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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1008, 2019 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31705601

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sudden death in children is a tragic event that often remains unexplained after comprehensive investigation. We report two asymptomatic siblings who died unexpectedly at approximately 1 year of age found to have biallelic (compound heterozygous) variants in PPA2. METHODS: The index case, parents, and sister were enrolled in the Sudden Unexplained Death in Childhood Registry and Research Collaborative, which included next-generation genetic screening. Prior published cases of PPA2 variants, along with the known biology of PPA2, were also summarized. RESULTS: Whole exome sequencing in both siblings revealed biallelic rare missense variants in PPA2: c.182C > T (p.Ser61Phe) and c.380G > T (p.Arg127Leu). PPA2 encodes a mitochondrially located inorganic pyrophosphatase implicated in progressive and lethal cardiomyopathies. As a regulator and supplier of inorganic phosphate, PPA2 is central to phosphate metabolism. Biological roles include the following: mtDNA maintenance; oxidative phosphorylation and generation of ATP; reactive oxygen species homeostasis; mitochondrial membrane potential regulation; and possibly, retrograde signaling between mitochondria and nucleus. CONCLUSIONS: Two healthy and asymptomatic sisters died unexpectedly at ages 12 and 10 months, and were diagnosed by molecular autopsy to carry biallelic variants in PPA2. Our cases add additional details to those reported thus far, and broaden the spectrum of clinical and molecular features of PPA2 variants.

2.
Nat Rev Genet ; 2019 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31605095

RESUMO

The first phase of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) assessed the role of common variation in human disease. Advances optimizing and economizing high-throughput sequencing have enabled a second phase of association studies that assess the contribution of rare variation to complex disease in all protein-coding genes. Unlike the early microarray-based studies, sequencing-based studies catalogue the full range of genetic variation, including the evolutionarily youngest forms. Although the experience with common variants helped establish relevant standards for genome-wide studies, the analysis of rare variation introduces several challenges that require novel analysis approaches.

3.
Ophthalmic Genet ; 40(4): 369-375, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576780

RESUMO

Background: The extensive phenotypic heterogeneity of monogenic diseases can be largely traced to intragenic variation; however, recent advances in clinical detection and gene sequencing have uncovered the emerging role of non-allelic variation (i.e. genetic trans-modifiers) in shaping disease phenotypes. Identifying these associations are not only of significant diagnostic value, but also provides scientific insight into the expanded molecular etiology of rare diseases. This reports describes the discordant clinical manifestation of a family segregating mutations in ABCA4 and PROM1. Methods: Three patients across a two generation family underwent multimodal imaging and functional testing of the retina including color photography, fundus autofluorescence (AF), spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and full-field electroretinography (ffERG). Genetic characterization was carried out by direct Sanger and whole exome sequencing. Results: Clinical examination revealed similar retinal degenerative phenotypes in the proband and her mother. Despite being younger, the proband's phenotype was more advanced and exhibited additional features related to Stargardt disease not found in the mother. Whole exome sequencing identified a pathogenic missense variant in PROM1, c.400C > T, p.(Arg134Cys), as the underlying cause of retinal disease in both the proband and mother. Sequencing of the ABCA4 locus uncovered a single disease-causing variant, c.5714 + 5G > A in the daughter segregating from the father who, surprisingly, also exhibited very subtle disease changes associated with STGD1 despite being a heterozygous carrier. Conclusions: Harboring an additional heterozygous ABCA4 mutation increases severity and confers STGD1-like features in patients with PROM1 disease which provides supporting evidence for their shared pathophysiology and potential treatment prospects.

4.
Nat Med ; 25(10): 1477-1487, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31548702

RESUMO

De novo and inherited rare genetic disorders (RGDs) are a major cause of human morbidity, frequently involving neuropsychiatric symptoms. Recent advances in genomic technologies and data sharing have revolutionized the identification and diagnosis of RGDs, presenting an opportunity to elucidate the mechanisms underlying neuropsychiatric disorders by investigating the pathophysiology of high-penetrance genetic risk factors. Here we seek out the best path forward for achieving these goals. We think future research will require consistent approaches across multiple RGDs and developmental stages, involving both the characterization of shared neuropsychiatric dimensions in humans and the identification of neurobiological commonalities in model systems. A coordinated and concerted effort across patients, families, researchers, clinicians and institutions, including rapid and broad sharing of data, is now needed to translate these discoveries into urgently needed therapies.

5.
N Engl J Med ; 381(7): 668-676, 2019 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412182

RESUMO

Knowledge gained from observational cohort studies has dramatically advanced the prevention and treatment of diseases. Many of these cohorts, however, are small, lack diversity, or do not provide comprehensive phenotype data. The All of Us Research Program plans to enroll a diverse group of at least 1 million persons in the United States in order to accelerate biomedical research and improve health. The program aims to make the research results accessible to participants, and it is developing new approaches to generate, access, and make data broadly available to approved researchers. All of Us opened for enrollment in May 2018 and currently enrolls participants 18 years of age or older from a network of more than 340 recruitment sites. Elements of the program protocol include health questionnaires, electronic health records (EHRs), physical measurements, the use of digital health technology, and the collection and analysis of biospecimens. As of July 2019, more than 175,000 participants had contributed biospecimens. More than 80% of these participants are from groups that have been historically underrepresented in biomedical research. EHR data on more than 112,000 participants from 34 sites have been collected. The All of Us data repository should permit researchers to take into account individual differences in lifestyle, socioeconomic factors, environment, and biologic characteristics in order to advance precision diagnosis, prevention, and treatment.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Pesquisa Biomédica , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Registros Eletrônicos de Saúde , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Medicina de Precisão , Projetos de Pesquisa , Estados Unidos
6.
Nature ; 571(7763): 107-111, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217582

RESUMO

Large-scale genome sequencing is poised to provide a substantial increase in the rate of discovery of disease-associated mutations, but the functional interpretation of such mutations remains challenging. Here we show that deletions of a sequence on human chromosome 16 that we term the intestine-critical region (ICR) cause intractable congenital diarrhoea in infants1,2. Reporter assays in transgenic mice show that the ICR contains a regulatory sequence that activates transcription during the development of the gastrointestinal system. Targeted deletion of the ICR in mice caused symptoms that recapitulated the human condition. Transcriptome analysis revealed that an unannotated open reading frame (Percc1) flanks the regulatory sequence, and the expression of this gene was lost in the developing gut of mice that lacked the ICR. Percc1-knockout mice displayed phenotypes similar to those observed upon ICR deletion in mice and patients, whereas an ICR-driven Percc1 transgene was sufficient to rescue the phenotypes found in mice that lacked the ICR. Together, our results identify a gene that is critical for intestinal function and underscore the need for targeted in vivo studies to interpret the growing number of clinical genetic findings that do not affect known protein-coding genes.


Assuntos
Diarreia/congênito , Diarreia/genética , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Genes , Intestinos/fisiologia , Deleção de Sequência/genética , Animais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 16/genética , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Genes Reporter , Loci Gênicos/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Ativação Transcricional , Transcriptoma/genética , Transgenes/genética
7.
Ann Neurol ; 86(2): 181-192, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31177578

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recent reports have described single individuals with neurodevelopmental disability (NDD) harboring heterozygous KCNQ3 de novo variants (DNVs). We sought to assess whether pathogenic variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD and to elucidate the associated phenotype and molecular mechanisms. METHODS: Patients with NDD and KCNQ3 DNVs were identified through an international collaboration. Phenotypes were characterized by clinical assessment, review of charts, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and parental interview. Functional consequences of variants were analyzed in vitro by patch-clamp recording. RESULTS: Eleven patients were assessed. They had recurrent heterozygous DNVs in KCNQ3 affecting residues R230 (R230C, R230H, R230S) and R227 (R227Q). All patients exhibited global developmental delay within the first 2 years of life. Most (8/11, 73%) were nonverbal or had a few words only. All patients had autistic features, and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was diagnosed in 5 of 11 (45%). EEGs performed before 10 years of age revealed frequent sleep-activated multifocal epileptiform discharges in 8 of 11 (73%). For 6 of 9 (67%) recorded between 1.5 and 6 years of age, spikes became near-continuous during sleep. Interestingly, most patients (9/11, 82%) did not have seizures, and no patient had seizures in the neonatal period. Voltage-clamp recordings of the mutant KCNQ3 channels revealed gain-of-function (GoF) effects. INTERPRETATION: Specific GoF variants in KCNQ3 cause NDD, ASD, and abundant sleep-activated spikes. This new phenotype contrasts both with self-limited neonatal epilepsy due to KCNQ3 partial loss of function, and with the neonatal or infantile onset epileptic encephalopathies due to KCNQ2 GoF. ANN NEUROL 2019;86:181-192.

8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 30(6): 1109-1122, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085678

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Studies have identified many common genetic associations that influence renal function and all-cause CKD, but these explain only a small fraction of variance in these traits. The contribution of rare variants has not been systematically examined. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing of 3150 individuals, who collectively encompassed diverse CKD subtypes, and 9563 controls. To detect causal genes and evaluate the contribution of rare variants we used collapsing analysis, in which we compared the proportion of cases and controls carrying rare variants per gene. RESULTS: The analyses captured five established monogenic causes of CKD: variants in PKD1, PKD2, and COL4A5 achieved study-wide significance, and we observed suggestive case enrichment for COL4A4 and COL4A3. Beyond known disease-associated genes, collapsing analyses incorporating regional variant intolerance identified suggestive dominant signals in CPT2 and several other candidate genes. Biallelic mutations in CPT2 cause carnitine palmitoyltransferase II deficiency, sometimes associated with rhabdomyolysis and acute renal injury. Genetic modifier analysis among cases with APOL1 risk genotypes identified a suggestive signal in AHDC1, implicated in Xia-Gibbs syndrome, which involves intellectual disability and other features. On the basis of the observed distribution of rare variants, we estimate that a two- to three-fold larger cohort would provide 80% power to implicate new genes for all-cause CKD. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that rare-variant collapsing analyses can validate known genes and identify candidate genes and modifiers for kidney disease. In so doing, these findings provide a motivation for larger-scale investigation of rare-variant risk contributions across major clinical CKD categories.

9.
Genome Res ; 29(5): 809-818, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940688

RESUMO

Large-scale sequencing efforts in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have implicated novel genes using gene-based collapsing methods. However, pathogenic mutations may be concentrated in specific genic regions. To address this, we developed two collapsing strategies: One focuses rare variation collapsing on homology-based protein domains as the unit for collapsing, and the other is a gene-level approach that, unlike standard methods, leverages existing evidence of purifying selection against missense variation on said domains. The application of these two collapsing methods to 3093 ALS cases and 8186 controls of European ancestry, and also 3239 cases and 11,808 controls of diversified populations, pinpoints risk regions of ALS genes, including SOD1, NEK1, TARDBP, and FUS While not clearly implicating novel ALS genes, the new analyses not only pinpoint risk regions in known genes but also highlight candidate genes as well.

10.
Ann Intern Med ; 170(9): 635-642, 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31035290

RESUMO

Medicine has long sought to match diagnostic and treatment approaches to the particular needs and risks of individual patients. The decreasing cost and increasing ease of genetic sequencing have propelled the rise of precision medicine. Precision medicine aims to use genetic and other information to provide care tailored to the individual patient, with the goal of improving clinical outcomes and minimizing unnecessary diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Although developments in genetic sequencing have the potential to transform clinical care, there are important limitations, including uncertainty in the clinical interpretation of many genetic variants and concerns about privacy, discrimination, and cost. To help clinicians understand the basics of genetic sequencing and how to apply it in clinical practice, Annals of Internal Medicine is launching a new "Precision Medicine" series. This introduction provides a general overview of clinical sequencing, with a focus on germline variation. Subsequent articles will use a case-based format to provide concise summaries of specific clinical precision medicine scenarios that are relevant to the practice of internal medicine. These cases will highlight specific clinical indications; interpretation of genetic test results; and ethical, legal, cost, and privacy issues related to genetic testing. The goal is to provide practical information on the appropriate application and interpretation of genomics in routine clinical practice.

11.
Chest ; 156(3): 477-485, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30978332

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is the most common disease indication for lung transplantation. Our recent work implicated an excess of rare genetic variants in the telomere-related genes TERT, RTEL1, and PARN in PF disease risk. The impact of such variants on posttransplant outcomes is uncertain. The objective of this study was to determine if patients with these PF-associated variants have altered rates of posttransplant acute rejection (AR), chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD), and survival. METHODS: The study cohort consisted of 262 PF lung transplant recipients previously genetically characterized by whole exome sequencing. Thirty-one patients (11.8%) had variants in TERT, RTEL1, or PARN, whereas 231 (88.2%) did not. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for relevant clinical variables were used to assess the outcomes of death and CLAD. The AR burden was quantified and compared over the first posttransplant year. RESULTS: Patients with PF with disease-associated variants in TERT, RTEL1, or PARN had a significantly higher risk of death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.07-3.08; P = .03) and CLAD (adjusted HR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.42-5.87; P = .004) than patients without these variants. There was no difference in AR burden or rates of grade 3 primary graft dysfunction between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Rare variants in the telomere-related genes TERT, RTEL1, or PARN are associated with poor posttransplant outcomes among PF lung transplant recipients. Further research is needed to understand the biological mechanisms by which telomere-related variants increase the risk for death and CLAD.

12.
Genet Med ; 21(10): 2336-2344, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926958

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Variants in the ABCA4 gene are causal for a variety of retinal dystrophy phenotypes, including Stargardt disease (STGD1). However, 15% of patients who present with symptoms compatible with STGD1/ABCA4 disease do not have identifiable causal ABCA4 variants. We hypothesized that a case-control collapsing analysis in ABCA4-negative patients with compatible symptoms would provide an objective measure to identify additional disease genes. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide enrichment analysis of "qualifying variants"-ultrarare variants predicted to impact protein function-in protein-coding genes in 79 unrelated cases and 9028 unrelated controls. RESULTS: Despite modest sample size, two known retinal dystrophy genes, PRPH2 and CRX, achieved study-wide significance (p < 1.33 × 10-6) under a dominant disease model, and eight additional known retinal dystrophy genes achieved nominal significance (p < 0.05). Across these ten genes, the excess of qualifying variants explained up to 36.8% of affected individuals. Furthermore, under a recessive model, the cone-rod dystrophy gene CERKL approached study-wide significance. CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that case-control collapsing analyses can efficiently identify pathogenic variants in genes in non-ABCA4 retinal dystrophies. The genome-wide collapsing analysis framework is an objective discovery method particularly suitable in settings with overlapping disease phenotypes.

13.
Lancet ; 393(10173): 758-767, 2019 02 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712878

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of chromosomal aneuploidies and copy number variants that are associated with fetal structural anomalies has substantial value. Although whole-exome sequencing (WES) has been applied to case series of a few selected prenatal cases, its value in routine clinical settings has not been prospectively assessed in a large unselected cohort of fetuses with structural anomalies. We therefore aimed to determine the incremental diagnostic yield (ie, the added value) of WES following uninformative results of standard investigations with karyotype testing and chromosomal microarray in an unselected cohort of sequential pregnancies showing fetal structural anomalies. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, the parents of fetuses who were found to have a structural anomaly in a prenatal ultrasound were screened for possible participation in the study. These participants were predominantly identified in or were referred to the Columbia University Carmen and John Thain Center for Prenatal Pediatrics (New York, NY, USA). Fetuses with confirmed aneuploidy or a causal pathogenic copy number variant were excluded from WES analyses. By use of WES of the fetuses and parents (parent-fetus trios), we identified genetic variants that indicated an underlying cause (diagnostic genetic variants) and genetic variants that met the criteria of bioinformatic signatures that had previously been described to be significantly enriched among diagnostic genetic variants. FINDINGS: Between April 24, 2015, and April 19, 2017, 517 sequentially identified pregnant women found to have fetuses with a structural anomaly were screened for their eligibility for inclusion in our study. 71 (14%) couples declined testing, 87 (17%) trios were missing at least one DNA sample (from either parent or the fetus), 69 (13%) trios had a clinically relevant abnormal karyotype or chromosomal microarray finding, 51 (10%) couples did not consent to WES or withdrew consent, and five (1%) samples were not of good enough quality for analysis. DNA samples from 234 (45%) eligible trios were therefore used for analysis of the primary outcome. By use of trio sequence data, we identified diagnostic genetic variants in 24 (10%) families. Mutations with bioinformatic signatures that were indicative of pathogenicity but with insufficient evidence to be considered diagnostic were also evaluated; 46 (20%) of the 234 fetuses assessed were found to have such signatures. INTERPRETATION: Our analysis of WES data in a prospective cohort of unselected fetuses with structural anomalies shows the value added by WES following the use of routine genetic tests. Our findings suggest that, in cases of fetal anomalies in which assessment with karyotype testing and chromosomal microarray fail to determine the underlying cause of a structural anomaly, WES can add clinically relevant information that could assist current management of a pregnancy. The unique challenges of WES-based prenatal diagnostics require analysis by a multidisciplinary team of perinatal practitioners and laboratory specialists. FUNDING: Institute for Genomic Medicine (Columbia University Irving Medical Center).


Assuntos
Cariótipo Anormal/embriologia , Anormalidades Múltiplas/diagnóstico , Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Aneuploidia , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto/anormalidades , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/estatística & dados numéricos , Anormalidades Múltiplas/epidemiologia , Amniocentese , Amostra da Vilosidade Coriônica , Feminino , Triagem de Portadores Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Ultrassonografia Pré-Natal , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma/métodos
14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(2): 299-309, 2019 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30686509

RESUMO

Different parts of a gene can be of differential importance to development and health. This regional heterogeneity is also apparent in the distribution of disease-associated mutations, which often cluster in particular regions of disease-associated genes. The ability to precisely estimate functionally important sub-regions of genes will be key in correctly deciphering relationships between genetic variation and disease. Previous methods have had some success using standing human variation to characterize this variability in importance by measuring sub-regional intolerance, i.e., the depletion in functional variation from expectation within a given region of a gene. However, the ability to precisely estimate local intolerance was restricted by the fact that only information within a given sub-region is used, leading to instability in local estimates, especially for small regions. We show that borrowing information across regions using a Bayesian hierarchical model stabilizes estimates, leading to lower variability and improved predictive utility. Specifically, our approach more effectively identifies regions enriched for ClinVar pathogenic variants. We also identify significant correlations between sub-region intolerance and the distribution of pathogenic variation in disease-associated genes, with AUCs for classifying de novo missense variants in Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) genes of up to 0.86 using exonic sub-regions and 0.91 using sub-regions defined by protein domains. This result immediately suggests that considering the intolerance of regions in which variants are found may improve diagnostic interpretation. We also illustrate the utility of integrating regional intolerance into gene-level disease association tests with a study of known disease-associated genes for epileptic encephalopathy.

15.
Ann Intern Med ; 2018 Nov 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30476936

RESUMO

Background: Exome sequencing is increasingly being used for clinical diagnostics, with an impetus to expand reporting of incidental findings across a wide range of disorders. Analysis of population cohorts can help reduce risk for genetic variant misclassification and resultant unnecessary referrals to subspecialists. Objective: To examine the burden of candidate pathogenic variants for kidney and genitourinary disorders emerging from exome sequencing. Design: Secondary analysis of genetic data. Setting: A tertiary care academic medical center. Patients: A convenience sample of exome sequence data from 7974 self-declared healthy adults. Measurements: Assessment of the prevalence of candidate pathogenic variants in 625 genes associated with Mendelian kidney and genitourinary disorders. Results: Of all participants, 23.3% carried a candidate pathogenic variant, the majority of which were attributable to previously reported variants that have implausibly high allele frequencies. In particular, 25 genes (discovered before the creation of the Exome Aggregation Consortium, a genetic database comprising data from a large control population) accounted for 67.7% of persons with candidate pathogenic variants. After stringent filtering based on allele frequency, 1.4% of persons still had a candidate pathogenic variant, an excessive rate given the prevalence of monogenic kidney and genitourinary disorders. Manual annotation of a subset of variants showed that the majority would be classified as nonbenign under current guidelines for clinical sequence interpretation and could prompt subspecialty referrals if returned. Limitation: Limited access to health record data prevented comprehensive assessment of the phenotypic concordance with genetic diagnoses. Conclusion: Widespread reporting of incidental genetic findings related to kidney and genitourinary disorders will require stringent curation of clinical variant databases and detailed case-level review to avoid genetic misdiagnosis and unnecessary referrals. These findings motivate similar analyses for genes relevant to other medical subspecialties. Primary Funding Source: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases and National Human Genome Research Institute.

16.
EMBO J ; 37(23)2018 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30420557

RESUMO

A set of glutamylases and deglutamylases controls levels of tubulin polyglutamylation, a prominent post-translational modification of neuronal microtubules. Defective tubulin polyglutamylation was first linked to neurodegeneration in the Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mouse, which lacks deglutamylase CCP1, displays massive cerebellar atrophy, and accumulates abnormally glutamylated tubulin in degenerating neurons. We found biallelic rare and damaging variants in the gene encoding CCP1 in 13 individuals with infantile-onset neurodegeneration and confirmed the absence of functional CCP1 along with dysregulated tubulin polyglutamylation. The human disease mainly affected the cerebellum, spinal motor neurons, and peripheral nerves. We also demonstrate previously unrecognized peripheral nerve and spinal motor neuron degeneration in pcd mice, which thus recapitulated key features of the human disease. Our findings link human neurodegeneration to tubulin polyglutamylation, entailing this post-translational modification as a potential target for drug development for neurodegenerative disorders.

17.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 14(10): e1006506, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30273353

RESUMO

Here we present an open-source R package 'meaRtools' that provides a platform for analyzing neuronal networks recorded on Microelectrode Arrays (MEAs). Cultured neuronal networks monitored with MEAs are now being widely used to characterize in vitro models of neurological disorders and to evaluate pharmaceutical compounds. meaRtools provides core algorithms for MEA spike train analysis, feature extraction, statistical analysis and plotting of multiple MEA recordings with multiple genotypes and treatments. meaRtools functionality covers novel solutions for spike train analysis, including algorithms to assess electrode cross-correlation using the spike train tiling coefficient (STTC), mutual information, synchronized bursts and entropy within cultured wells. Also integrated is a solution to account for bursts variability originating from mixed-cell neuronal cultures. The package provides a statistical platform built specifically for MEA data that can combine multiple MEA recordings and compare extracted features between different genetic models or treatments. We demonstrate the utilization of meaRtools to successfully identify epilepsy-like phenotypes in neuronal networks from Celf4 knockout mice. The package is freely available under the GPL license (GPL> = 3) and is updated frequently on the CRAN web-server repository. The package, along with full documentation can be downloaded from: https://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/meaRtools/.

18.
Ann Neurol ; 84(5): 788-795, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269351

RESUMO

NBEA is a candidate gene for autism, and de novo variants have been reported in neurodevelopmental disease (NDD) cohorts. However, NBEA has not been rigorously evaluated as a disease gene, and associated phenotypes have not been delineated. We identified 24 de novo NBEA variants in patients with NDD, establishing NBEA as an NDD gene. Most patients had epilepsy with onset in the first few years of life, often characterized by generalized seizure types, including myoclonic and atonic seizures. Our data show a broader phenotypic spectrum than previously described, including a myoclonic-astatic epilepsy-like phenotype in a subset of patients. Ann Neurol 2018;84:796-803.

19.
Hepatol Commun ; 2(9): 1021-1029, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30202817

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a heterogeneous disease with highly variable outcomes. Patients with simple steatosis typically experience a benign course, whereas those with more advanced liver injury, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and advanced stage fibrosis suffer increased risk for complications such as cirrhosis, hepatic decompensation, and liver cancer. Genetic variants in patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing 3 (PNPLA3) and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 (TM6SF2) and clinical factors including diabetes, obesity, and older age increase a patient's risk for NASH, advanced fibrosis, and worse outcomes. Despite substantial investigation and identification of some common variants associated with NAFLD and advanced fibrosis, the genetics and functional mechanisms remain poorly understood. This study aimed to identify genetic variants by whole-exome sequencing of NAFLD phenotypes to provide novel insights into mechanisms behind NAFLD pathogenesis and variability. We sequenced 82 patients with liver biopsy-confirmed NAFLD and 4455 population controls. NAFLD patients were divided into extreme phenotypes based on liver fibrosis stage and clinical risk factors to investigate rare variants that might predispose to or protect from advanced NAFLD fibrosis. We compared NAFLD extremes to each other and individually to population controls, exploring genetic variation at both the single-variant and gene-based level. We replicated known associations with PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 and advanced fibrosis, despite sample-size limitations. We also observed enrichment of variation in distinct genes for progressor or protective NAFLD phenotypes, although these genes did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion: We report the first whole-exome sequencing study of genetic variation in liver biopsy-confirmed NAFLD susceptibility and severity, using a small cohort of extreme NAFLD phenotypes and a large cohort of population controls.

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