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1.
Comp Cytogenet ; 15(1): 77-87, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815685

RESUMO

Melipona Illiger, 1806 is represented by 74 known species of stingless bees, distributed throughout the Neotropical region. Cytogenetically it is the most studied stingless bee genus of the tribe Meliponini. Member species are divided in two groups based on the volume of heterochromatin. This study aim was to analyze the composition and organization of chromatin of the stingless bee subspecies Melipona seminigra merrillae Cockerell, 1919 using classical and molecular cytogenetic techniques, so contributing to a better understanding of the processes of chromosomal changes within the genus. We confirm that M. seminigra merrillae has a chromosome number of 2n = 22 and n = 11, results that differ from those reported for the genus in the absence of B chromosomes. The heterochromatic pattern revealed a karyotype composed of chromosomes with a high heterochromatin content, which makes it difficult to visualize the centromere. Silver nitrate impregnation (Ag-NOR) showed transcriptionally active sites on the second chromosomal pair. Staining of base-specific fluorophores DAPI-CMA3 indicated a homogeneous distribution of intensely DAPI-stained heterochromatin, while CMA3 markings appeared on those terminal portions of the chromosomes corresponding to euchromatin. Similar to Ag-NOR, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with 18S ribosomal DNA probe revealed distinct signals on the second pair of chromosomes. Microsatellite mapping (GA)15 showed markings distributed in euchromatic regions, while mapping with (CA)15 showed marking patterns in heterochromatic regions, together with a fully marked chromosome pair. Microsatellite hybridization, both in heterochromatic and euchromatic regions, may be related to the activity of transposable elements. These are capable of forming new microsatellites that can be dispersed and amplified in different regions of the genome, demonstrating that repetitive sequences can evolve rapidly, thus resulting in within-genus diversification.

2.
Genet Mol Biol ; 43(4): e20200069, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33211059

RESUMO

Cytogenetic characterization was performed on three wandering spiders: Ctenus amphora Mello-Leitão, 1930, C. crulsi Mello-Leitão, 1930 and C. villasboasi Mello-Leitão, 1949. The three species had similar karyotypes, with 2n = 28 (26 + X1X20) in males, with sex chromosomes exhibiting positive heteropicnosis in meiotic cells. 18S rDNA mapping revealed gene sites at the terminal region of one chromosomal pair for all species, with one C. crulsi individual, showing markings in two pairs. C. villasboasi showed markers only in the pachytene phase. The distribution pattern of constitutive heterochromatin was found to be characteristic for the genus, with markings in the centromeric region of all chromosomes, suggesting an acrocentric morphology for all chromosomes of the three analysed species. The results support the fusion of sex chromosomes as an evolutionary tendency for this spider group.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 12499, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719365

RESUMO

Most of snakes exhibit a ZZ/ZW sex chromosome system, with different stages of degeneration. However, undifferentiated sex chromosomes and unique Y sex-linked markers, suggest that an XY system has also evolved in ancestral lineages. Comparative cytogenetic mappings revealed that several genes share ancestry among X, Y and Z chromosomes, implying that XY and ZW may have undergone transitions during serpent's evolution. In this study, we performed a comparative cytogenetic analysis to identify homologies of sex chromosomes across ancestral (Henophidia) and more recent (Caenophidia) snakes. Our analysis suggests that, despite ~ 85 myr of independent evolution, henophidians and caenophidians retained conserved synteny over much of their genomes. However, our findings allowed us to discover that ancestral and recent lineages of snakes do not share the same sex chromosome and followed distinct pathways for sex chromosomes evolution.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Filogenia , Cromossomos Sexuais/genética , Serpentes/genética , Animais , Coloração Cromossômica , Cromossomos Artificiais Bacterianos/genética , Hibridização Genômica Comparativa , DNA/genética , Feminino , Genoma , Heterocromatina/genética , Masculino , Especificidade da Espécie
4.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(1): 29-37, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32092757

RESUMO

The fish family Cynodontidae belongs to the superfamily Curimatoidea, together with the Hemiodontidae, Serrasalmidae, Parodontidae, Prochilodontidae, Chilodontidae, Curimatidae, and Anostomidae. The majority of the species of this superfamily that have been analyzed to date have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 54. Differentiated sex chromosomes (with female heterogamety) have been observed only in the Prochilodontidae, Parodontidae, and Anostomidae. The present study provides the first description of differentiated sex chromosomes in the cynodontid species Cynodon gibbus, which has a ZZ/ZW system, and shows that repetitive DNA has played a fundamental role in the differentiation of these sex chromosomes.


Assuntos
Caraciformes/genética , Cromossomos Sexuais , Animais , Bandeamento Cromossômico , DNA , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Heterocromatina/química , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Hibridização de Ácido Nucleico , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico
5.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 2018 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30025386

RESUMO

The chromosomes of 2 flea beetle species from central Amazonia, Omophoita abbreviata and O. aequinoctialis (Alticini), were investigated through analysis of meiotic and mitotic cells. These species belong to the subtribe Oedionychina, a taxon that has unique cytogenetic features, such as giant sex chromosomes which are aligned at a distance during meiosis I (asynaptic). O. abbreviata and O. aequinoctialis have a meiotic formula of 10II + X + y, which is predominant in this subtribe. While the species of the genus Omophoita possess a relatively stable karyotype, a typical feature for Oedionychina, the present study identified inter- and intrapopulational variation in chromosome morphology, constitutive heterochromatin, and the presence and number of B chromosomes in O. aequinoctialis. In addition, FISH mapping of telomeric sequences revealed signals in the collochores, raising several questions on the chromosomal evolution in this group.

6.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 146(1): 64-70, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25997861

RESUMO

The organization and mapping of multigene families can produce useful genetic markers, and its use may elucidate the mechanisms of karyotype variation and genomic organization in different groups of eukaryotes. To date, few species of Coleoptera have been analyzed using FISH for the location of multigene families. The purpose of this study was to use high-resolution chromosome mapping to establish the genomic organization of the 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA and histone H3 gene families in Lagria villosa. FISH was performed using 18S rDNA, 5S rDNA and histone H3 probes prepared via PCR labeling. Fiber-FISH for 18S and 5S rDNA indicated that both ribosomal elements are colocalized in the short arm of chromosome 4. Additionally, FISH, using the histone H3 probe, revealed that this sequence is found in only one autosomal pair and did not colocalize with rDNA. Fiber-FISH with 5S and 18S probes, used to improve the mapping resolution of these regions, showed that both genes are closely interspersed with varying amounts of both DNA classes.


Assuntos
Cromossomos de Insetos/genética , Besouros/genética , Genes de Insetos , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Histonas/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino
7.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 147(2-3): 161-8, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26867142

RESUMO

Repetitive DNA is the largest fraction of the eukaryote genome and comprises tandem and dispersed sequences. It presents variations in relation to its composition, number of copies, distribution, dynamics, and genome organization, and participates in the evolutionary diversification of different vertebrate species. Repetitive sequences are usually located in the heterochromatin of centromeric and telomeric regions of chromosomes, contributing to chromosomal structures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to physically map repetitive DNA sequences (5S rDNA, telomeric sequences, tropomyosin gene 1, and retroelements Rex1 and SINE) of mitotic chromosomes of Amazonian species of teiids (Ameiva ameiva, Cnemidophorus sp. 1, Kentropyx calcarata, Kentropyx pelviceps, and Tupinambis teguixin) to understand their genome organization and karyotype evolution. The mapping of repetitive sequences revealed a distinct pattern in Cnemidophorus sp. 1, whereas the other species showed all sequences interspersed in the heterochromatic region. Physical mapping of the tropomyosin 1 gene was performed for the first time in lizards and showed that in addition to being functional, this gene has a structural function similar to the mapped repetitive elements as it is located preferentially in centromeric regions and termini of chromosomes.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Genoma/genética , Lagartos/genética , Sequências Repetitivas de Ácido Nucleico/genética , Animais , Brasil , Evolução Molecular , Geografia , Heterocromatina/genética , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente , Lagartos/classificação , RNA Ribossômico 5S/genética , Retroelementos/genética , Especificidade da Espécie , Tropomiosina/genética
8.
Mol Cytogenet ; 6(1): 48, 2013 Nov 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24192310

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: B chromosomes, also known as supernumerary or accessory chromosomes, are additional chromosomes over the standard complement found in various groups of plants and animals. We investigated the presence of, and characterized, supernumerary microchromosomes in Astyanax goyacensis using classical and molecular cytogenetic methods. FINDINGS: Three specimens possessed 2n = 50 chromosomes (8m + 26sm + 8st + 8a), and two specimens contained 1 to 9 additional B microchromosomes varying intra- and inter-individually. Chromosome painting with a B chromosome-specific probe yielded signals for several B microchromosomes, with one exhibiting no markings. Acrocentric chromosomes of the standard complement were also painted. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using ribosomal probes located two chromosome pairs carrying 18S rDNA marked on the short arm, and one pair carrying 5S rDNA with pericentromeric markings. One chromosome was observed in synteny with 18S cistrons. CONCLUSION: These data contribute to knowledge of the karyotype evolution, the origin of B chromosomes, and to an understanding of the functionality of rDNA.

9.
Micron ; 41(7): 729-34, 2010 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20638293

RESUMO

Alticinae has the greatest amount of biodiversity among the Chrysomelidae, with 40,000 described species, only 290 of which have been analyzed cytogenetically. The majority of studies refer to conventional staining and few species have been analyzed or have responded to differential staining methods. The aim of the present study was to describe an 18S rDNA probe for Alticinae and the location of this cluster in species of the Omophoita genus. The fragment of approximately 750bp obtained through a PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) amplification reaction with specific oligonucleotides to 18S rDNA was cloned and denominated pTZ_Ooct_18Sp and then submitted to automatic sequencing. The alignment of the sequences obtained through the sequencing of the clones generated a consensus sequence of 722bp for Omophoita octoguttata with 98% homology with other species of Alticinae. The analysis of mitotic cells of O. octoguttata and Omophoita magniguttis submitted to fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) with the 18S rDNA probe revealed that the ribosomal genes are located in 6th pair. O. magniguttis also has a second labeled pair. Omophoita personata exhibited nucleolar organizer regions associated to one autosome pair. The analysis of meiotic cells submitted to FISH revealed one labeled bivalent in metaphase I in O. octoguttata and O. personata and in one chromosome in metaphase II in O. octoguttata. FISH data suggest a conserved pattern in the species analyzed and an apomorphy of O. magniguttis karyotype. The rDNA 18S probe could be considered an important marker to evidence the karyotypic differentiation, not observed with conventional methodologies, in species considered karyotypically conserved and uniform.


Assuntos
Besouros/citologia , Besouros/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Genes , Hibridização in Situ Fluorescente/métodos , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo/métodos , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Animais , Citogenética/métodos , Primers do DNA/genética , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Sondas de Oligonucleotídeos/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Alinhamento de Sequência , Análise de Sequência de DNA
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