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1.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 56(10): 2645-2648, 2017 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28146311

RESUMO

The insoluble product mixture obtained from cycloparaphenylene (CPP) synthesis from Suzuki coupling and reductive aromatization was analyzed. Traditional mass spectrometry suggests a homologous series of macrocycles with 12 to 84 phenylene units. Ion-mobility mass spectrometry, however, unravels an unexpected complexity of isomers with identical chemical formula, but different topologies. Whereas macrocycles containing up to 30 phenylene units show only one structure, the homologue with 36 phenylene units forms at least four different isomers with significant molecular size differences. They can be assigned to catenanes composed of CPPs with 2×18 and 12+24 phenylene units together with the ordinary [36]CPP macrocycle. Most likely, a trefoil knot of the CPP with 36 moieties is also present. For the first time, catenanes can be elucidated in a simple reaction mixture by analyzing their ions in the gas phase, an analysis which lies beyond the scope of traditional analytical methods.

2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 138(50): 16208-16211, 2016 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27935679

RESUMO

Unsubstituted and structurally well-defined poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) has been long-desired as an organic semiconductor prototype of conjugated polymers. To date, several attempts to synthesize unsubstituted, pristine, high-molecular-weight PPP have failed. Here we solved this synthetic problem by a versatile precursor route. Suzuki polymerization of kinked disubstituted 1,4-dimethoxycyclohexadienylene monomers yielded a well-soluble, nonaromatic precursor polymer. Its solubility allowed processing by spin-coating into nanometer-thick films. Subsequent additive-free thermal treatment induced aromatization and led to exclusively para-connected, highly fluorescent PPP with a length of about 75 phenylene units.

3.
Langmuir ; 31(37): 10303-9, 2015 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315142

RESUMO

In this work we examine small conjugated molecules bearing a thiol headgroup as self assembled monolayers (SAM). Functional groups in the SAM-active molecule shift the work function of gold to n-channel semiconductor regimes and improve the wettability of the surface. We examine the effect of the presence of methylene linkers on the orientation of the molecule within the SAM. 3,4,5-Trimethoxythiophenol (TMP-SH) and 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzylthiol (TMP-CH2-SH) were first subjected to computational analysis, predicting work function shifts of -430 and -310 meV. Contact angle measurements show an increase in the wetting envelope compared to that of pristine gold. Infrared (IR) measurements show tilt angles of 22 and 63°, with the methylene-linked molecule (TMP-CH2-SH) attaining a flatter orientation. The actual work function shift as measured with photoemission spectroscopy (XPS/UPS) is even larger, -600 and -430 meV, respectively. The contact resistance between gold electrodes and poly[N,N'-bis(2-octyldodecyl)-naphthalene-1,4:5,8-bis(dicarboximide)-2,6-diyl]-alt-5,5'-(2,2'-bithiophene) (Polyera Aktive Ink, N2200) in n-type OFETs is demonstrated to decrease by 3 orders of magnitude due to the use of TMP-SH and TMP-CH2-SH. The effective mobility was enhanced by two orders of magnitude, significantly decreasing the contact resistance to match the mobilities reported for N2200 with optimized electrodes.

4.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 54(35): 10341-6, 2015 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26110414

RESUMO

The longitudinal extension of cycloparaphenylenes (CPP) towards ultrashort carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is essential for the solution based bottom-up synthesis of CNTs. Herein, the longitudinal extension of the CPP skeleton by the introduction of hexaphenylbenzene units towards polyarylated [n]CPPs is described. Further, the applicability of the Scholl reaction to selectively form graphenic sidewalls is demonstrated. The ring size and substitution patterns of the polyarylated [n]CPPs were varied to overcome strain-induced side reactions during the oxidative cyclodehydrogenation and cyclic para-hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene trimers ([3]CHBCs) were selectively obtained. This concept is envisioned as an access to ultrashort carbon nanotubes subject to the condition that further benzene rings with the right connectivity will be inserted.

5.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 36(10): 898-902, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25820594

RESUMO

3,6-Connected cyclohexadienes as precursors for polyphenylenes are synthesized and characterized by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. Pure fractions of trimers, hexamers, and nonamers are collected after separation of the product mixture by recycling GPC. The anticipated formation of rigid linear structures, due to the trans-configuration of the monomeric units, is supported by density functional theory and experimentally confirmed by dynamic light scattering from dilute solution at low scattering angles. The obtained translational diffusion coefficients are represented by rigid rod-like or prolate ellipsoid-like molecular shapes. The measurements of diffusion coefficients reveal a length-dependent ratio of 1:2:3 between the three oligomers, which directly correlates to the expected length extension from trimer to nonamer.


Assuntos
Cicloexenos/síntese química , Polímeros/síntese química , Difusão , Luz , Conformação Molecular , Teoria Quântica , Espalhamento de Radiação , Soluções
6.
Chem Sci ; 6(12): 7072-7078, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28757981

RESUMO

The synthesis of π-extended [12]cycloparaphenylene (CPP) derivatives from a kinked triangular macrocycle is presented. Depending on the reaction conditions for reductive aromatization, either a hexaphenylbenzene cyclohexamer or its C2-symmetric congener was obtained. Their structures were confirmed by NMR spectroscopy or X-ray crystallographic analysis. With the support of DFT calculations, a mechanistic explanation for the unexpected formation of the oval shaped bis(cyclohexadiene)-bridged C2-symmetric macrocycle is provided. The here employed congested hexaphenylbenzene mode of connectivity in conjunction with a non-strained precursor improves oxidative cyclodehydrogenation toward the formation of ultrashort carbon nanotubes (CNT)s. Thus, this strategy can pave the way for new conceptual approaches of a solution-based bottom-up synthesis of CNTs.

7.
Macromol Rapid Commun ; 36(2): 204-10, 2015 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25250857

RESUMO

The preparation of poly(isobutylene) (PIB) nanoparticles via cationic emulsion polymerization is presented. As a requirement, an oil-in-perfluoroalkane nonaqueous emulsion is developed, which is inert under the carbocationic polymerization conditions. To stabilize the dichloromethane/hexane droplets in the fluorinated, continuous phase, an amphiphilic block copolymer emulsifier is prepared containing PIB and 1H,1H-perfluoroalkylated poly(pentafluorostyrene) blocks. This system allows for the polymerization of isobutylene with number-average molecular weights (Mn) up to 27,000 g mol(-1). The particle morphologies are characterized via dynamic light scattering and electron microscopy. For Mn > 20,000 g mol(-1), the particles exhibit shape-persistence at room temperature and are ≈100 nm in diameter.


Assuntos
Alcenos/química , Emulsões/química , Nanopartículas/química , Polimerização , Polímeros/química , Cátions/química , Emulsificantes/química , Polímeros de Fluorcarboneto/química , Hexanos/química , Cloreto de Metileno/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Peso Molecular , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Polímeros/síntese química , Poliestirenos/química
8.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 53(6): 1525-8, 2014 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24453051

RESUMO

The synthesis of structurally well-defined, monodisperse carbon nanotube (CNT) sidewall segments poses a challenge in materials science. The synthesis of polyphenylene cylinders that comprise typical benzene connectivity to resemble precursors of [9,9] and [15,15] CNTs is now reported, and the products were characterized by X-ray crystallography. To investigate the oxidative cyclodehydrogenation of ring-strained molecules as a final step towards a bottom-up synthesis of CNT sidewall segments, phenylene-extended cyclic p-hexaphenylbenzene trimers ([3]CHPB) were prepared, and NMR studies revealed a strain-induced 1,2-phenyl shift. It was further shown that an increase in ring size leads to selectively dehydrogenated macrocycles. Larger homologues are envisioned to give smooth condensation reactions toward graphenic sidewalls and should be used in the future as seeds for CNT formation.

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