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1.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469440

RESUMO

Researchers and journalists have argued that work-related factors may be partly responsible for disproportionate COVID-19 infection and death rates among vulnerable groups. We evaluate these issues by describing racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of work-related exposure to COVID-19. We extend previous studies by considering 12 racial and ethnic groups and five types of potential occupational exposure to the virus: exposure to infection, physical proximity to others, face-to-face discussions, interactions with external customers and the public, and working indoors. Most importantly, we stratify our results by occupational standing, defined as the proportion of workers within each occupation with at least some college education. This measure serves as a proxy for whether workplaces and workers employ COVID-19-related risk reduction strategies. We use the 2018 American Community Survey to identify recent workers by occupation, and link 409 occupations to information on work context from the Occupational Information Network to identify potential COVID-related risk factors. We then examine the racial/ethnic distribution of all frontline workers and frontline workers at highest potential risk of COVID-19, by occupational standing and by sex. The results indicate that, contrary to expectation, White frontline workers are often overrepresented in high-risk jobs while Black and Latino frontline workers are generally underrepresented in these jobs. However, disaggregation of the results by occupational standing shows that, in contrast to Whites and several Asian groups, Latino and Black frontline workers are overrepresented in lower standing occupations overall and in lower standing occupations associated with high risk, and thus may be less likely to have adequate COVID-19 protections. Our findings suggest that greater work exposures likely contribute to a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among Latino and Black adults and underscore the need for measures to reduce potential exposure for workers in low standing occupations and for the development of programs outside the workplace.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Local de Trabalho
2.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2021 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34413509

RESUMO

Many but not all cognitive abilities decline during ageing. Some even improve due to lifelong experience. The critical capacities of attention and executive functions have been widely posited to decline. However, these capacities are composed of multiple components, so multifaceted ageing outcomes might be expected. Indeed, prior findings suggest that whereas certain attention/executive functions clearly decline, others do not, with hints that some might even improve. We tested ageing effects on the alerting, orienting and executive (inhibitory) networks posited by Posner and Petersen's influential theory of attention, in a cross-sectional study of a large sample (N = 702) of participants aged 58-98. Linear and nonlinear analyses revealed that whereas the efficiency of the alerting network decreased with age, orienting and executive inhibitory efficiency increased, at least until the mid-to-late 70s. Sensitivity analyses indicated that the patterns were robust. The results suggest variability in age-related changes across attention/executive functions, with some declining while others improve.

4.
Nat Med ; 27(9): 1629-1635, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188224

RESUMO

Brazil has been heavily affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study, we used data on reported total deaths in 2020 and in January-April 2021 to measure and compare the death toll across states. We estimate a decline in 2020 life expectancy at birth (e0) of 1.3 years, a mortality level not seen since 2014. The reduction in life expectancy at age 65 (e65) in 2020 was 0.9 years, setting Brazil back to 2012 levels. The decline was larger for males, widening by 9.1% the female-male gap in e0. Among states, Amazonas lost 60.4% of the improvements in e0 since 2000. In the first 4 months of 2021, COVID-19 deaths represented 107% of the total 2020 figures. Assuming that death rates would have been equal to 2019 all-cause rates in the absence of COVID-19, COVID-19 deaths in 2021 have already reduced e0 in 2021 by 1.8 years, which is slightly larger than the reduction estimated for 2020 under similar assumptions.


Assuntos
COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Expectativa de Vida , Brasil/epidemiologia , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Fatores Sexuais
6.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0247804, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730061

RESUMO

Latinos in the US live significantly longer than non-Latino whites, but spend more years disabled. Differentials in socioeconomic status account for part, but not all, of the difference in older age disability between Latinos and whites. We hypothesize that a factor often ignored in the literature-the fact that Latinos, on average, have more physically strenuous jobs than non-Latino whites-contributes to the higher Latino risk of functional limitations at older ages. We use longitudinal data from the 1998-2014 Health and Retirement Study (HRS) comprising 17,297 respondents. Compared to US-born whites, Latinos, especially Latino immigrants, report substantially higher levels of physical effort at work. Latino-black differences are much smaller than Latino-white differences. As hypothesized, physical work effort is strongly related to functional limitations. However, differentials in physical work effort for Latinos and whites in their fifties and early sixties are weakly related to Latino-white differentials in FL at later ages.

7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(5)2021 02 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33446511

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in a staggering death toll in the United States: over 215,000 by mid-October 2020, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Black and Latino Americans have experienced a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, reflecting persistent structural inequalities that increase risk of exposure to COVID-19 and mortality risk for those infected. We estimate life expectancy at birth and at age 65 y for 2020, for the total US population and by race and ethnicity, using four scenarios of deaths-one in which the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred and three including COVID-19 mortality projections produced by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Our medium estimate indicates a reduction in US life expectancy at birth of 1.13 y to 77.48 y, lower than any year since 2003. We also project a 0.87-y reduction in life expectancy at age 65 y. The Black and Latino populations are estimated to experience declines in life expectancy at birth of 2.10 and 3.05 y, respectively, both of which are several times the 0.68-y reduction for Whites. These projections imply an increase of nearly 40% in the Black-White life expectancy gap, from 3.6 y to over 5 y, thereby eliminating progress made in reducing this differential since 2006. Latinos, who have consistently experienced lower mortality than Whites (a phenomenon known as the Latino or Hispanic paradox), would see their more than 3-y survival advantage reduced to less than 1 y.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Expectativa de Vida/etnologia , Idoso , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Previsões , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32501778

RESUMO

Although declarative memory declines with age, sex and education might moderate these weaknesses. We investigated effects of sex and education on nonverbal declarative (recognition) memory in 704 older adults (aged 58-98, 0-17 years of education). Items were drawings of real and made-up objects. Age negatively impacted declarative memory, though this age effect was moderated by sex and object-type: it was steeper for males than females, but only for real objects. Education was positively associated with memory, but also interacted with sex and object-type: education benefited women more than men (countering the age effects, especially for women), and remembering real more than made-up objects. The findings suggest that nonverbal memory in older adults is associated negatively with age but positively with education; both effects are modulated by sex, and by whether learning relates to preexisting or new information. The study suggests downstream benefits from education, especially for girls.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 30(2): 344-350, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33234556

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disproportionate burden of more aggressive breast cancer subtypes among African American/Black women may stem from multilevel determinants. However, data are limited regarding the impacts of neighborhood social environmental characteristics among Black women. METHODS: We evaluated the association between neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (nSES) and breast cancer subtypes in the Women's Circle of Health and Women's Circle of Health Follow-up Study, which included 1,220 Black women diagnosed from 2005 to 2017 with invasive breast cancer. nSES at diagnosis was measured using NCI's census tract-level SES index. We used multilevel multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the association of nSES with breast cancer subtypes [triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), HER2-positive vs. luminal A], adjusting for individual-level SES, body mass index, and reproductive factors. We tested for interactions by neighborhood racial composition. RESULTS: Compared with census tracts characterized as high nSES, the relative risk ratios (RRR) for TNBC were 1.81 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.71] and 1.95 (95% CI: 1.27-2.99) for women residing in areas with intermediate and low nSES, respectively (P trend = 0.002). Neighborhood racial composition modified the association between nSES and TNBC; the highest relative risk of TNBC was among women residing in low nSES areas with low proportions of Black residents. CONCLUSIONS: Black women residing in socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods may have an increased risk of TNBC, particularly in areas with lower proportions of Black residents. IMPACT: Places people live may influence breast tumor biology. A deeper understanding of multilevel pathways contributing to tumor biology is needed.

10.
Health Place ; 67: 102498, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33383367

RESUMO

We investigated relationships between independently observed, visual cues of residential environments and subsequent participant-reported stress within a population-based cohort of Black breast cancer survivors (n = 476). Greater visual cues of engagement - presence of team sports, yard decorations, outdoor seating - (compared to less engagement) was marginally associated with lower perceived stress in univariate models, but attenuated towards null with adjustment for socio-demographic, behavioral, and health-related covariates. Similarly, physical disorder and perceived stress were not associated in adjusted models. Relationships between observed built environment characteristics and perceived stress might be influenced by socioeconomic and health behavior factors, which longitudinal studies should investigate.

11.
medRxiv ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33236022

RESUMO

Researchers and journalists have argued that work-related factors may be partly responsible for disproportionate COVID-19 infection and death rates among vulnerable groups. We evaluate these claims by examining racial and ethnic differences in the likelihood of work-related exposure to COVID-19. We extend previous studies by considering 12 racial and ethnic groups and five types of potential occupational exposure to the virus: exposure to infection, physical proximity to others, face-to-face discussions, interactions with external customers and the public, and working indoors. Most importantly, we stratify our results by occupational status, defined as the proportion of workers within each occupation with some college education. This measure serves as a proxy for whether workplaces and workers employ significant COVID-19-related risk reduction strategies. We use the 2018 American Community Survey to identify recent workers by occupation, and link 409 occupations to information on work context from the Occupational Information Network to identify potential COVID-related risk factors. We then examine the racial/ethnic distribution of all frontline workers and frontline workers at highest potential risk of COVID-19, by occupational status and by sex. The results indicate that, contrary to expectation, White frontline workers are often overrepresented in high-risk jobs while Black and Latino frontline workers are generally underrepresented in these jobs. However, disaggregation of the results by occupational status shows that, in contrast to Whites and several Asian groups, Latino and Black frontline workers are overrepresented in lower status occupations overall and in lower status occupations associated with high risk, and are thus less likely to have adequate COVID-19 protections. Our findings suggest that greater work exposures likely contribute to a higher prevalence of COVID-19 among Latino and Black adults and underscore the need for measures to reduce potential exposure for workers in low status occupations and for the development of programs outside the workplace.

12.
medRxiv ; 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995806

RESUMO

COVID-19 has resulted in a staggering death toll in the US: over 180,000 by the end of August 2020, according to the National Center for Health Statistics. Black and Latino Americans have experienced a disproportionate burden of COVID-19 morbidity and mortality, reflecting persistent structural inequalities that increase risk of exposure to COVID-19 and mortality risk for those infected. We estimate life expectancy at birth and at age 65 for 2020, for the total US population and by race and ethnicity, using four scenarios of deaths - one in which the COVID-19 pandemic had not occurred and three including COVID-19 mortality projections produced by the Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation. Our most likely estimate indicates a reduction in US life expectancy at birth of 1.41 years. This decline results in a life expectancy of 77.2 years, a value last observed in 2003. We also project a 1.08-year reduction in life expectancy at age 65. The Black and Latino populations are estimated to experience declines in life expectancy at birth of 2.69 and 3.66 years, respectively, both of which are several times the 0.84-year reduction for whites. These projections imply an increase of over 50% in the Black-white life expectancy gap, from 3.6 to 5.5 years, thereby eliminating twenty years of progress made in reducing this differential. Latinos, who have consistently experienced lower mortality than whites (a phenomenon known as the Latino or Hispanic paradox), would see their more than three-year survival advantage almost eliminated.

13.
Epidemiology ; 31(5): 649-658, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482947

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Foreign-born women have heavier infants than US-born women, but it is unclear whether this advantage persists across generations for all races and ethnicities. METHODS: Using 1971-2015 Florida birth records, we linked records of female infants within families to assess intergenerational changes in birthweight and prevalence of low birthweight by grandmother's race/ethnicity and foreign-born status. We also assessed educational gradients in low birthweight in two generations. RESULTS: Compared with daughters of US-born black women, daughters of foreign-born black women had substantially higher birthweights (3,199 vs. 3,083 g) and lower prevalence of low birthweight (7.8% vs. 11.8%). Daughters of foreign-born Hispanic women had moderately higher birthweights (3,322 vs. 3,268 grams) and lower prevalence of low birthweight (4.5% vs. 6.2%) than daughters of US-born Hispanic women. In the next generation, a Hispanic foreign-origin advantage persisted in low birthweight prevalence (6.1% vs. 7.2%), but the corresponding black foreign-origin advantage was almost eliminated (12.2% vs. 13.1%). Findings were robust to adjustment for sociodemographic and medical risk factors. In contrast to patterns for other women, the prevalence of low birthweight varied little by maternal education for foreign-born black women. However, a gradient emerged among their US-born daughters. CONCLUSIONS: The convergence of birthweight between descendants of foreign-born and US-born black women is consistent with theories positing that lifetime exposure to discrimination and socioeconomic inequality is associated with adverse health outcomes for black women. The emergence of a distinct educational gradient in low birthweight prevalence between generations underscores hypothesized adverse effects of multiple dimensions of disadvantage.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Peso ao Nascer , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Avós , Hispano-Americanos , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido de Baixo Peso , Recém-Nascido , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 255: 112983, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32353650

RESUMO

Measures of physical functioning are among the strongest predictors of mortality, but no previous study has assessed whether the predictive value of such measures varies by race/ethnicity, as has been done for the simple self-rated health question. The current study tests whether the relationship between two measures of physical functioning (the number of self-reported functional limitations and measured walking speed) and mortality is weaker (has a lower hazard ratio) for Latinos and blacks than for whites. Data were drawn from the 1998-2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, with mortality follow-up through 2016. We used Cox hazard models with household random effects to test for interactions between race/ethnicity and these measures of physical functioning and verified earlier findings for self-rated health. The number of self-reported functional limitations is significantly related to mortality for all racial/ethnic groups, but has a substantially lower hazard ratio for blacks and Latinos than for whites, as hypothesized. This hazard ratio remains lower for blacks and Latinos after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and health conditions. These findings suggest that the higher rates of functional limitations observed among Latinos and blacks compared with whites may reflect a history of strenuous physical work, inadequately controlled pain, lower leisure-time physical activity, or untreated/under-treated mobility problems that can lead to reduced physical performance without necessarily having a substantial effect on mortality risk. On the other hand, we do not detect significant racial/ethnic differences in the association between measured walking speed and subsequent mortality. This may be the result of the smaller sample size for the walking speed tests, the more nuanced nature of the continuous walking speed measure, or the fact that the walking speed test captures only a subset of the limitations included in the self-reports.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Hispano-Americanos , Idoso , Grupos Étnicos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Humanos , Autorrelato
15.
J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci ; 75(9): 1680-1685, 2020 09 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566204

RESUMO

Quantification of biological aging is of interest in gerontology as a means to surveil aging rates in the population and to evaluate the effects of interventions to increase healthy life span. Analysis of proposed methods to quantify biological aging has focused on samples of midlife or mixed-age adults in the West. Research is needed to test whether quantifications of biological aging can differentiate aging rates among older adults and if quantifications of biological aging developed in Western samples can differentiate aging rates in non-Western populations. We conducted analysis of Klemera-Doubal method (KDM) Biological Age and homeostatic dysregulation measures of biological aging developed in the U.S. NHANES and tested in a sample of older Taiwanese adults in the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study. We conducted analysis of physical and cognitive function and mortality, comparing quantifications of biological aging to a biomarker index based on norms within our analysis sample and to participants' ratings of their own health. Results showed that quantifications of biological aging (a) predicted differences in physical and cognitive function and in mortality risk among Taiwanese older adults and (b) performed as well as a traditional biomarker index and participant self-rated health for prediction of these outcomes.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Envelhecimento Cognitivo/fisiologia , Feminino , Força da Mão/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Mortalidade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório , Aptidão Física/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214947, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947252

RESUMO

We demonstrate widening socioeconomic disparities in perceived economic distress among Americans, characterized by increasing distress at the bottom and improved perceptions at the top of the socioeconomic ladder. We then assess the extent to which hardships related to the Great Recession account for the growing social disparity in economic distress. Based on the concept of loss aversion, we also test whether the psychological pain associated with a financial loss is greater than the perceived benefit of an equivalent gain. Analyses are based on longitudinal survey data from the Midlife Development in the US study. Results suggest that widening social disparities in perceived economic distress between the mid-2000s and mid-2010s are explained in part by differential exposure to hardships related to the Great Recession, the effects of which have lingered even four to five years after the recession officially ended. Yet, auxiliary analyses show that the socioeconomic disparities in economic distress widened by nearly as much (if not more) during the period from 1995-96 to 2004-05 as they did during the period in which the recession occurred, which suggests that the factors driving these trends may have already been in motion prior to the recession. Consistent with the loss aversion hypothesis, perceptions of financial strain appear to be somewhat more strongly affected by losses in income/assets than by gains, but the magnitude of the differentials are small and the results are not robust. Our findings paint a dismal portrait of a growing socioeconomic divide in economic distress throughout the period from the mid-1990s to the mid-2010s, although we cannot say whether these trends afflict all regions of the US equally. Spatial analysis of aggregate-level mortality and objective economic indicators could provide indirect evidence, but ultimately economic "despair" must be measured subjectively by asking people how they perceive their financial situations.


Assuntos
Recessão Econômica , Nível de Saúde , Saúde Mental , Mortalidade , Desemprego , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
J Aging Health ; 31(7): 1067-1084, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29466893

RESUMO

Objective: We compare physical performance from three U.S. national surveys and nationally representative surveys in England, Taiwan, and Costa Rica. Method: For each performance test, we use local mean smoothing to plot the age profiles by sex and survey wave and then fit a linear regression model to the pooled data, separately by sex, to test for significant differences across surveys controlling for age and height. Results: Age profiles of performance vary across U.S. surveys, but levels of lung function (peak expiratory flow) and handgrip strength in the United States are as high as they are in the other three countries. Americans also perform as well on the chair stand test as the English and Costa Ricans, if not better, but exhibit slower gait speed than the English at most ages. Discussion: With the exception of walking speed, we find little evidence that older Americans have worse physical performance than their peers.


Assuntos
Força da Mão/fisiologia , Nível de Saúde , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório/fisiologia , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Costa Rica , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Taiwan , Estados Unidos
18.
Q J Exp Psychol (Hove) ; 72(6): 1308-1327, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30012055

RESUMO

Working memory (WM), which underlies the temporary storage and manipulation of information, is critical for multiple aspects of cognition and everyday life. Nevertheless, research examining WM specifically in older adults remains limited, despite the global rapid increase in human life expectancy. We examined WM in a large sample ( N = 754) of healthy older adults (aged 58-89) in a non-Western population (Chinese speakers) in Taiwan, on a digit n-back task. We tested not only the influence of age itself and of load (1-back vs. 2-back) but also the effects of both sex and education, which have been shown to modulate WM abilities. Mixed-effects regression revealed that, within older adulthood, age negatively impacted WM abilities (with linear, not nonlinear, effects), as did load (worse performance at 2-back). In contrast, education level was positively associated with WM. Moreover, both age and education interacted with sex. With increasing age, males showed a steeper WM decline than females; with increasing education, females showed greater WM gains than males. Together with other findings, the evidence suggests that age, sex, and education all impact WM in older adults, but interact in particular ways. The results have both basic research and translational implications and are consistent with particular benefits from increased education for women.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais
19.
PLoS One ; 13(10): e0206118, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30339707

RESUMO

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype is believed to play a role in the onset of dementia, though less is known about its relationship with non-pathogenic age-related cognitive decline. We assessed whether APOE was a risk factor for cognitive decline among older Taiwanese adults using nationally representative data. General cognition was measured longitudinally over eleven years; domain-specific cognitive assessments of working memory, declarative learning and three aspects of attention (executive function, alerting, and orientation) were performed once. Having at least one risky APOE allele was associated with more rapid longitudinal cognitive decline compared to those with no risky alleles. Some evidence from the cross-sectional analysis of domain-specific cognitive assessments suggested that APOE genotype may be more closely associated with working memory and declarative learning than with attention. Most genetic studies of cognition include only populations of European descent; extension is crucial. This study confirmed the association between APOE genotype and the rate of cognitive decline in a predominantly Han Chinese population. Additional studies on diverse populations are warranted.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Taiwan/etnologia
20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 115(28): 7290-7295, 2018 07 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29915079

RESUMO

Although there is little dispute about the impact of the US opioid epidemic on recent mortality, there is less consensus about whether trends reflect increasing despair among American adults. The issue is complicated by the absence of established scales or definitions of despair as well as a paucity of studies examining changes in psychological health, especially well-being, since the 1990s. We contribute evidence using two cross-sectional waves of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study to assess changes in measures of psychological distress and well-being. These measures capture negative emotions such as sadness, hopelessness, and worthlessness, and positive emotions such as happiness, fulfillment, and life satisfaction. Most of the measures reveal increasing distress and decreasing well-being across the age span for those of low relative socioeconomic position, in contrast to little decline or modest improvement for persons of high relative position.


Assuntos
Emoções , Saúde Mental , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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