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3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspirin (ASA) anti-platelet therapy is mandated with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) to prevent hemocompatibility-related adverse events (HRAEs). However, the optimal dose of ASA with HeartMate 3 (HM3) LVAD is unknown. METHODS: In an exploratory analysis of HM3-supported patients in the MOMENTUM 3 study (NCT02224755), 2 groups were analyzed: usual-dose (325 mg) and low-dose (81 mg) ASA with anti-coagulation targeted to an international normalized ratio of 2.0 to 3.0. Exclusion criteria included patients not receiving either ASA 81 mg or 325 mg, those with HRAEs ≤7 days after device implantation, and those receiving >1 anti-platelet agent. The primary end-point was survival free from HRAEs (non-surgical bleeding, pump thrombosis, stroke, and peripheral arterial thromboembolic events) at 2 years. RESULTS: Overall, 321 HM3 patients (usual-dose: n = 141, low-dose: n = 180) were included in this analysis. Usual-dose group patients were younger (57 ± 13 vs 60 ± 12 years, p = 0.035) and less often assigned destination therapy (55% vs 67%, p = 0.029) than low-dose ASA. At 2 years, a similar proportion of patients in the usual- and low-dose groups (43.4% vs 45.3%, p = 0.94) met the primary end-point. There were no differences in survival free from hemorrhagic (usual-dose: 54.4% vs low-dose: 51.7%, p = 0.42) or thrombotic (usual-dose: 76.8% vs low-dose: 75.7%, p = 0.92) events. CONCLUSIONS: Usual- and low-dose ASA revealed similar rates of bleeding and thrombotic events in HM3 LVAD-supported patients within the MOMENTUM 3 trial. Whether ASA therapy provides any meaningful therapeutic effect in patients treated by the HM3 LVAD remains to be determined.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276809

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a randomized controlled trial (MOMENTUM 3), the HeartMate 3 (HM3) fully magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) demonstrated superiority over the HeartMate II (HMII) axial-flow LVAD. These findings were driven by hemocompatibility-related outcomes, but infection-related outcomes were not altered by device choice. In this trial-level analysis, we analyzed the clinical patterns of infection-related outcomes over 2 years of support. METHODS: In MOMENTUM 3, 1,020 patients were implanted with either the HM3 (n = 515) or HMII (n = 505) pump. Clinical characteristics and morbidity- and mortality-related outcomes were evaluated to identify predictors associated with major infectious complications, using univariable and multivariable models. RESULTS: The cumulative number of infections at 2 years was 1,213 (634 HM3 and 579 HMII), and major infection occurred in 58% of patients with the HM3 and 56% of patients with the HMII (p = 0.57). Infections of a local nature unrelated to pump components were most common (n = 681/1,213; 56%), followed by driveline-associated infection (n = 329/1,213; 27%), sepsis (n = 194/1,213; 16%), and other events (n = 9/1,213; 0.7%). Bacterial pathogens were implicated in 806 of 1,213 events (66%); significant predictors of infection included sex (women vs men; hazard ratio [HR]: 1.38, p = 0.003), pre-implant use of intra-aortic balloon pump (HR: 1.33, p = 0.02), pre-implant history of cardiac surgery (HR: 1.28, p = 0.01), and body mass index ≥ 30 (HR: 1.40, p < 0.0001). Most deaths in those with infection occurred owing to non-infectious causes. CONCLUSION: Infection is the most common adverse effect in patients implanted with contemporary continuous-flow LVADs, with most such events unrelated to the pump or its peripheral components. Whether chronic mechanical circulatory devices confer an immunomodulatory effect pre-disposing to infection warrants closer scrutiny to understand and ameliorate this morbidity.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitral regurgitation (MR) determines pathophysiology and outcome in advanced heart failure. The impact of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) placement on clinically significant MR and its contribution to long-term outcomes has been sparsely evaluated. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of clinically significant MR on patients implanted in the MOMENTUM 3 trial with either the HeartMate II (HMII) or the HeartMate 3 (HM3) at 2 years. Clinical significance was defined as moderate or severe grade MR determined by site-based echocardiograms. RESULTS: Of 927 patients with LVAD implants without a prior or concomitant mitral valve procedure, 403 (43.5%) had clinically significant MR at baseline. At 1-month of support, residual MR was present in 6.2% of patients with HM3 and 14.3% of patients with HMII (relative risk = 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.84; p = 0.01) with a low rate of worsening at 2 years. Residual MR at 1-month post-implant did not impact 2-year mortality for either the HM3 (hazard ratio [HR],1.41; 95% CI, 0.52-3.89; p = 0.50) or HMII (HR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.37-2.26; p = 0.84) LVAD. The presence or absence of baseline MR did not influence mortality (HM3 HR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.56-1.33; p = 0.50; HMII HR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.54-1.22; p = 0.32), major adverse events or functional capacity. In multivariate analysis, severe baseline MR (p = 0.001), larger left ventricular dimension (p = 0.002), and implantation with the HMII instead of the HM3 LVAD (p = 0.05) were independently associated with an increased likelihood of persistent MR post-implant. CONCLUSIONS: Hemodynamic unloading after LVAD implantation improves clinically significant MR early, sustainably, and to a greater extent with the HM3 LVAD. Neither baseline nor residual MR influence outcomes after LVAD implantation.

6.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 109(3): 649-660, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115073

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The field of mechanical circulatory support has been impacted by the approval of new continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and changes to the United States heart allocation system. METHODS: Primary isolated continuous-flow LVAD implants in The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Intermacs registry from January 2014 through September 2019 were evaluated. Survival and freedom from major adverse events were compared between axial-flow, centrifugal-flow with hybrid levitation (CF-HL), and centrifugal-flow with full magnetic levitation (CF-FML) devices. RESULTS: Of 2603 devices implanted in 2014, 1824 (70.1%) were axial flow and 1213 (46.6%) were destination therapy (DT); through September 2019, 1752 devices were implanted, but only 37 (2.1%) were axial flow and 1230 (70.2%) were DT. Implants were performed in 13,016 patients between 2014 and 2018. Patients receiving implants in 2017-2018 compared with 2014-2016 were more likely to be at Intermacs profile 1 (17.1% vs 14.3%, P < .001) and to have preimplant temporary mechanical circulatory support (34.8% vs 29.3%, P < .001). Overall survival and freedom from major adverse events were higher with CF-FML devices. In multivariable analysis of survival between CF-HL and CF-FML, device type was not a significant early hazard, but the use of CF-HL devices had a late hazard ratio for death of 3.01 (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 5 years, centrifugal-flow LVADs have become the dominant technology and DT the most common implant strategy. While outcomes with CF-FML devices are promising, comparisons with other devices from nonrandomized registry studies should be made with caution.


Assuntos
Coração Auxiliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Transplante de Coração/mortalidade , Transplante de Coração/estatística & dados numéricos , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Coração Auxiliar/tendências , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Readmissão do Paciente , Desenho de Prótese , Alocação de Recursos/métodos , Alocação de Recursos/estatística & dados numéricos , Sociedades Médicas , Cirurgia Torácica , Estados Unidos , Listas de Espera
7.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(4): 342-352, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32029401

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with cardiogenic shock (CS) needing temporary circulatory support (TCS) have poor survival rates after implantation of durable ventricular assist device (dVAD). We aimed to characterize post-dVAD adverse event burden and survival rates in patients requiring pre-operative TCS. METHOD: We analyzed 13,511 adults (Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support [INTERMACS] Profiles 1-3) with continuous-flow dVADs in International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (2013-2017) according to the need for pre-operative TCS (n = 5,632) vs no TCS (n = 7,879). Of these, 726 (5.4%) had biventricular assist devices (BiVAD). Furthermore, we compared prevalent rates (events/100 patient-months) of bleeding, device-related infection, hemorrhagic and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents (hemorrhagic cerebral vascular accident [hCVA], and ischemic cerebral vascular accident [iCVA]) in early (<3 months) and late (≥3 months) post-operative periods. RESULTS: TCS included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (n = 1,138), intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) (n = 3,901), and other TCS (n = 593). Within 3 post-operative months, there were more major bleeding and cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs) in patients with pre-operative ECMO (events/100 patient-months rates: bleeding = 19, hCVA = 1.6, iCVA = 2.8) or IABP (bleeding = 17.3, hCVA = 1.5, iCVA = 1.5) vs no TCS (bleeding = 13.2, hCVA = 1.1, iCVA = 1.2, all p < 0.05). After 3 months, adverse events were lower and similar in all groups. Patients with ECMO had the worst short- and long-term survival rates. Patients with BiVAD had the worst survival rate regardless of need for pre-operative TCS. CVA and multiorgan failures were the common causes of death for patients with TCS and patients without TCS. CONCLUSIONS: Patients requiring TCS before dVAD had a sicker phenotype and higher rates of early post-operative adverse events than patients without TCS. ECMO was associated with very high early ischemic stroke, bleeding, and mortality. The extreme CS phenotype needing ECMO warrants a higher-level profile status, such as INTERMACS "0."

10.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939996

RESUMO

Importance: Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are well established in the treatment of advanced heart failure, but it is unclear whether outcomes are different based on the intended goal of therapy in patients who are eligible vs ineligible for heart transplant. Objective: To determine whether clinical outcomes in the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3 (MOMENTUM 3) trial differed by preoperative categories of bridge to transplant (BTT) or bridge to transplant candidacy (BTC) vs destination therapy (DT). Design, Setting, and Participants: This study was a prespecified secondary analysis of the MOMENTUM 3 trial, a multicenter randomized clinical trial comparing the magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow HeartMate 3 (HM3) LVAD to the axial-flow HeartMate II (HMII) pump. It was conducted in 69 centers with expertise in managing patients with advanced heart failure in the United States. Patients with advanced heart failure were randomized to an LVAD, irrespective of the intended goal of therapy (BTT/BTC or DT). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was survival free of disabling stroke or reoperation to remove or replace a malfunctioning device at 2 years. Secondary end points included adverse events, functional status, and quality of life. Results: Of the 1020 patients with implants (515 with HM3 devices [50.5%] and 505 with HMII devices [49.5%]), 396 (38.8%) were in the BTT/BTC group (mean [SD] age, 55 [12] years; 310 men [78.3%]) and 624 (61.2%) in the DT group (mean [SD] age, 63 [12] years; 513 men [82.2%]). Of the patients initially deemed as transplant ineligible, 84 of 624 patients (13.5%) underwent heart transplant within 2 years of LVAD implant. In the primary end point analysis, HM3 use was superior to HMII use in patients in the BTT/BTC group (76.8% vs 67.3% for survival free of disabling stroke and reoperation; hazard ratio, 0.62 [95% CI, 0.40-0.94]; log-rank P = .02) and patients in the DT group (73.2% vs 58.7%; hazard ratio, 0.61 [95% CI, 0.46-0.81]; log-rank P < .001). For patients in both BTT/BTC and DT groups, there were not significantly different reductions in rates of pump thrombosis, stroke, and gastrointestinal bleeding with HM3 use relative to HMII use. Improvements in quality of life and functional capacity for either pump were not significantly different regardless of preimplant strategy. Conclusions and Relevance: In this trial, the superior treatment effect of HM3 over HMII was similar for patients in the BTT/BTC or DT groups. It is possible that use of arbitrary categorizations based on current or future transplant eligibility should be clinically abandoned in favor of a single preimplant strategy: to extend the survival and improve the quality of life of patients with medically refractory heart failure. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02224755.

11.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 159(3): 865-896, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983522
12.
ASAIO J ; 66(3): 277-282, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973402

RESUMO

Fibrinogen is a clotting factor and a major determinant of platelet aggregation. Albumin, on the other hand, inhibits platelet function and thrombus formation. Taken together, an elevated fibrinogen albumin ratio (FAR) has been described as a marker of disease severity during prothrombotic conditions. We evaluated the association of FAR and ischemic stroke during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) support. A single center, retrospective study was performed including all adult patients placed on VA ECMO. FAR was calculated from fibrinogen and albumin measurements in the first 24 hours of VA-ECMO initiation. Patients were categorized into high (≥125) and low (<125) FAR groups and the risk of eventual ischemic stroke was determined. There were 201 patients who underwent VA ECMO placement and 157 had a FAR. They were 56 ± 14 years old and 66 (42%) had a high FAR. Patients with a high FAR had lower survival free from an ischemic stroke during VA ECMO (log rank p < 0.001; adjusted hazard ratio 5.51; 95% CI: 1.8-16.5). In tertile analysis, the level of FAR was associated with an incrementally higher likelihood of eventual ischemic stroke (log rank p = 0.004). Those with a high FAR had greater mean platelet volume (10.8[10.4-12] vs. 10.5[10.2-11.9]fl, p = 0.004). An elevated FAR during the first 24 hours of VA ECMO placement is associated with a greater risk of a subsequent ischemic stroke. Our findings suggest that assessment of FAR soon after VA ECMO placement may assist with early stratification of patients at risk for an ischemic stroke.

13.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 39(2): 145-156, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866174

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced heart failure and cardiogenic shock (CS) often require temporary circulatory support (TCS) as a bridge to durable ventricular assist devices (dVADs). We aim to characterize longitudinal outcomes of patients with and without CS. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2017, 13,813 adult patients classified as Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (INTERMACS) Profiles 1 to 3 with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices or biventricular assist devices were registered into the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support. Patients were sub-grouped according to support type (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation [ECMO], intra-aortic balloon pump [IABP], and other TCS). Other TCS included all other surgical and percutaneous TCS devices. Estimated survival was compared based on need for pre-operative TCS and by profile. RESULTS: Pre-operative TCS was used in 5,632 (41%) cases. Of these, ECMO was used in 1,138 (20%) cases, IABP in 3,901 (69%) cases, and other TCS in 595 (11%) cases. Patients requiring ECMO had greater needs for biventricular support after dVAD (22% ECMO, 5% IABP, and 7% other TCS; p < 0.001) with longer post-implant intensive care stays (ECMO 24 days, IABP 14 days, and other TCS 12 days; p < 0.001). INTERMACS Profile 1 to 3 patients with pre-implant ECMO had the lowest longitudinal survival (82% at 1 month and 44% at 48 months) compared with IABP (93% at 1 month and 51% at 48 months), other TCS (92% at 1 month and 52% at 48 months), and non-TCS (95% at 1 months and 55 % at 48 months) (p < 0.0001). Propensity score matching analysis of the pre-implant ECMO INTERMACS Profile 1 group when compared with alternative pre-implant TCS strategies had an associated higher hazard impacting early phase survival vs other TCS (hazard ratio, 1.80; p < 0.01) and IABP (hazard ratio, 1.65; p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In advanced heart failure with patients with CS, the use of ECMO before dVAD was associated with lower longitudinal survival and increased utilization of biventricular support compared with alternative TCS strategies. Research focused on longitudinal profiling in CS and pre-implant TCS is warranted to further understand these differences.

14.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 2019 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816283

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The impact of different types of regional wall motion abnormalities(RWMAs) including Takotsubo-syndrome like(TTS-like) phenotype, on post-transplant outcomes when using donor hearts with transient left ventricular systolic dysfunction(LVSD) is unknown. We evaluated the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and prognostic association of different RWMAs including TTS-like hypokinesis, and post-transplant outcomes when using donor hearts with transient LVSD. METHODS: From all the adult(≥18 years) heart transplants in UNOS between January-2007 and September-2015, we identified 472 donor hearts with improving or transient LVSD- defined as LVEF≤40% on initial trans-thoracic echocardiogram(TTE) that improved to ≥50% on follow up TTE during donor evaluation. These improved LVSD donors were then sub-divided into 3 groups based on RWMAs on the initial TTE: TTS-like 49(10.38%), non-TTS RWMAs 74(15.68%) and diffuse global-hypokinesis(GH) 349(73.94%); and compared for baseline characteristics and post-transplant outcomes with follow up until June-2018. RESULTS: Donors with TTS-like LVSD were older and more likely to be female. The type of RWMA on initial TTE (including TTS-like) of transient LVSD donor hearts was not associated with 1-year or 5-year post-transplant mortality. Post-transplant functional status scores of recipients (at 1 year) and donor LVEF (at median follow up of 3.6 years) improved in all 3 sub-groups. Rates of stroke or pacemaker pre-discharge were also similar. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest analysis of transplanted donor hearts with transient LVSD, 1 in 4 had RWMAs on the initial TTE; but this was not associated with adverse post-transplant outcomes. Donor hearts with initial LVSD should be pursued irrespective of TTS-like hypokinesis or other RWMAs.

15.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(9): 907-917, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495408

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) donors should be categorized as HCV-viremic (antibody [Ab] negative or positive/Nucleic Acid testing [NAT] positive) or HCV Ab+nonviremic (Ab+/NAT-). Whereas recipients of hearts from HCV-viremic donors will develop viremia but can be cured of HCV shortly after transplant with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), recipients of hearts from HCV Ab+ nonviremic donors are highly unlikely to become viremic or require DAAs. Given this important difference in risk, we assessed the utilization trends and post-heart-transplantation outcomes of HCV-naive (Ab-/NAT-), HCV-viremic, and HCV Ab+ nonviremic donor hearts. METHODS: A total of 26,572 adult donors (≥18 years) with information on HCV Ab and NAT status were identified in the United Network for Organ Sharing registry between August 2015 and June 2018 for utilization rates. Adult heart transplant recipients of these donors were compared for primary graft failure (PGF) at 90 days and 1-year recipient survival. RESULTS: A total of 96 HCV Ab+ nonviremic and 135 HCV-viremic adult donor hearts were transplanted during the study period. The utilization rates of both HCV Ab+ nonviremic (1.4%-23.4%) and HCV-viremic (0.7%-25.4%) donor hearts increased significantly approaching HCV-naive rates (29.04%). There was no significant difference in rates of PGF and 1-year survival between recipients in the 3 donor HCV groups. We also used (1:3) propensity score matching and found similar 1-year survival in different donor HCV groups (HCV-naive vs HCV Ab+ nonviremic, p = 0.59, and HCV-naive vs HCV-viremic, p = 0.98). CONCLUSIONS: Recipients of HCV-viremic and HCV Ab+ nonviremic donor hearts had equivalent risk of PGF and 1-year mortality compared with recipients of HCV-naive donor hearts. Although only HCV-viremic organs require DAAs and the risk of coronary artery vasculopathy after treated HCV infection has not been defined, the utilization rates of both HCV Ab+ nonviremic and HCV-viremic adult donor hearts have increased at an equal pace now approaching HCV-naive rates.

17.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(8): 806-816, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increased shear stress conferred upon the circulation by continuous-flow pumps is associated with hemocompatibility-related adverse events, principally bleeding within the gastrointestinal system, and linked to the degradation of high-molecular-weight multimers (HMWMs) of von Willebrand factor (vWF). We evaluated the structure and functional characteristics of vWF HMWMs in patients with the fully magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow HeartMate 3 (HM3) and the continuous axial-flow HeartMate II (HMII) pump. Findings were correlated with bleeding events. METHODS: In a prospective, multicenter, comparative cohort study, 60 patients from the Multicenter Study of MagLev Technology in Patients Undergoing Mechanical Circulatory Support Therapy With HeartMate 3 Continued Access Protocol (NCT02892955) with an HM3 pump were compared with 30 randomly selected HMII patients from the PREVENtion of HeartMate II Pump Thrombosis study (NCT02158403) biobank. The primary end point was the difference in the normalized vWF HMWM ratio (ratio of the HMWMs to the intermediate- and low-molecular-weight multimers, normalized to pooled plasma from healthy volunteers) between the HM3 and the HMII pump at 90 days after implantation. Assay tests for vWF activity, vWF antigen, vWF activity to antigen ratio, coagulation factor VIII activity, and ADAMTS13 activity were measured by using standard protocols. Differences in these markers were compared in the context of clinical characteristics and correlated with adjudicated bleeding events within the HM3 group. RESULTS: Of 51 and 29 evaluable patients in the HM3 and HMII arms, respectively, those implanted with the HM3 pump exhibited greater preservation of the vWF HMWM ratio than those with the HMII pump at 90 days after implantation (54.1% vs 42.4%, p < 0.0001). Laboratory values for all vWF assays (antigen, activity, and coagulation factor VIII activity) remained within the normal functional range with no significant differences observed between the pumps at 90 days after implantation. At baseline, there was a decrease in the structural integrity of vWF HMWMs that correlated with increasing heart failure severity as measured by the Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profile. Multivariable modeling identified the HM3 pump as the only independent variable that determined post-implantation preservation of the structural integrity of vWF HMWMs. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective, multicenter comparative analysis study demonstrates that the fully magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow HM3 left ventricular assist device is associated with greater preservation of the structure of vWF HMWMs than the HMII mechanical bearing axial-flow pump.

18.
J Heart Lung Transplant ; 38(4): 352-363, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30945637

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The IMACS Registry compiles and analyzes worldwide data from patients undergoing implantation of durable left ventricular assist devices. METHODS: Data encompassing 16,286 LVAD recipients from 4 collectives and 24 individual hospitals was collected and analyzed. In this 3rd annual report we compare and contrast outcomes, adverse events and risks factors between axial flow and centrifugal flow device recipients. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the baseline characteristics of axial vs centrifugal flow LVAD recipients. Survival was similar between pump types. INTERMACS profile 1-3 constitute 85% of implants. A survival gap persists in destination therapy compared to bridge patients. RVAD need and delay impact survival dramatically. Centrifugal flow outperforms axial flow recipients in regards to GI bleeding and freedom from hemocompatibility related adverse events. No significant difference in the actuarial freedom from all strokes or either stroke subtype (hemorrhagic or ischemic) was seen among the two types of pumps. New end points to guide decision making are proposed. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a transition from axial to centrifugal flow with four-year survival that approximates 60%. A high frequency of adverse events remains an impediment to the wider adoption of these technologies. In the future, composite study endpoints examining life quality and adverse events beyond survival may help in shared decision making prior to MCS implant, and may provide the requisite data to support extension of MCS therapy into the lesser ill heart failure population.

19.
Ann Thorac Surg ; 108(3): 756-763, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30980824

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hemolysis, even at low levels, activates platelets to create a prothrombotic state and is common during mechanical circulatory support. We examined the association of low-level hemolysis (LLH) and nonhemorrhagic stroke during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) support. METHODS: A single-center retrospective review of all adult patients placed on VA ECMO from January 2012 to September 2017 was conducted. To determine the association between LLH and nonhemorrhagic stroke, patients were categorized as those with and without LLH. LLH was defined by 48-hour plasma free hemoglobin (PFHb) of 11 to 50 mg/dL after VA ECMO implantation. RESULTS: Of 201 patients who underwent VA ECMO placement, 150 (75%) met inclusion criteria and comprised the study population. They were 55 ± 14 years of age and 50 (33%) were women. Sixty-two (41%) patients had LLH. Patients with LLH had a higher likelihood of incident nonhemorrhagic stroke during VA ECMO support (20 [32%] versus 4 [5%]; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 7.6; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2 to 25.9; p = 0.001). The severity of LLH was associated with an incrementally higher likelihood of a nonhemorrhagic stroke (PFHb 26 to 50 mg/dL: HR, 11.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 35.1; p = 0.001; PFHb 11 to 25 mg/dL: HR, 4.4; 95% CI, 1.36 to 14.85; p = 0.014) in comparison with no LLH. Those with LLH had a 2-fold greater increase in mean platelet volume after VA ECMO placement (0.98 ± 1.1 fL versus 0.49 ± 0.96 fL; p = 0.03). Patients with a nonhemorrhagic stroke had a higher operative mortality (20 [83%] versus 57 [45%]; adjusted HR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.8 to 5.3; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Hemolysis at low levels during VA ECMO support is associated with subsequent nonhemorrhagic stroke.


Assuntos
Causas de Morte , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/efeitos adversos , Hemólise , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , California , Estudos de Coortes , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/métodos , Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
20.
N Engl J Med ; 380(17): 1618-1627, 2019 04 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30883052

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In two interim analyses of this trial, patients with advanced heart failure who were treated with a fully magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist device were less likely to have pump thrombosis or nondisabling stroke than were patients treated with a mechanical-bearing axial-flow left ventricular assist device. METHODS: We randomly assigned patients with advanced heart failure to receive either the centrifugal-flow pump or the axial-flow pump irrespective of the intended goal of use (bridge to transplantation or destination therapy). The composite primary end point was survival at 2 years free of disabling stroke or reoperation to replace or remove a malfunctioning device. The principal secondary end point was pump replacement at 2 years. RESULTS: This final analysis included 1028 enrolled patients: 516 in the centrifugal-flow pump group and 512 in the axial-flow pump group. In the analysis of the primary end point, 397 patients (76.9%) in the centrifugal-flow pump group, as compared with 332 (64.8%) in the axial-flow pump group, remained alive and free of disabling stroke or reoperation to replace or remove a malfunctioning device at 2 years (relative risk, 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 0.91; P<0.001 for superiority). Pump replacement was less common in the centrifugal-flow pump group than in the axial-flow pump group (12 patients [2.3%] vs. 57 patients [11.3%]; relative risk, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.38; P<0.001). The numbers of events per patient-year for stroke of any severity, major bleeding, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage were lower in the centrifugal-flow pump group than in the axial-flow pump group. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with advanced heart failure, a fully magnetically levitated centrifugal-flow left ventricular assist device was associated with less frequent need for pump replacement than an axial-flow device and was superior with respect to survival free of disabling stroke or reoperation to replace or remove a malfunctioning device. (Funded by Abbott; MOMENTUM 3 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02224755.).


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Coração Auxiliar , Desenho de Prótese , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Coração Auxiliar/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Análise de Intenção de Tratamento , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Falha de Prótese , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
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