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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4722, 2019 Oct 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31624253

RESUMO

The genetic architecture of sporadic congenital heart disease (CHD) is characterized by enrichment in damaging de novo variants in chromatin-modifying genes. To test the hypothesis that gene pathways contributing to de novo forms of CHD are distinct from those for recessive forms, we analyze 2391 whole-exome trios from the Pediatric Cardiac Genomics Consortium. We deploy a permutation-based gene-burden analysis to identify damaging recessive and compound heterozygous genotypes and disease genes, controlling for confounding effects, such as background mutation rate and ancestry. Cilia-related genes are significantly enriched for damaging rare recessive genotypes, but comparatively depleted for de novo variants. The opposite trend is observed for chromatin-modifying genes. Other cardiac developmental gene classes have less stratification by mode of inheritance than cilia and chromatin-modifying gene classes. Our analyses reveal dominant and recessive CHD are associated with distinct gene functions, with cilia-related genes providing a reservoir of rare segregating variation leading to CHD.

2.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 74(12): 1570-1579, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31537267

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the best strategy to treat patients with tetralogy of Fallot who are symptomatic in the neonatal period. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of complete versus staged surgery (i.e., initial palliative procedure for possible later complete repair). METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System database, including patients who underwent complete or staged tetralogy of Fallot repair prior to 30 days of age. The primary outcome was death during 2-year follow-up after the initial procedure. Inverse probability-weighted Cox and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between surgical approach group and mortality while accounting for patient- and hospital-level factors. Causal mediation analyses examined the role of intermediate variables. RESULTS: A total of 2,363 patients were included (1,032 complete and 1,331 staged). There were 239 deaths. Complete neonatal repair was associated with a significantly higher risk for mortality during the 2-year follow-up period (hazard ratio: 1.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.06), between 7 and 30 days after the initial procedure (hazard ratio: 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.41), and during the initial hospital admission (odds ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 2.62). Post-operative cardiac complications were more common in the complete repair group and mediated the differences in 30-day and 2-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical repair for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot is associated with a significantly higher risk for early and 2-year mortality compared with the staged approach, after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics. Post-operative cardiac complications mediated these findings.

3.
J Cardiovasc Magn Reson ; 21(1): 51, 2019 Aug 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies suggest that right ventricular (RV) fibrosis is associated with RV remodeling and long-term outcomes in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). Pre-operative hypoxia may increase expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1-alpha (HIF1α) and promote transforming growth factor ß1 (TGFß1)-mediated fibrosis. We hypothesized that there would be associations between: (1) RV fibrosis and RV function, (2) HIF1α variants and RV fibrosis, and (3) HIF1α variants and RV function among post-surgical TOF cases. METHODS: We retrospectively measured post-surgical fibrotic load (indexed volume and fibrotic score) from 237 TOF cases who had existing cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging using late gadolinium enhancement (LGE), and indicators of RV remodeling (i.e., ejection fraction [RVEF] and end-diastolic volume indexed [RVEDVI]). Genetic data were available in 125 cases. Analyses were conducted using multivariable linear mixed-effects regression with a random intercept and multivariable generalized Poisson regression with a random intercept. RESULTS: Indexed fibrotic volume and fibrotic score significantly decreased RVEF by 1.6% (p = 0.04) and 0.9% (p = 0.03), respectively. Indexed fibrotic volume and score were not associated with RVEDVI. After adjusting for multiple comparisons, 6 of the 48 HIF1α polymorphisms (representing two unique signals) were associated with fibrotic score. None of the HIF1α polymorphisms were associated with indexed fibrotic volume, RVEDVI, or RVEF. CONCLUSION: The association of some HIF1α polymorphisms and fibrotic score suggests that HIF1α may modulate the fibrotic response in TOF.

4.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219926, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31314787

RESUMO

Conotruncal heart defects (CTDs) are among the most common and severe groups of congenital heart defects. Despite evidence of an inherited genetic contribution to CTDs, little is known about the specific genes that contribute to the development of CTDs. We performed gene-based genome-wide analyses using microarray-genotyped and imputed common and rare variants data from two large studies of CTDs in the United States. We performed two case-parent trio analyses (N = 640 and 317 trios), using an extension of the family-based multi-marker association test, and two case-control analyses (N = 482 and 406 patients and comparable numbers of controls), using a sequence kernel association test. We also undertook two meta-analyses to combine the results from the analyses that used the same approach (i.e. family-based or case-control). To our knowledge, these analyses are the first reported gene-based, genome-wide association studies of CTDs. Based on our findings, we propose eight CTD candidate genes (ARF5, EIF4E, KPNA1, MAP4K3, MBNL1, NCAPG, NDFUS1 and PSMG3). Four of these genes (ARF5, KPNA1, NDUFS1 and PSMG3) have not been previously associated with normal or abnormal heart development. In addition, our analyses provide additional evidence that genes involved in chromatin-modification and in ribonucleic acid splicing are associated with congenital heart defects.

5.
Birth Defects Res ; 111(13): 888-905, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222980

RESUMO

Over 50% of patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DS) have a conotruncal or related cardiac defect (CTRD). We hypothesized that similar genetic variants, developmental pathways and biological functions, contribute to disease risk for CTRD in patients without a 22q11.2 deletion (ND-CTRD) and with a 22q11.2 deletion (DS-CTRD). To test this hypothesis, we performed rare CNV (rCNV)-based analyses on 630 ND-CTRD cases and 602 DS-CTRD cases with comparable cardiac lesions separately and jointly. First, we detected a collection of heart development related pathways from Gene Ontology and Mammalian Phenotype Ontology analysis. We then constructed gene regulation networks using unique genes collected from the rCNVs found in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. These gene networks were clustered and their predicted functions were examined. We further investigated expression patterns of those unique genes using publicly available mouse embryo microarray expression data from single-cell embryos to fully developed hearts. By these bioinformatics approaches, we identified a commonly shared gene expression pattern in both the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts. Computational analysis of gene functions characterized with this expression pattern revealed a collection of significantly enriched terms related to cardiovascular development. By our combined analysis of rCNVs in the ND-CTRD and DS-CTRD cohorts, a group of statistically significant shared pathways, biological functions, and gene expression patterns were identified that can be tested in future studies for their biological relevance.

6.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0216477, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141530

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maternal hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity are associated with an increased risk of having offspring with conotruncal heart defects (CTDs). Prior studies have identified sets of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are associated with risk for each of these three adult phenotypes. We hypothesized that these same SNPs are associated with maternal risk of CTDs in offspring. METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated the parents of children with a CTD ascertained from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (n = 466) and by the Pediatric Cardiac Genomic Consortium (n = 255). We used a family-based design to assess the association between CTDs and the maternal genotype for individual hypertension, T2D, and obesity-related SNPs and found no association between CTDs and the maternal genotype for any individual SNP. In addition, we calculated genetic risk scores (GRS) for hypertension, T2D, and obesity using previously published GRS formulas. When comparing the GRS of mothers to fathers, there were no statistically significant differences in the mean for the combined GRS or the GRS for each individual condition. However, when we categorized the mothers and fathers of cases with CTDs as having high (>95th percentile) or low (≤95th percentile) scores, compared to fathers, mothers had almost two times the odds of having a high GRS for hypertension (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0, 2.8) and T2D (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.1, 3.1). CONCLUSIONS: Our results support a link between maternal genetic risk for hypertension/T2D and CTDs in their offspring. These associations might be independent of maternal phenotype at conception.

7.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2058-2069, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30380191

RESUMO

22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is a disorder caused by recurrent, chromosome-specific, low copy repeat (LCR)-mediated copy-number losses of chromosome 22q11. The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia has been involved in the clinical care of individuals with what is now known as 22q11.2DS since our initial report of the association with DiGeorge syndrome in 1982. We reviewed the medical records on our continuously growing longitudinal cohort of 1,421 patients with molecularly confirmed 22q11.2DS from 1992 to 2018. Most individuals are Caucasian and older than 8 years. The mean age at diagnosis was 3.9 years. The majority of patients (85%) had typical LCR22A-LCR22D deletions, and only 7% of these typical deletions were inherited from a parent harboring the deletion constitutionally. However, 6% of individuals harbored other nested deletions that would not be identified by traditional 22q11.2 FISH, thus requiring an orthogonal technology to diagnose. Major medical problems included immune dysfunction or allergies (77%), palatal abnormalities (67%), congenital heart disease (64%), gastrointestinal difficulties (65%), endocrine dysfunction (>50%), scoliosis (50%), renal anomalies (16%), and airway abnormalities. Median full-scale intelligence quotient was 76, with no significant difference between individuals with and without congenital heart disease or hypocalcemia. Characteristic dysmorphic facial features were present in most individuals, but dermatoglyphic patterns of our cohort are similar to normal controls. This is the largest longitudinal study of patients with 22q11.2DS, helping to further describe the condition and aid in diagnosis and management. Further surveillance will likely elucidate additional clinically relevant findings as they age.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 2018 Nov 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30471718

RESUMO

Dysfunction of motile monocilia, altering the leftward flow at the embryonic node essential for determination of left-right body asymmetry, is a major cause of laterality defects. Laterality defects are also often associated with reduced mucociliary clearance caused by defective multiple motile cilia of the airway and are responsible for destructive airway disease. Outer dynein arms (ODAs) are essential for ciliary beat generation, and human respiratory cilia contain different ODA heavy chains (HCs): the panaxonemally distributed γ-HC DNAH5, proximally located ß-HC DNAH11 (defining ODA type 1), and the distally localized ß-HC DNAH9 (defining ODA type 2). Here we report loss-of-function mutations in DNAH9 in five independent families causing situs abnormalities associated with subtle respiratory ciliary dysfunction. Consistent with the observed subtle respiratory phenotype, high-speed video microscopy demonstrates distally impaired ciliary bending in DNAH9 mutant respiratory cilia. DNAH9-deficient cilia also lack other ODA components such as DNAH5, DNAI1, and DNAI2 from the distal axonemal compartment, demonstrating an essential role of DNAH9 for distal axonemal assembly of ODAs type 2. Yeast two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation analyses indicate interaction of DNAH9 with the ODA components DNAH5 and DNAI2 as well as the ODA-docking complex component CCDC114. We further show that during ciliogenesis of respiratory cilia, first proximally located DNAH11 and then distally located DNAH9 is assembled in the axoneme. We propose that the ß-HC paralogs DNAH9 and DNAH11 achieved specific functional roles for the distinct axonemal compartments during evolution with human DNAH9 function matching that of ancient ß-HCs such as that of the unicellular Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2018 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30291340

RESUMO

Deletions on chromosome 15q14 are a known chromosomal cause of cleft palate, typically co-occurring with intellectual disability, facial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. The identification of patients with loss-of-function variants in MEIS2, a gene within this deletion, suggests that these features are attributed to haploinsufficiency of MEIS2. To further delineate the phenotypic spectrum of the MEIS2-related syndrome, we collected 23 previously unreported patients with either a de novo sequence variant in MEIS2 (9 patients), or a 15q14 microdeletion affecting MEIS2 (14 patients). All but one de novo MEIS2 variant were identified by whole-exome sequencing. One variant was found by targeted sequencing of MEIS2 in a girl with a clinical suspicion of this syndrome. In addition to the triad of palatal defects, heart defects, and developmental delay, heterozygous loss of MEIS2 results in recurrent facial features, including thin and arched eyebrows, short alae nasi, and thin vermillion. Genotype-phenotype comparison between patients with 15q14 deletions and patients with sequence variants or intragenic deletions within MEIS2, showed a higher prevalence of moderate-to-severe intellectual disability in the former group, advocating for an independent locus for psychomotor development neighboring MEIS2.

10.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2099-2103, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30277015

RESUMO

Hypocalcemia is one of the cardinal features of the chromosome 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), the most common cause of DiGeorge syndrome. Hypocalcemia and other features of 22q11.2DS including congenital heart disease (CHD) are primarily ascribed to problems with morphogenesis and function of the pharyngeal arch system derivatives including the parathyroid glands, the aortic arch, and the cardiac outflow tract. In light of the aforementioned embryology, we hypothesized that hypocalcemia would be identified more frequently in those patients with 22q11.2DS and CHD. We conducted a retrospective IRB approved chart review on 1,300 subjects with 22q11.2DS evaluated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia. χ2 test was used to evaluate the statistical significance of differences in hypocalcemia between the two groups. Eight hundred fifty-two patients had calcium levels available for review. Of these, 466 (54.69%) had a history of hypocalcemia and 550 (64.55%) had CHD. Of those with CHD, 343 (62.36%) had a history of hypocalcemia, and of those without CHD, only 123 (40.73%) had a history of hypocalcemia. Thus, the frequency of diagnosed hypocalcemia was greater in patients with 22q11.2DS and CHD as compared to those without CHD (p < .001). We also analyzed age of onset of hypocalcemia and found that 66.47% of CHD/hypocalcemia group had neonatal/infantile hypocalcemia versus 43.09% in the non-CHD/hypocalcemia group. In our large cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS, the prevalence of diagnosed hypocalcemia is elevated among patients with CHD, in whom it is more likely to be diagnosed during the neonatal/infancy period.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269912

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary insufficiency (PI) and right ventricular (RV) dysfunction are long-term complications in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). The aim of this study was to investigate RV contractile reserve and changes in PI that occur during exercise in patients with rTOF and the associations of these changes with exercise performance using stress echocardiography. METHODS: Subjects with rTOF (n = 32) and healthy control subjects (n = 10) were prospectively enrolled and underwent rest and peak exercise echocardiography during standard cardiopulmonary exercise test protocol on a cycle ergometer or treadmill. RV contractile reserve was defined as the change in RV global longitudinal strain from rest to peak exercise. PI was assessed with the diastolic-to-systolic time-velocity integral ratio and diastolic/systolic velocity ratio from pulmonary artery Doppler interrogation. Exercise measures included heart rate reserve, percentage predicted maximum oxygen consumption, percentage predicted maximum work, and oxygen pulse. RESULTS: RV contractile reserve was impaired in patients with rTOF compared with control subjects, with a significant drop in the absolute value of RV global longitudinal strain from 17% (range, 8%-27%) at rest to 13% (range, 5%-28%) at peak exercise. Similarly, PI decreased at peak exercise, with decreases in diastolic-to-systolic time-velocity integral and diastolic/systolic velocity ratios. Reduction in PI was directly associated with percentage predicted maximum oxygen consumption, percentage predicted maximum work, and greater oxygen pulse. Heart rate reserve was directly associated with percentage predicted maximum oxygen consumption and percentage predicted maximum work. RV contractile reserve was not associated with any exercise parameters. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with rTOF have an abnormal myocardial response to exercise with impaired RV contractile reserve compared with control subjects. Heart rate reserve and reduction in PI at peak exercise are associated with better exercise performance and appear to be significant contributors to exercise performance in rTOF. Measures to improve chronotropic health in rTOF should be explored.

12.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2018 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30121867

RESUMO

Exercise performance is variable and often impaired in patients with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (rTOF). We sought to identify factors associated with exercise performance by comparing high to low performers on cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with rTOF. We conducted a cross-sectional study of subjects presenting for CPET who underwent echocardiograms at rest and peak exercise. Patients with pacemakers and arrhythmias were excluded. Right ventricular (RV) global longitudinal strain was used as a measure of systolic function. Pulmonary insufficiency (PI) was assessed with the diastolic systolic ratio and the diastolic systolic time-velocity integral ratio by Doppler interrogation of the pulmonary artery. CPET measures included percent-predicted maximum [Formula: see text] [Formula: see text], percent-predicted maximum work and oxygen pulse. High versus low performers were identified as those achieving [Formula: see text] of at least 80% or falling below, respectively. Differences in echocardiographic parameters from rest to peak exercise were examined using mixed-effects regression models. Compared to the low performers (n = 17), high performers (n = 12) were younger (12.8 ± 3.3 years vs. 18.3 ± 4.8 years), had normal chronotropic response (peak heart rate > 185 bpm) with greater heart rate reserve and superior physical working capacity. High performers also had a greater reduction in PI at peak exercise, despite greater PI severity at rest. Oxygen pulse was comparable between groups. For both groups, there was no association of PI severity and RV systolic function at rest with exercise parameters. There was no group difference in the magnitude of change in RV strain and diastolic parameters from rest to peak exercise. Chronotropic response to exercise appears to be an important parameter with which to assess exercise performance in rTOF. Chronotropic health should be taken into consideration in this population, particularly given that RV function and PI severity at rest were not associated with exercise performance.

13.
Echocardiography ; 35(10): 1641-1648, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30105757

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) systolic dysfunction has been associated with adverse outcomes in tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). However, the role and etiology of diastolic dysfunction remain incompletely defined. We assessed the association between traditional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with catheter-based RV end-diastolic pressure (RVEDP) and identified clinical characteristics independently associated with diastolic dysfunction. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective cohort study of surgically repaired TOF patients undergoing cardiac catheterization with echocardiograms within 3 months prior to the catheterization. Tricuspid inflow and tissue Doppler measurements (E/A, E/e', and deceleration time) defined diastolic dysfunction, graded as impaired relaxation, pseudonormal, or restrictive physiology. Regression analyses tested associations between echocardiographic parameters, RVEDP, and clinical characteristics. RESULTS: Ninety-four subjects were included. Catheterization age was 8.9 years (interquartile range 4.4, 15.9). RVEDP was 9.5 ± 2.5 mm Hg. Sixty-one (65%) subjects had echocardiographic evidence of diastolic dysfunction. RVEDP was not associated with echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function (grade of dysfunction, E/e', or E/A). Higher RVEDP was associated with larger right atrial and RV end-diastolic area, independently of weight and degree of pulmonary or tricuspid regurgitation, though was not associated with indexed right atrial or RV end-diastolic area. Greater number of interim procedures was associated with higher RVEDP, E/e', and the presence of diastolic dysfunction by echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Diastolic dysfunction, as determined by echocardiography-derived and catheter-based (RVEDP) measures, is prevalent in this TOF population. These measures are not associated with each other; therefore, echocardiographic parameters of diastolic function are not reflective of RVEDP. The development of noninvasive parameters that correlate with filling pressures is required.

14.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 2018 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29876584

RESUMO

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) often carries long-term seqüelae following surgical intervention. We hypothesized that early perioperative factors are associated with long-term adverse right ventricular (RV) remodeling, diminished exercise capacity, and increased morbidity. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients operated for TOF that underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging study (CMR), exercise stress test (EST), and detailed review of past medical history. Outcome variables included measures of RV size, and function, maximal work rate, and oxygen consumption, and interim hospitalizations, surgeries, and catheterizations. Thirty-nine subjects were included. Age at surgical repair was 0.3 ± 0.3 years and age at testing was 9.7 ± 1.4 years. On CMR, there was borderline RV dilation with moderate pulmonary insufficiency (PI) [RF 32% (8; 43)] and normal RV ejection fraction [60% (55; 67)]. On EST, there was low percent-predicted maximal oxygen consumption (77 ± 20%), and percent-predicted maximal work rate (84 ± 23%). On multivariable analysis, mechanical ventilation and Blalock-Taussig (BT) shunt prior to complete surgical repair were associated with the number of future hospitalizations. Duration of cardiopulmonary bypass and prior BT shunt were associated with future catheterizations. Prior BT shunt was a predictor of worse RVEF, while duration of mechanical ventilation and use of transannular patch were predictors of worse PI. Longer duration of mechanical ventilation (or LOS) was associated with worse maximal work rate. Surgical and perioperative factors may portend long-term RV remodeling and outcome in TOF. Further studies are warranted to explore these associations and potential underlying mechanisms.

15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 7(11)2018 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29769202

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We sought to identify patient and surgical factors associated with time to hospital discharge in patients undergoing complete repair for tetralogy of Fallot. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a prospective cohort study of patients with tetralogy of Fallot admitted for complete repair between May 1, 2012 and June 2, 2017 at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia with detailed demographic, clinical, and operative characteristics. The primary outcome was time to hospital discharge. Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify patient and operative predictors of time to hospital discharge. We enrolled 151 subjects, 62.8% male, 65.6% non-Hispanic white, and 9.9% non-Hispanic black. The median time to hospital discharge was 7 days (interquartile range 4, 12). Five patients died in the hospital, all of whom underwent tetralogy of Fallot repair beyond the neonatal period. Greater birth weight was associated with higher rate of hospital discharge (hazard ratio [HR]=1.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) =1.11, 1.64), while absent pulmonary valve versus pulmonary stenosis (HR=0.27, 95% CI=0.08, 0.91), pulmonary valve atresia versus pulmonary stenosis (HR=0.57, 95% CI=0.33, 0.97), presence of aortopulmonary collaterals (HR=0.44, 95% CI=0.24, 0.84), complete repair performed in the neonatal period (<30 days of life) (HR=0.45, 95% CI=0.27, 0.75), more than 1 cardiopulmonary bypass run (HR=0.33, 95% CI=0.18, 0.61), and longer aortic cross-clamp time (HR [per 10 minutes]=0.88, 95% CI=0.79, 0.97) were associated with lower rate of hospital discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative hospital stay after complete repair of tetralogy of Fallot is in part determined by patient and operative factors. Some (eg, surgical strategy for the symptomatic neonate) may be modifiable. These results may impact patient counseling, choice of surgical approach, and postoperative care.

16.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(10): 2087-2098, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663641

RESUMO

Congenital heart diseases (CHDs) and cardiovascular abnormalities are one of the pillars of clinical diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) and still represent the main cause of mortality in the affected children. In the past 30 years, much progress has been made in describing the anatomical patterns of CHD, in improving their diagnosis, medical treatment, and surgical procedures for these conditions, as well as in understanding the underlying genetic and developmental mechanisms. However, further studies are still needed to better determine the true prevalence of CHDs in 22q11.2DS, including data from prenatal studies and on the adult population, to further clarify the genetic mechanisms behind the high variability of phenotypic expression of 22q11.2DS, and to fully understand the mechanism responsible for the increased postoperative morbidity and for the premature death of these patients. Moreover, the increased life expectancy of persons with 22q11.2DS allowed the expansion of the adult population that poses new challenges for clinicians such as acquired cardiovascular problems and complexity related to multisystemic comorbidity. In this review, we provide a comprehensive review of the existing literature about 22q11.2DS in order to summarize the knowledge gained in the past years of clinical experience and research, as well as to identify the remaining gaps in comprehension of this syndrome and the possible future research directions.

17.
J Am Soc Echocardiogr ; 31(7): 816-821, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29627138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Right ventricular (RV) dysfunction is associated with adverse long-term outcomes in patients with tetralogy of Fallot. Little is known about RV function in the first years after surgical repair. The aim of this study was to investigate perioperative changes in myocardial deformation using global longitudinal strain. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients with surgically repaired tetralogy of Fallot was performed. Global longitudinal peak systolic RV strain was measured on early postoperative echocardiograms, two subsequent postoperative echocardiograms through 2 years postoperatively, and preoperative echocardiograms, when available. Preoperative and late follow-up strain was compared with strain in 0- to 8-month-old and 1- to 4-year-old control subjects, respectively. RESULTS: Forty-seven patients were included. Compared with postoperative strain (7 ± 7 days postoperatively), strain at follow-up 1 (8.3 ± 4 months postoperatively) was significantly improved (-12.3 ± 3.3% vs -18.8 ± 2.5%, P < .001), with no additional improvement 23.2 ± 6 months postoperatively (-18.8 ± 2.5% vs -19.8 ± 3.1%, P = .12). Postoperative strain was worse than preoperative strain (n = 25, -12.5 ± 3.6% vs -18.4 ± 2.9%, P < .001). Compared with control subjects, preoperative strain was similar (-19.3 ± 3.8% vs -18.4 ± 2.9%, P = .30), though late follow-up strain was significantly worse (-27.7 ± 2.8% vs -19.8 ± 3.1%, P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: RV global longitudinal strain worsens in the early postoperative period following surgical repair of tetralogy of Fallot but recovers through 2 postoperative years. Despite recovery to preoperative values, the presence of RV dysfunction compared with control subjects suggests that long-term dysfunction may begin early. The trajectory of RV dysfunction through the later years needs further study.

19.
Pediatr Cardiol ; 39(5): 906-910, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29520463

RESUMO

Deletion of 22q11.2 (del22q11) is associated with adverse outcomes in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). We sought to investigate its contribution to perioperative outcome in patients with a severe form of TOF characterized by pulmonary atresia (PA) or severe pulmonary stenosis (PS) and major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAS). We conducted a retrospective review of patients with TOF/MAPCAS who underwent staged surgical reconstruction between 1995 and 2006. Groups were compared according to 22q11.2 deletion status using t-tests or the Wilcoxon Rank sum test. We included 26 subjects, 24 of whom survived the initial operation. Of those, 21 subjects had known deletion status and constitute the group for this analysis [15 with no deletion present (ND) and 6 del22q11 subjects]. There was no difference with respect to occurrence of palliative procedure prior to initial operation, or to timing of closure of the ventricular septal defect (VSD). Other than higher prevalence of prematurity (50%) in the del22q11 group versus no prematurity in the ND, the groups were comparable in terms of pre-operative characteristics. The intra- and post-operative course outcomes (length of cardiopulmonary bypass, use of vasopressors, duration of intensive care and length of hospital stay, tube-feeding) were also comparable. Although the del22q11 had longer mechanical ventilation than the ND, this difference was not significant [68 h (range 4-251) vs. 45 h (range 3-1005), p = 0.81]. In this detailed comparison of a small patient cohort, 22q11.2 deletion syndrome was not associated with adverse perioperative outcomes in patients with TOF, PA, and MAPCAS when compared to those without 22q11.2 deletion syndrome. These results are relevant to prenatal and neonatal pre-operative counseling and planning.


Assuntos
Circulação Colateral , Síndrome de DiGeorge , Comunicação Interventricular , Atresia Pulmonar , Tetralogia de Fallot , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Circulação Colateral/genética , Circulação Colateral/fisiologia , Síndrome de DiGeorge/complicações , Feminino , Idade Gestacional , Comunicação Interventricular/complicações , Comunicação Interventricular/cirurgia , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Atresia Pulmonar/complicações , Atresia Pulmonar/genética , Atresia Pulmonar/cirurgia , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/complicações , Estenose da Valva Pulmonar/genética , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tetralogia de Fallot/complicações , Tetralogia de Fallot/genética , Tetralogia de Fallot/fisiopatologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 9(2): 177-184, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29544424

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with increased lifelong morbidity and reduced life span and is increasingly prevalent in the congenital heart disease population. Habitual exercise is an important aspect of a healthy lifestyle and primary prevention of obesity in the general population. The association between habitual activity and body mass index (BMI) has not been studied in children with congenital heart disease. METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis of two previously collected cohorts was performed, including participants 8 to 18 years old with tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, and single ventricle heart disease after a Fontan operation. The association between BMI and duration of habitual exercise (measured by questionnaire) was studied. Secondary analyses assessing the effect of other possible factors for BMI were performed. RESULTS: In total, 172 participants were studied (45% Tetralogy of Fallot, 12% transposition of the great arteries, and 43% Fontan). Median BMI was 18.2, and 29% of the participants were obese or overweight. Median habitual exercise was 5.9 h/wk. Thirty-eight percent of participants reported having their activity restricted by their cardiologist. Increasing exercise duration was associated with lower BMI ( P = .01) in univariate analysis. In secondary analyses, restriction to mild exertion and participation in low-intensity exercise were both associated with increased BMI. CONCLUSION: Increased habitual activity was associated with lower BMI, emphasizing the potential role of recreational sport in the health of children with congenital heart disease.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Exercício , Técnica de Fontan , Obesidade Pediátrica/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Tetralogia de Fallot/cirurgia , Transposição dos Grandes Vasos/cirurgia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Obesidade Pediátrica/diagnóstico , Obesidade Pediátrica/psicologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/psicologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
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