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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 431-444, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804558

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a highly heritable and heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental phenotypes diagnosed in more than 1% of children. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ASD susceptibility, but to date no individual variants have been robustly associated with ASD. With a marked sample-size increase from a unique Danish population resource, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 18,381 individuals with ASD and 27,969 controls that identified five genome-wide-significant loci. Leveraging GWAS results from three phenotypes with significantly overlapping genetic architectures (schizophrenia, major depression, and educational attainment), we identified seven additional loci shared with other traits at equally strict significance levels. Dissecting the polygenic architecture, we found both quantitative and qualitative polygenic heterogeneity across ASD subtypes. These results highlight biological insights, particularly relating to neuronal function and corticogenesis, and establish that GWAS performed at scale will be much more productive in the near term in ASD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Adolescente , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco
2.
Nat Genet ; 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30478444

RESUMO

Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a highly heritable childhood behavioral disorder affecting 5% of children and 2.5% of adults. Common genetic variants contribute substantially to ADHD susceptibility, but no variants have been robustly associated with ADHD. We report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 20,183 individuals diagnosed with ADHD and 35,191 controls that identifies variants surpassing genome-wide significance in 12 independent loci, finding important new information about the underlying biology of ADHD. Associations are enriched in evolutionarily constrained genomic regions and loss-of-function intolerant genes and around brain-expressed regulatory marks. Analyses of three replication studies: a cohort of individuals diagnosed with ADHD, a self-reported ADHD sample and a meta-analysis of quantitative measures of ADHD symptoms in the population, support these findings while highlighting study-specific differences on genetic overlap with educational attainment. Strong concordance with GWAS of quantitative population measures of ADHD symptoms supports that clinical diagnosis of ADHD is an extreme expression of continuous heritable traits.

3.
Nat Genet ; 49(7): 978-985, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28504703

RESUMO

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) risk is influenced by common polygenic and de novo variation. We aimed to clarify the influence of polygenic risk for ASD and to identify subgroups of ASD cases, including those with strongly acting de novo variants, in which polygenic risk is relevant. Using a novel approach called the polygenic transmission disequilibrium test and data from 6,454 families with a child with ASD, we show that polygenic risk for ASD, schizophrenia, and greater educational attainment is over-transmitted to children with ASD. These findings hold independent of proband IQ. We find that polygenic variation contributes additively to risk in ASD cases who carry a strongly acting de novo variant. Lastly, we show that elements of polygenic risk are independent and differ in their relationship with phenotype. These results confirm that the genetic influences on ASD are additive and suggest that they create risk through at least partially distinct etiologic pathways.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Variação Genética , Herança Multifatorial , Adulto , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Grupos Étnicos/genética , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Comportamental , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Inteligência/genética , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Esquizofrenia/genética , Deleção de Sequência
4.
Nat Neurosci ; 19(12): 1563-1565, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27694993

RESUMO

Disruptive, damaging ultra-rare variants in highly constrained genes are enriched in individuals with neurodevelopmental disorders. In the general population, this class of variants was associated with a decrease in years of education (YOE). This effect was stronger among highly brain-expressed genes and explained more YOE variance than pathogenic copy number variation but less than common variants. Disruptive, damaging ultra-rare variants in highly constrained genes influence the determinants of YOE in the general population.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação/genética , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Educação , Humanos , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
5.
Nat Commun ; 5: 4757, 2014 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25187353

RESUMO

Clozapine is a particularly effective antipsychotic medication but its use is curtailed by the risk of clozapine-induced agranulocytosis/granulocytopenia (CIAG), a severe adverse drug reaction occurring in up to 1% of treated individuals. Identifying genetic risk factors for CIAG could enable safer and more widespread use of clozapine. Here we perform the largest and most comprehensive genetic study of CIAG to date by interrogating 163 cases using genome-wide genotyping and whole-exome sequencing. We find that two loci in the major histocompatibility complex are independently associated with CIAG: a single amino acid in HLA-DQB1 (126Q) (P=4.7 × 10(-14), odds ratio (OR)=0.19, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.12-0.29) and an amino acid change in the extracellular binding pocket of HLA-B (158T) (P=6.4 × 10(-10), OR=3.3, 95% CI=2.3-4.9). These associations dovetail with the roles of these genes in immunogenetic phenotypes and adverse drug responses for other medications, and provide insight into the pathophysiology of CIAG.


Assuntos
Agranulocitose/genética , Antipsicóticos/efeitos adversos , Clozapina/efeitos adversos , Exoma , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA-B/genética , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/genética , Agranulocitose/induzido quimicamente , Agranulocitose/imunologia , Alelos , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Antígenos HLA-B/imunologia , Cadeias beta de HLA-DQ/imunologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/imunologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
6.
Nat Genet ; 45(11): 1366-70, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24036952

RESUMO

To define the role of rare variants in advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD) risk, we sequenced the exons of 681 genes within all reported AMD loci and related pathways in 2,493 cases and controls. We first tested each gene for increased or decreased burden of rare variants in cases compared to controls. We found that 7.8% of AMD cases compared to 2.3% of controls are carriers of rare missense CFI variants (odds ratio (OR) = 3.6; P = 2 × 10(-8)). There was a predominance of dysfunctional variants in cases compared to controls. We then tested individual variants for association with disease. We observed significant association with rare missense alleles in genes other than CFI. Genotyping in 5,115 independent samples confirmed associations with AMD of an allele in C3 encoding p.Lys155Gln (replication P = 3.5 × 10(-5), OR = 2.8; joint P = 5.2 × 10(-9), OR = 3.8) and an allele in C9 encoding p.Pro167Ser (replication P = 2.4 × 10(-5), OR = 2.2; joint P = 6.5 × 10(-7), OR = 2.2). Finally, we show that the allele of C3 encoding Gln155 results in resistance to proteolytic inactivation by CFH and CFI. These results implicate loss of C3 protein regulation and excessive alternative complement activation in AMD pathogenesis, thus informing both the direction of effect and mechanistic underpinnings of this disorder.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C9/genética , Fator I do Complemento/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Envelhecimento , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , Ativação do Complemento/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA
7.
Bioinformatics ; 28(19): 2543-5, 2012 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22843986

RESUMO

SUMMARY: zCall is a variant caller specifically designed for calling rare single-nucleotide polymorphisms from array-based technology. This caller is implemented as a post-processing step after a default calling algorithm has been applied. The algorithm uses the intensity profile of the common allele homozygote cluster to define the location of the other two genotype clusters. We demonstrate improved detection of rare alleles when applying zCall to samples that have both Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip and exome sequencing data available. AVAILABILITY: http://atguweb.mgh.harvard.edu/apps/zcall. CONTACT: bneale@broadinstitute.org SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Software , Alelos , Análise por Conglomerados , Exoma , Homozigoto , Humanos
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