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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 77: 48-52, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30248465

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical and epidemiological features, treatments, and outcomes of patients with isolated right-sided and left-sided fungal endocarditis and to determine the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in patients with Candida sp endocarditis. METHODS: A retrospective review of all consecutive cases of fungal endocarditis from five hospitals was performed. Clinical features were compared between patients with isolated right-sided and left-sided endocarditis. In the subgroup of fungal endocarditis due to Candida species, binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine variables related to in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Seventy-eight patients with fungal endocarditis were studied. Their median age was 50 years; 55% were male and 19 patients (24%) had isolated right-sided endocarditis. Overall, cardiac surgery was performed in 46 patients (59%), and in-hospital mortality was 54%. Compared to patients with left-side fungal endocarditis, patients with isolated right-sided endocarditis had lower mortality (32% vs. 61%; p=0.025) and were less often submitted to cardiac surgery (37% vs. 66%; p=0.024). The most frequent etiology was Candida spp (85%). In this subgroup, acute heart failure (odds ratio 5.0; p=0.027) and exclusive medical treatment (odds ratio 11.1; p=0.004) were independent predictors of in-hospital death, whereas isolated right-sided endocarditis was related to a lower risk of mortality (odds ratio 0.13; p=0.023). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with isolated right-sided fungal endocarditis have particular clinical and epidemiological features. They were submitted to cardiac surgery less often and had better survival than patients with left-sided fungal endocarditis. Isolated right-sided endocarditis was also a marker of a less harmful illness in the subgroup of Candida sp endocarditis.


Assuntos
Endocardite/mortalidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Micoses/mortalidade , Adulto , Anfotericina B/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Equinocandinas/uso terapêutico , Endocardite/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fluconazol/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Cardíaca/microbiologia , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Surg Infect (Larchmt) ; 19(5): 529-534, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29957138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early onset prosthetic valve endocarditis (EO-PVE) is an serious complication associated with heart valve replacement surgery. OBJECTIVES: To describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory profile of patients with EO-PVE in a cardiac surgical hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, implemented prospectively, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of cases of adults with definite endocarditis occurring up to 12 months after heart valve surgery. RESULTS: We identified 26 cases in 2,496 surgeries in the period 2006-2016. The average annual incidence was 1.04%. The median time between valve replacement and the diagnosis of EO-PVE was 33 days (interquartile range [IQR] 19.25-118.75). Biologic and mechanical prostheses were affected in 53.8% and 46.2%, respectively. Rheumatic disease was present in 57.7% of patients. The most common causative pathogens were Staphylococcus epidermidis (23.1%). No Staphylococcus aureus infection was reported. Complications were present in 73.1% of cases, including embolism (65.4%), acute renal failure (38.5%), and heart failure (23.1%). The mortality rate at 30 days and 12 months was 3.8% and 34.6%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort EO-PVE was an serious complication of heart valve replacement with a high morbidity and mortality, despite its low frequency.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/patologia , Próteses Valvulares Cardíacas/efeitos adversos , Valvas Cardíacas/cirurgia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/epidemiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/patologia , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/classificação , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida
3.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 21(3): 240-247, May-June 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-839230

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Embolic complications of infective endocarditis are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. Objectives: To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. Methods: Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records. Variables associated with embolism were analyzed by the statistical software R version 3.1.0. Results: In the study period, 2006-2011, 136 episodes of definite infective endocarditis were included. The most common complication was heart failure (55.1%), followed by embolism (50%). Among the 100 medical records analyzed for emboli in left-sided infective endocarditis, 36 (36%) were found to have had asymptomatic events, 11 (11%) to the central nervous system and 28 (28%) to the spleen. Cardiac surgery was performed in 98/136 (72%). In the multivariate analysis, splenomegaly was the only associated factor for embolism to any site (p < 0.01, OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.04-11). Factors associated with embolism to the spleen were positive blood cultures (p = 0.05, OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.45-177) and splenomegaly (p < 0.01, OR 9.28, 95% CI 3.32-29); those associated to the central nervous system were infective endocarditis of the mitral valve (p < 0.05, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.23-10) and male gender (p < 0.05, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.04-10). Splenectomy and cardiac surgery did not impact on in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Asymptomatic embolism to the central nervous system and to the spleen were frequent. Splenomegaly was consistently associated with embolic events.

4.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 21(3): 240-247, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28263711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic complications of infective endocarditis are common. The impact of asymptomatic embolism is uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of emboli due to IE and to identify events associated with embolism. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of an endocarditis database, prospectively implemented, with a post hoc study driven by analysis of data on embolic events. Data was obtained from the International Collaboration Endocarditis case report forms and additional information on embolic events and imaging reports were obtained from the medical records. Variables associated with embolism were analyzed by the statistical software R version 3.1.0. RESULTS: In the study period, 2006-2011, 136 episodes of definite infective endocarditis were included. The most common complication was heart failure (55.1%), followed by embolism (50%). Among the 100 medical records analyzed for emboli in left-sided infective endocarditis, 36 (36%) were found to have had asymptomatic events, 11 (11%) to the central nervous system and 28 (28%) to the spleen. Cardiac surgery was performed in 98/136 (72%). In the multivariate analysis, splenomegaly was the only associated factor for embolism to any site (p<0.01, OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.04-11). Factors associated with embolism to the spleen were positive blood cultures (p=0.05, OR 8.9, 95% CI 1.45-177) and splenomegaly (p<0.01, OR 9.28, 95% CI 3.32-29); those associated to the central nervous system were infective endocarditis of the mitral valve (p<0.05, OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.23-10) and male gender (p<0.05, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.04-10). Splenectomy and cardiac surgery did not impact on in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic embolism to the central nervous system and to the spleen were frequent. Splenomegaly was consistently associated with embolic events.


Assuntos
Doenças Assintomáticas , Embolia/etiologia , Endocardite Bacteriana/complicações , Doenças Assintomáticas/mortalidade , Embolia/mortalidade , Endocardite Bacteriana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
5.
Infection ; 45(2): 199-207, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27771866

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infective endocarditis (IE) is a severe disease. Pathogen isolation is fundamental so as to treat effectively and reduce morbidity and mortality. Blood and valve culture and histopathology (HP) are routinely employed for this purpose. Valve HP is the gold standard for diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the sensitivity and specificity of clinical criteria for IE (the modified Duke and the St Thomas' minor modifications, STH) of blood and valve culture compared to valve HP, and to evaluate antibiotic treatment duration. METHODS: Prospective case series of patients, from 2006 to 2014 with surgically treated IE. Statistical analysis was done by the R software. RESULTS: There were 136 clinically definite episodes of IE in 133 patients. Mean age ± SD was 43 ± 15.6 years and IE was left sided in 81.6 %. HP was definite in 96 valves examined, which were used as gold standard. Sensitivity of blood culture was 61 % (CI 0.51, 0.71) and of valve culture 15 % (CI 0.07, 0.26). The modified Duke criteria were 65 % (CI 0.55, 0.75) sensitive and 33 % specific, while the STH's sensitivity was 72 % (CI 0.61, 0.80) with similar specificity. In multivariate analysis and logistic regression, the only variable with statistical significance was duration of antibiotic therapy postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: Valve HP had high sensitivity and valve culture low sensitivity in the diagnosis of IE. The STH's criteria were more sensitive than the modified Duke criteria. Valve HP should guide duration of postoperative antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina/métodos , Endocardite/diagnóstico , Endocardite/patologia , Valvas Cardíacas/patologia , Histocitoquímica/métodos , Adulto , Endocardite/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
6.
Infection ; 44(4): 459-66, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26670038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical characteristics of blood culture-negative endocarditis (BCNE) and how it compares to those of blood culture-positive endocarditis (BCPE) cases and show how molecular tools helped establish the etiology in BCNE. METHODS: Adult patients with definite infective endocarditis (IE) and having valve surgery were included. Valves were studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Statistical analysis compared BCNE and BCPE. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-one patients were included; 53 (40 %) had BCNE. The mean age was 45 ± 16 years; 33 (62 %) were male. BCNE was community-acquired in 41 (79 %). Most patients were referred from other hospitals (38, 73 %). Presentation was subacute in 34 (65 %), with fever in 47/53 (90 %) and a new regurgitant murmur in 34/42 (81 %). Native valves were affected in 74 %, mostly left-sided. All echocardiograms showed major criteria for IE. Antibiotics were used prior to BC collection in 31/42 (74 %). Definite histological diagnosis was established for 35/50 (70 %) valves. PCR showed oralis group streptococci in 21 (54 %), S. aureus in 3 (7.7 %), gallolyticus group streptococci in 2 (5.1 %), Coxiella burnetii in 1 (2.5 %) and Rhizobium sp. in 1 (2.5 %). In-hospital mortality was 9/53 (17 %). Fever (p = 0.06, OR 4.7, CI 0.91-24.38) and embolic complications (p = 0.003, OR 3.3, CI 1.55-6.82) were more frequent in BCPE cases, while new acute regurgitation (p = 0.05, OR 0.3, CI 0.098-0.996) and heart failure (p = 0.02, OR 0.3, CI 0.13-0.79) were less so. CONCLUSIONS: BCNE resulted mostly from prior antibiotics and was associated with severe hemodynamic compromise. Valve histopathology and PCR were useful in confirming the diagnosis and pointing to the etiology of BCNE.


Assuntos
Hemocultura/estatística & dados numéricos , Endocardite Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Endocardite Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Adulto , DNA Bacteriano/análise , DNA Bacteriano/genética , Endocardite Bacteriana/microbiologia , Feminino , Valvas Cardíacas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 103(4): 292-8, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25352503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. METHODS: Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). CONCLUSION: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/cirurgia , Feminino , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
8.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 103(4): 292-298, 10/2014. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-725324

RESUMO

Background: Healthcare-associated infective endocarditis (HCA-IE), a severe complication of medical care, shows a growing incidence in literature. Objective: To evaluate epidemiology, etiology, risk factors for acquisition, complications, surgical treatment, and outcome of HCA-IE. Methods: Observational prospective case series study (2006-2011) in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. Results: Fifty-three patients with HCA-IE from a total of 151 cases of infective endocarditis (IE) were included. There were 26 (49%) males (mean age of 47 ± 18.7 years), 27 (51%) females (mean age of 42 ± 20.1 years). IE was acute in 37 (70%) cases and subacute in 16 (30%) cases. The mitral valve was affected in 19 (36%) patients and the aortic valve in 12 (36%); prosthetic valves were affected in 23 (43%) patients and native valves in 30 (57%). Deep intravenous access was used in 43 (81%) cases. Negative blood cultures were observed in 11 (21%) patients, Enterococcus faecalis in 10 (19%), Staphylococcus aureus in 9 (17%), and Candida sp. in 7 (13%). Fever was present in 49 (92%) patients, splenomegaly in 12 (23%), new regurgitation murmur in 31 (58%), and elevated C-reactive protein in 44/53 (83%). Echocardiograms showed major criteria in 46 (87%) patients, and 34 (64%) patients were submitted to cardiac surgery. Overall mortality was 17/53 (32%). Conclusion: In Brazil HCA-IE affected young subjects. Patients with prosthetic and native valves were affected in a similar proportion, and non-cardiac surgery was an infrequent predisposing factor, whereas intravenous access was a common one. S. aureus was significantly frequent in native valve HCA-IE, and overall mortality was high. .


Fundamento: A endocardite infecciosa associada aos cuidados de saúde (EI-ACS) é uma complicação grave associada aos cuidados médico-hospitalares, com uma incidência crescente na população. Objetivo: Avaliar a EI-ACS com relação à sua epidemiologia, etiologia, fatores de risco de aquisição, complicações, tratamento cirúrgico e quadro clínico. Métodos: Este estudo de caráter observacional e prospectivo avaliou uma série de casos reportados entre 2006 e 2011 em um hospital público no Rio de Janeiro. Resultados: Cinquenta e três pacientes com EI-ACS de um total de 151 casos de endocardite infecciosa (EI) foram incluídos no estudo, dos quais 26 (49%) eram do sexo masculino (idade média de 47 ± 18,7 anos), e 27 (51%) eram sexo feminino (idade média de 42 ± 20,1 anos). Quadros clínicos agudos de EI ocorreram em 37 casos (70%) e quadros subagudos em 16 casos (30%). A válvula mitral foi afetada em 19 casos (36%), e a valva aórtica em 12 casos (36%). As válvulas cardíacas protéticas foram afetadas em 23 casos (43%), e as válvulas cardíacas nativas em 30 casos (57%). O acesso venoso profundo foi usado em 43 pacientes (81%). Hemoculturas negativas foram observadas em amostras de 11 pacientes (21%). Nas hemoculturas positivas, Enterococcus faecalis foi identificado em 10 casos (19%), Staphylococcus aureus em 9 casos (17%) e Candida sp. em 7 casos (13%). Febre ocorreu em 49 pacientes (92%), esplenomegalia em 12 pacientes (23%), novo sopro de regurgitação valvar em 31 pacientes (58%) e proteína C reativa elevada em 44 pacientes (83%). O ecocardiograma apresentou critérios principais em 46 casos (87%). Trinta e quatro pacientes (64%) foram submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. A mortalidade ocorreu em 17 casos (32%). Conclusão: EI-ACS afeta ...


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Endocardite/epidemiologia , Distribuição por Idade , Brasil/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/cirurgia , Ecocardiografia , Endocardite/microbiologia , Endocardite/cirurgia , Hospitais Públicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Int J Infect Dis ; 17(1): e65-6, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23219032
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