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1.
BMC Res Notes ; 14(1): 320, 2021 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34419155

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Peer support is rapidly being introduced into mental health services internationally, yet peer support interventions are often poorly described, limiting the usefulness of research in informing policy and practice. This paper reports the development of a peer support intervention that aims to improve outcomes of discharge from inpatient to community mental health care. People with experiential knowledge of using mental health services-peer workers and service user researchers-were involved in all stages of developing the intervention: generating intervention components; producing the intervention handbook; piloting the intervention. RESULTS: Systematic review and expert panels, including our Lived Experience Advisory Panel, identified 66 candidate intervention components in five domains: Recruitment and Role Description of Peer Workers; Training for Peer Workers; Delivery of Peer Support; Supervision and Support for Peer Workers; Organisation and Team. A series of Local Advisory Groups were used to prioritise components and explore implementation issues using consensus methods, refining an intervention blueprint. A peer support handbook and peer worker training programme were produced by the study team and piloted in two study sites. Feedback workshops were held with peer workers and their supervisors to produce a final handbook and training programme. The ENRICH trial is registered with the ISRCTN clinical trial register, number ISRCTN 10043328, and was overseen by an independent steering committee and a data monitoring committee.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
2.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2021 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate overall and sex-specific excess all-cause mortality since the inception of the COVID-19 pandemic until August 2020 among 22 countries. METHODS: Countries reported weekly or monthly all-cause mortality from January 2015 until the end of June or August 2020. Weekly or monthly COVID-19 deaths were reported for 2020. Excess mortality for 2020 was calculated by comparing weekly or monthly 2020 mortality (observed deaths) against a baseline mortality obtained from 2015-2019 data for the same week or month using two methods: (i) difference in observed mortality rates between 2020 and the 2015-2019 average and (ii) difference between observed and expected 2020 deaths. RESULTS: Brazil, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, the UK (England, Wales, Northern Ireland and Scotland) and the USA demonstrated excess all-cause mortality, whereas Australia, Denmark and Georgia experienced a decrease in all-cause mortality. Israel, Ukraine and Ireland demonstrated sex-specific changes in all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: All-cause mortality up to August 2020 was higher than in previous years in some, but not all, participating countries. Geographical location and seasonality of each country, as well as the prompt application of high-stringency control measures, may explain the observed variability in mortality changes.

4.
J Migr Health ; 4: 100050, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34075367

RESUMO

Introduction: Early evidence confirms lower COVID-19 vaccine uptake in established ethnic minority populations, yet there has been little focus on understanding vaccine hesitancy and barriers to vaccination in migrants. Growing populations of precarious migrants (including undocumented migrants, asylum seekers and refugees) in the UK and Europe are considered to be under-immunised groups and may be excluded from health systems, yet little is known about their views on COVID-19 vaccines specifically, which are essential to identify key solutions and action points to strengthen vaccine roll-out. Methods: We did an in-depth semi-structured qualitative interview study of recently arrived migrants (foreign-born, >18 years old; <10 years in the UK) to the UK with precarious immigration status between September 2020 and March 2021, seeking their input into strategies to strengthen COVID-19 vaccine delivery and uptake. We used the 'Three Cs' model (confidence, complacency and convenience) to explore COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy, barriers and access. Data were analysed using a thematic framework approach. Data collection continued until data saturation was reached, and no novel concepts were arising. The study was approved by the University of London ethics committee (REC 2020.00630). Results: We approached 20 migrant support groups nationwide, recruiting 32 migrants (mean age 37.1 years; 21 [66%] female; mean time in the UK 5.6 years [SD 3.7 years]), including refugees (n = 3), asylum seekers (n = 19), undocumented migrants (n = 8) and migrants with limited leave to remain (n = 2) from 15 different countries (5 WHO regions). 23 (72%) of 32 migrants reported being hesitant about accepting a COVID-19 vaccine and two (6%) would definitely not accept a vaccine. Participants communicated concerns over vaccine content, side-effects, lack of accessible information in an appropriate language, lack of trust in the health system and low perceived need. A range of barriers to accessing the COVID-19 vaccine were reported and concerns expressed that their communities would be excluded from or de-prioritised in the roll-out. Undocumented migrants described fears over being charged and facing immigration checks if they present for a vaccine. Participants (n = 10) interviewed after recent government announcements that COVID-19 vaccines can be accessed without facing immigration checks remained unaware of this. Participants stated that convenience of access would be a key factor in their decision around whether to accept a vaccine and proposed alternative access points to primary care services (for example, walk-in centres in trusted places such as foodbanks, community centres and charities), alongside promoting registration with primary care for all, and working closely with communities to produce accessible information on COVID-19 vaccination. Conclusions: Precarious migrants may be hesitant about accepting a COVID-19 vaccine and face multiple and unique barriers to access, requiring simple but innovative solutions to ensure equitable access and uptake. Vaccine hesitancy and low awareness around entitlement and relevant access points could be easily addressed with clear, accessible, and tailored information campaigns, co-produced and delivered by trusted sources within marginalised migrant communities. These findings have immediate relevance to the COVID-19 vaccination initiatives in the UK and in other European and high-income countries with diverse migrant populations. Funding: NIHR.

5.
J Ment Health ; : 1-7, 2021 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33961753

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that peer support can be helpful for people suffering from psychosis, but there is a lack of research describing peer support in the context of Early Intervention in Psychosis (EIP). AIMS: We aim to investigate the key elements of peer support in EIP and how peer support workers might best be recruited and supported in their work. METHOD: We used purposive sampling to recruit seven participants for semi-structured interviews. Thematic analysis was used to analyse the data. RESULTS: Destigmatisation of psychotic experiences is a central concept that runs through all themes. Participants perceived peer support as a meaningful source of support that could provide benefits to peers (service users) and peer support workers. Themes included a "symbol of hope," "practical support," "mutuality and reciprocity," "bridge between service and peers," "ideal requirements of peer support workers," "delivering peer support," and "team-working and role clarification." CONCLUSIONS: Peer support makes a strong contribution to destigmatising psychosis. Findings potentially contribute to developing peer support workers' roles in EIP. Future research is recommended to investigate the perspectives of ethnic minorities on this topic and practical applications of these findings.

6.
Int J Ment Health Nurs ; 30(4): 955-962, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630402

RESUMO

Psychiatric decision units have been developed in many countries internationally to address the pressure on inpatient services and dissatisfactory, long waits people in mental health crisis can experience in emergency departments. Research into these units lags behind their development, as they are implemented by healthcare providers to address these problems. This is the first-ever national survey to identify their prevalence, structure, activities, and contextual setting within health services, in order to provide a robust basis for future research. The response rate was high (94%), and six PDUs in England were identified. The results indicated that PDUs open 24/7, accept only voluntary patients, provide recliner chairs for sleeping rather than beds, and limit stays to 12-72 hours. PDUs are predominantly staffed by senior, qualified mental health nurses and healthcare assistants, with psychiatry input. Staff:patient ratios are high (1:2.1 during the day shift). Differences in PDU structure and activities (including referral pathway, length of stay, and staff:patient ratios) were identified, suggesting the optimal configuration for PDUs has not yet been established. Further research into the efficacy of this innovation is needed; PDUs potentially have a role in an integrated crisis care pathway which provides a variety of care options to service users.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais , Serviços de Saúde Mental , Enfermagem Psiquiátrica , Inglaterra , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Saúde Mental
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 20(1): 534, 2020 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176729

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Peer support is being introduced into mental health services internationally, often in response to workforce policy. Earlier systematic reviews incorporate different modalities of peer support (i.e. group and one-to-one), offer inconsistent evidence of effectiveness, and also indicate substantial heterogeneity and issues of quality in the evidence base at that time. An updated review, focussed on one-to-one peer support, is timely given current policy interest. This study aims to systematically review evidence for the effectiveness of one-to-one peer support interventions for adults using mental health services, and to explore heterogeneity in peer support interventions. METHOD: We searched MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase, CINAHL and Cochrane databases from inception until 13 June 2019. Included studies were assessed for risk of bias, and meta-analyses conducted where multiple trials provided usable data. RESULTS: Twenty-three studies reporting nineteen trials were eligible, providing data from 3329 participants. While seven trials were of low to moderate risk of bias, incomplete reporting of data in many studies suggested bias in the evidence base. Peer support interventions included peer workers in paraclinical roles (e.g. case manager), providing structured behavioural interventions, or more flexible support for recovery. Meta-analyses were conducted for eleven outcomes, with evidence that one-to-one peer support may have a modest positive impact on self-reported recovery and empowerment. There was no impact on clinical symptoms or service use. Analyses of heterogeneity suggest that peer support might improve social network support. CONCLUSIONS: One-to-one peer support in mental health services might impact positively on psychosocial outcomes, but is unlikely to improve clinical outcomes. In order to better inform the introduction of peer support into mental health services, improvement of the evidence base requires complete reporting of outcome data, selection of outcomes that relate to intervention mechanisms, exploration of heterogeneity in the implementation of peer support and focused reviews of specific types of one-to-one peer support. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospero identifier: CRD42015025621 .


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Mental , Adulto , Aconselhamento , Humanos , Grupo Associado , Apoio Social
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(10): e19192, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32150057

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: In the period shortly after discharge from inpatient to community mental health care, people are at increased risk of self-harm, suicide, and readmission to hospital. Discharge interventions including peer support have shown potential, and there is some evidence that community-based peer support reduces readmissions. However, systematic reviews of peer support in mental health services indicate poor trial quality and a lack of reporting of how peer support is distinctive from other mental health support. This study is designed to establish the clinical and cost effectiveness of a peer worker intervention to support discharge from inpatient to community mental health care, and to address issues of trial quality and clarity of reporting of peer support interventions. METHODS: This protocol describes an individually randomized controlled superiority trial, hypothesizing that people offered a peer worker discharge intervention in addition to usual follow-up care in the community are less likely to be readmitted in the 12 months post discharge than people receiving usual care alone. A total of 590 people will be recruited shortly before discharge from hospital and randomly allocated to care as usual plus the peer worker intervention or care as usual alone. Manualized peer support provided by trained peer workers begins in hospital and continues for 4 months in the community post discharge. Secondary psychosocial outcomes are assessed at 4 months post discharge, and service use and cost outcomes at 12 months post discharge, alongside a mixed methods process evaluation. DISCUSSION: Clearly specified procedures for sequencing participant allocation and for blinding assessors to allocation, plus full reporting of outcomes, should reduce risk of bias in trial findings and contribute to improved quality in the peer support evidence base. The involvement of members of the study team with direct experience of peer support, mental distress, and using mental health services, in coproducing the intervention and designing the trial, ensures that we theorize and clearly describe the peer worker intervention, and evaluate how peer support is related to any change in outcome. This is an important methodological contribution to the evidence base. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was prospectively registered as ISRCTN 10043328 on November 28, 2016.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Alta do Paciente , Transferência de Pacientes/economia , Grupo Associado , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Fatores de Risco , Medicina Estatal , Reino Unido
9.
BJPsych Bull ; : 221-227, 2019 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898178

RESUMO

Aims and methodWe evaluated routine use, acceptability and response rates for the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), Generalised Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) and Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-Being Scale (SWEMWBS) within adult community mental health teams. Measures were repeated 3 months later. Professionals recorded the setting, refusal rates and cluster diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 245 patients completed 674 measures, demonstrating good initial return rates (81%), excellent scale completion (98-99%) and infrequent refusal/unsuitability (11%). Only 32 (13%) returned follow-up measures. Significant improvements occurred in functioning (P = 0.01), PHQ-9 (P = 0.02) and GAD-7 (P = 0.003) scores (Cohen's d = 0.52-0.77) but not in SWEMWBS (P = 0.91) scores. Supercluster A had higher initial PHQ-9 and GAD-7 scores (P < 0.001) and lower SWEMWBS scores (P = 0.003) than supercluster B. Supercluster C showed the greatest functional impairment (P = 0.003).Clinical implicationsPHQ-9 and GAD-7 appear acceptable as patient-reported outcome measures in community mental health team. SWEMWBS seems insensitive to change. National outcome programmes should ensure good follow-up rates.Declaration of interestNone.

10.
Front Sociol ; 4: 21, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33869347

RESUMO

In the light of the declaration "Nothing about us without us" (Charlton, 2000), interest in co-production, and coproduced research is expanding. Good work has been done establishing principles for co-production (Hickey et al., 2018) and for good quality involvement (Involve, 2013; 4Pi, 2015) and describing how this works in practice in mental health research (Gillard et al., 2012a,b, 2013). In the published literature, co-production has worked well in qualitative research projects in which there is often methodological flexibility. However, to change treatment guidelines in the UK, e.g., the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines, and influence service commissioning, high quality quantitative research is also needed. This type of research is characterized by formal methodological rules, which pose challenges for the scope of co-production. In this paper we describe the significant challenges and solutions we adopted to design and deliver a coproduced randomized controlled trial of mental health peer support. Given the methodological rigidity of a randomized controlled trial, establishing clearly which methodological and practical decisions and processes can be coproduced, by whom, and how, has been vital to our ongoing co-production as the project has progressed and the team has expanded. Creating and maintaining space for the supported dialogue, reflection, and culture that co-production requires has been vital. This paper aims to make our learning accessible to a wide audience of people developing co-production of knowledge in this field.

11.
PLoS One ; 11(6): e0157199, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27249413

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144623.].

12.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0156120, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27191956

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0144623.].

13.
PLoS One ; 10(12): e0144623, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26657793

RESUMO

UNLABELLED: Few studies have examined therapist effects and therapeutic alliance (TA) in treatments for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Therapist effects are the differences in outcomes achieved by different therapists. TA is the quality of the bond and level of agreement regarding the goals and tasks of therapy. Prior research suffers the methodological problem that the allocation of therapist was not randomized, meaning therapist effects may be confounded with selection effects. We used data from a randomized controlled treatment trial of 296 people with CFS. The trial compared pragmatic rehabilitation (PR), a nurse led, home based self-help treatment, a counselling-based treatment called supportive listening (SL), with general practitioner treatment as usual. Therapist allocation was randomized. Primary outcome measures, fatigue and physical functioning were assessed blind to treatment allocation. TA was measured in the PR and SL arms. Regression models allowing for interactions were used to examine relationships between (i) therapist and therapeutic alliance, and (ii) therapist and average treatment effect (the difference in mean outcomes between different treatment conditions). We found no therapist effects. We found no relationship between TA and the average treatment effect of a therapist. One therapist formed stronger alliances when delivering PR compared to when delivering SL (effect size 0.76, SE 0.33, 95% CI 0.11 to 1.41). In these therapies for CFS, TA does not influence symptomatic outcome. The lack of significant therapist effects on outcome may result from the trial's rigorous quality control, or random therapist allocation, eliminating selection effects. Further research is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN74156610.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/terapia , Psicoterapia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Autocuidado , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
Curr Drug Saf ; 6(2): 115-21, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21375477

RESUMO

Although antidepressants are known to produce some adverse mental effects, their full range of psychoactive effects has not been systematically described. It has been suggested that some antidepressants are associated with increased suicidal thoughts and actions, but the issue remains controversial, and the mechanism of association, if any, is unclear. In the current study we examined descriptions of the major psychoactive and physical effects experienced by users of two commonly used antidepressants, fluoxetine and venlafaxine, as reported on a patient-oriented web site. We categorised responses into common psychoactive effects and explored associations among those effects, including reported increases in suicidal ideation. In the 468 descriptions we examined, the most commonly reported drug-induced psychoactive effects were sedation, impaired cognition, reduced libido, emotional blunting, activation (feelings of arousal, insomnia and agitation) and emotional instability. There were no differences between the two drugs in the prevalence of reporting of these effects. Activation effects were associated with involuntary movements, suggesting a physical basis. Emotional blunting was associated with cognitive impairment, reduced libido and sedation. Emotional instability, which included the reported side effects of increased anxiety, anger, aggression and mood swings, was related to activation effects and was more commonly reported by younger respondents. Increased suicidal thoughts were rare but were associated with both types of emotional effect. The effects identified are consistent with other data, and suggest that some antidepressants may induce emotional effects that are experienced as unpleasant, may impact on the symptoms of mental disorders, and may account for the suggested occurrence of increased suicidal impulses in some users.


Assuntos
Antidepressivos de Segunda Geração/efeitos adversos , Cicloexanóis/efeitos adversos , Fluoxetina/efeitos adversos , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Cloridrato de Venlafaxina , Adulto Jovem
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