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1.
J Phys Chem A ; 111(43): 10969-76, 2007 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17918814

RESUMO

UV-vis and Raman spectroscopy were used to study iodine molecules trapped in sII clathrate hydrate structures stabilized by THF, CH(2)Cl(2), or CHCl(3). The spectra show that the environment for iodine inside the water cage is significantly less perturbed than either in aqueous solution or in amorphous water-ice. The resonance Raman progression of I(2) in THF clathrate hydrate can be observed up to v = 6 when excited at 532 nm. The extracted vibrational frequency omega e = 214 +/- 1 cm(-1) is the same as that of the free molecule to within experimental error. At the same time, the UV-vis absorption spectrum of I(2) in the sII hydrate exhibits a relatively large, 1440 cm(-1), blue-shift. This is mainly ascribed to the differential solvation of the I(2) electronic states. We conclude that iodine in sII hydrate resides in a 5(12)6(4) cavity, in which the ground-state I(2) potential is not significantly perturbed by the hydrate lattice. In contrast, in water and in ice, the valence absorption band of I(2) is dramatically broadened and blue-shifted by 3000 cm(-1), and the resonance Raman scattering is effectively quenched. These observations are shown to be consistent with a strong interaction between water molecule and iodine through the lone pair of electrons on water as in the case of bromine in the same media. The results presented here, and the stability of other halogen hydrates, were used to test the predictions of simple models and force-field calculations of the host cage-guest association energy.

2.
J Phys Chem A ; 110(51): 13792-8, 2006 Dec 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17181336

RESUMO

We report the first UV-vis spectroscopic study of bromine molecules confined in clathrate hydrate cages. Bromine in its natural hydrate occupies 51262 and 51263 lattice cavities. Bromine also can be encapsulated into the larger 51264 cages of a type II hydrate formed mainly from tetrahydrofuran or dichloromethane and water. The visible spectra of the enclathrated halogen molecule retain the spectral envelope of the gas-phase spectra while shifting to the blue. In contrast, spectra of bromine in liquid water or amorphous ice are broadened and significantly more blue-shifted. The absorption bands shift by about 360 cm-1 for bromine in large 51264 cages of type II clathrate, by about 900 cm-1 for bromine in a combination of 51262 and 51263 cages of pure bromine hydrate, and by more than 1700 cm-1 for bromine in liquid water or amorphous ice. The dramatic shift and broadening in water and ice is due to the strong interaction of the water lone-pair orbitals with the halogen sigma* orbital. In the clathrate hydrates, the oxygen lone-pair orbitals are all involved in the hydrogen-bonded water lattice and are thus unavailable to interact with the halogen guest molecule. The blue shifts observed in the clathrate hydrate cages are related to the spatial constraints on the halogen excited states by the cage walls.

3.
J Chem Phys ; 122(3): 34503, 2005 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15740205

RESUMO

Xenon fluoride radicals were generated by solid-state chemical reactions of mobile fluorine atoms with xenon atoms trapped in Ar matrix. Highly resolved electron spin resonance spectra of XeF* were obtained in the temperature range of 5-25 K and the anisotropic hyperfine parameters were determined for magnetic nuclei 19F, 129Xe, and 131Xe using naturally occurring and isotopically enriched xenon. Signs of parallel and perpendicular hyperfine components were established from analysis of temperature changes in the spectra and from numerical solutions of the spin Hamiltonian for two nonequivalent magnetic nuclei. Thus, the complete set of components of hyperfine- and g-factor tensors of XeF* were obtained: 19F (Aiso=435, Adip=1249 MHz) and 129Xe (Aiso=-1340, Adip=-485 MHz); g(parallel)=1.9822 and g(perpendicular)=2.0570. Comparison of the measured hyperfine parameters with those predicted by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations indicates, that relativistic DFT gives true electron spin distribution in the 2Sigma+ ground-state, whereas nonrelativistic theory underestimates dramatically the electron-nuclear contact Fermi interaction (Aiso) on the Xe atom. Analysis of the obtained magnetic-dipole interaction constants (Adip) shows that fluorine 2p and xenon 5p atomic orbitals make a major contribution to the spin density distribution in XeF*. Both relativistic and nonrelativistic calculations give close magnetic-dipole interaction constants, which are in agreement with the measured values. The other relativistic feature is considerable anisotropy of g-tensor, which results from spin-orbit interaction. The orbital contribution appears due to mixing of the ionic 2Pi states with the 2Sigma+ ground state, and the spin-orbit interaction plays a significant role in the chemical bonding of XeF*.

4.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 7(5): 791-6, 2005 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19791363

RESUMO

Time- and frequency-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering is used to carry out systematic measurements of vibrational dephasing on I2 (v = 1-19) isolated in solid Kr, as a function of temperature, T = 7-45 K. The observed quantum beats, omega(v', v") allow an accurate reconstruction of the solvated molecular potential, which is well represented by the Morse form: omega(e) = 211.56 +/- 0.14, omega(e)chi(e) = 0.658 +/- 0.006. Near T = 7 K, the coherence decay rates gamma(v,0) become independent of temperature and show a linear v-dependence, indicative of dissipation, which must be accompanied by the simultaneous creation of at least four phonons. At higher temperatures, the T-dependence is exponential and the v-dependence is quadratic, characteristic of pure dephasing via pseudo-local phonons. A normal mode analysis suggests librations as the principle modes responsible for pure dephasing.

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