of parents and their study children were collected prospectively, and children's locus of control was assessed at age 8 using an abbreviated form of the most frequently used measure of children's locus of control (Nowicki-Strickland Internal External locus of control scale). A series of stepwise logistic regression analyses were undertaken to determine the strongest independent associations. The final model (n = 4,075 children) comprised 13 variables - those with the strongest associations with the child becoming externally oriented were two that were positive indicators of the mother being distracted (TV on almost the whole time, and a consideration that pets should be treated as members of the family), three that were indicators of protective (negative) effects of interaction between mother and child (child was breast fed, mother read stories to the child, mother cuddled the baby when he/she woke at night), and two divergent indicators of maternal health behavior (more frequent cleaning of the child's hands before a meal which was associated with a heightened risk of become external, and providing a healthy-type of diet, which was associated with a reduced risk of becoming external). The findings suggest that inadequate early maternal interaction with the child is associated with an increased risk of the child being externally oriented by the age of 8.

19.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 32(6): 568-583, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466188

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Childhood cancer is a rare but leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Established risk factors, accounting for <10% of incidence, have been identified primarily from case-control studies. However, recall, selection and other potential biases impact interpretations particularly, for modest associations. A consortium of pregnancy and birth cohorts (I4C) was established to utilise prospective, pre-diagnostic exposure assessments and biological samples. METHODS: Eligibility criteria, follow-up methods and identification of paediatric cancer cases are described for cohorts currently participating or planning future participation. Also described are exposure assessments, harmonisation methods, biological samples potentially available for I4C research, the role of the I4C data and biospecimen coordinating centres and statistical approaches used in the pooled analyses. RESULTS: Currently, six cohorts recruited over six decades (1950s-2000s) contribute data on 388 120 mother-child pairs. Nine new cohorts from seven countries are anticipated to contribute data on 627 500 additional projected mother-child pairs within 5 years. Harmonised data currently includes over 20 "core" variables, with notable variability in mother/child characteristics within and across cohorts, reflecting in part, secular changes in pregnancy and birth characteristics over the decades. CONCLUSIONS: The I4C is the first cohort consortium to have published findings on paediatric cancer using harmonised variables across six pregnancy/birth cohorts. Projected increases in sample size, expanding sources of exposure data (eg, linkages to environmental and administrative databases), incorporation of biological measures to clarify exposures and underlying molecular mechanisms and forthcoming joint efforts to complement case-control studies offer the potential for breakthroughs in paediatric cancer aetiologic research.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etiologia , Adolescente , Idade de Início , Viés , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estilo de Vida , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Wellcome Open Res ; 3: 28, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30363869

RESUMO

Background: The concept of locus of control of reinforcement was introduced by Julian Rotter and has been the focus of intense research for nearly half a century.  Surprisingly little research has been directed at clarifying antecedents of locus of control (LOC) orientations in adult men apart from a few small studies. We previously identified a number of independent antecedents associated with women's LOC, including features of their parents and early childhood. This raised the question as to whether these factors were also associated with the development of LOC in men. Methods: To identify antecedents of LOC orientations in a representative population of women we previously analysed information concerning characteristics of their parents and their own childhood experiences using pregnant women taking part in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC).  Here we use the same design to determine whether their male partners have similar antecedents of LOC orientation. As previously, we use a hypothesis-free exposome technique using all available information on the parents and childhood of the individuals. Results: We show that men had many of the same antecedent characteristics as the women - in particular, their mother's year of birth and father's social group, being exposed to cigarette smoke prenatally, starting to smoke regularly before the age of 11, and having a friend die were all associated with being external. Associations of internality common to both were warm maternal care, being breast fed, being born in an area other than that where they currently live, attending boarding school and having a parent admitted to hospital. Conclusions: In general, the antecedents of male external and internal personalities have many similarities to those of women, thus providing some features to inform the possible theoretical background as to how LOC might develop over time.

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