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1.
Lancet Child Adolesc Health ; 5(2): 142-154, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33484663

RESUMO

Childhood malignancies are rarely related to known environmental exposures, and it has become increasingly evident that inherited genetic factors play a substantial causal role. Large-scale sequencing studies have shown that approximately 10% of children with cancer have an underlying cancer predisposition syndrome. The number of recognised cancer predisposition syndromes and cancer predisposition genes are constantly growing. Imaging and laboratory technologies are improving, and knowledge of the range of tumours and risk of malignancy associated with cancer predisposition syndromes is increasing over time. Consequently, surveillance measures need to be constantly adjusted to address these new findings. Management recommendations for individuals with pathogenic germline variants in cancer predisposition genes need to be established through international collaborative studies, addressing issues such as genetic counselling, cancer prevention, cancer surveillance, cancer therapy, psychological support, and social-ethical issues. This Review represents the work by a group of experts from the European Society for Paediatric Oncology (SIOPE) and aims to summarise the current knowledge and define future research needs in this evolving field.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Masculino , Oncologia/métodos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Medição de Risco
2.
Clin Genet ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454955

RESUMO

Biallelic pathogenic variants in the NTHL1 (Nth like DNA glycosylase 1) gene cause a recently identified autosomal recessive hereditary cancer syndrome predisposing to adenomatous polyposis and colorectal cancer. Half of biallelic carriers also display multiple colonic or extra-colonic primary tumors, mainly breast, endometrium, urothelium, and brain tumors. Published data designate NTHL1 as an important contributor to hereditary cancers but also underline the scarcity of available informations. Thanks to the French oncogenetic consortium (Groupe Génétique et Cancer), we collected NTHL1 variants from 7765 patients attending for hereditary colorectal cancer or polyposis (n = 3936) or other hereditary cancers (n = 3829). Here, we describe 10 patients with pathogenic biallelic NTHL1 germline variants, that is, the second largest NTHL1 series. All carriers were from the "colorectal cancer or polyposis" series. All nine biallelic carriers who underwent colonoscopy presented adenomatous polyps. For digestive cancers, average age at diagnosis was 56.2 and we reported colorectal, duodenal, caecal, and pancreatic cancers. Extra-digestive malignancies included sarcoma, basal cell carcinoma, breast cancer, urothelial carcinoma, and melanoma. Although tumor risks remain to be precisely defined, these novel data support NTHL1 inclusion in diagnostic panel testing. Colonic surveillance should be conducted based on MUTYH recommendations while extra-colonic surveillance has to be defined.

3.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Dec 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33372675

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: PAOLA1 is a phase III study assessing olaparib maintenance therapy in advanced high-grade ovarian carcinoma patients responding to first-line platinum-taxane-based chemotherapy plus bevacizumab as standard of care. Randomization was stratified by treatment outcome and tumor BRCA1/2 status (tBRCA) at screening. METHODS: tBRCA was tested on FFPE tumor blocks on 5 French platforms using 2 Next-Generation Sequencing methods based either on hybrid capture or amplicon technology. One of the exploratory objectives was to assess the concordance between germline (gBRCA) and tBRCA testing in French patients. gBRCA testing was performed on blood samples on the same platforms. RESULTS: From May 2015 to July 2017, tBRCA tests were performed for 1,176 screened patients. Only 52 (4.4%) tumor samples were non-contributive. The median interval between reception of the tumor sample and availability of the tBRCA status result was 37 days (range =8-260). A pathogenic variant (PV) was reported in 27.1% tumor samples (319 of 1,176 screened patients). tBRCA and gBRCA testing were both performed for 451 French patients with negative results for both tests in 306 patients (67.8%) and positive results for both tests in 85 patients (18.8%). Only one large genomic rearrangement of BRCA1 was detected, exclusively in the blood sample. Interestingly, tBRCA testing revealed 6.4% of PV (29 of 451) not detected by gBRCA testing. CONCLUSIONS: tBRCA testing is an appropriate tool with an acceptable turnaround time for clinical practice and a low failure rate, ensuring reliable identification of patients likely to benefit from PARPi therapy.

4.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32576655

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We report a very rare case of familial breast cancer and diffuse gastric cancer, with germline pathogenic variants in both BRCA1 and CDH1 genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of such an association.Family description: The proband is a woman diagnosed with breast cancer at the age of 52 years. She requested genetic counselling in 2012, at the age of 91 years, because of a history of breast cancer in her daughter, her sister, her niece and her paternal grandmother and was therefore concerned about her relatives. Her sister and maternal aunt also had gastric cancer. She was tested for several genes associated with hereditary breast cancer. RESULTS: A large deletion of BRCA1 from exons 1 to 7 and two CDH1 pathogenic cis variants were identified. CONCLUSION: This complex situation is challenging for genetic counselling and management of at-risk individuals.

5.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 138(8): 843-850, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32556071

RESUMO

Importance: Retinoblastoma (RB) is the most common pediatric intraocular neoplasm. RB is a complex model in which atypical pathogenic variants, modifier genes, imprinting, and mosaicism are known to be associated with the phenotype. In-depth understanding of RB therefore requires large genotype-phenotype studies. Objective: To assess the association between genotype and phenotype in patients with RB. Design, Setting, and Participants: This single-center, retrospective cohort study, conducted from January 1, 2000, to September 30, 2017, enrolled 1404 consecutive ascertained patients with RB who consulted an oncogeneticist. All patients had their genotype and phenotype recorded. Statistical analysis was performed from July 1, 2018, to December 31, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: RB1 germline and somatic pathogenic variant types, family history, and disease presentation characteristics (ie, age at diagnosis, sex, laterality, and International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification group). Results: Among 1404 patients with RB (734 [52.3%] female; mean [SD] age, 20.2 [21.2] months), 866 cases (61.7%) were unilateral and 538 cases (38.3%) were bilateral. Loss of function variants were found throughout the coding sequence, with 259 of 272 (95.2%) somatic pathogenic variants and 537 of 606 (88.6%) germline pathogenic variants (difference, 6.6%; 95% CI, 4.0%-9.2%; P < .001) after excluding tumor-specific pathogenic variants (ie, promoter methylation and loss of heterozygosity); a novel low-penetrance region was identified in exon 24. Compared with germline pathogenic variants estimated to retain RB protein expression, germline pathogenic variants estimated to abrogate RB protein expression were associated with an earlier mean (SD) age at diagnosis (12.3 [11.3] months among 457 patients vs 16.3 [13.2] months among 55 patients; difference, 4 months; 95% CI, 1.9-6.1 months; P = .01), more frequent bilateral involvement (84.2% among 452 patients vs 65.2% among 45 patients; difference, 18.9%; 95% CI, 14.5%-23.3%; P < .001), and more advanced International Intraocular Retinoblastoma Classification group (85.3% among 339 patients vs 73.9% among 34 patients; difference: 11.4%; 95% CI, 6.5%-16.3%; P = .047). Among the 765 nongermline carriers of an RB1 pathogenic variant, most were female (419 females [54.8%] vs 346 males [45.2%]; P = .008), and males were more likely to have bilateral RB (23 males [71.4%] vs 12 females [34.3%]; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: These results suggest that RB risk is associated with the germline pathogenic variant and with maintenance of RB protein and that there is a sex-linked mechanism for nongermline carriers.

6.
Eur J Cancer ; 132: 100-103, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335476

RESUMO

Direct-to-consumer (DTC) commercial companies offer genetic tests that are presented as allowing individuals the opportunity to increase their capacities to be in charge of their own healthcare managements. DTC companies deny performing medical tests, yet they provide data based on sequencing multigene panel or whole exome. This contradiction allows these companies to escape the requirements of a regulated medical practice that guarantees the quality of the tests, as well as the information and support for tested individuals. Herein, we illustrate the lack of such requirements by analysing the bad experience of a young man who dealt with DTC health genetic testing companies. There is an emergency for DTC testing to be either deprived of any medically relevant information, or carried out in a legally regulated medical framework.


Assuntos
Erros de Diagnóstico/prevenção & controle , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/normas , Indústria Farmacêutica/normas , Testes Genéticos/normas , Disseminação de Informação/ética , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Análise de Sequência de DNA/normas , Adulto , Triagem e Testes Direto ao Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria Farmacêutica/legislação & jurisprudência , Testes Genéticos/legislação & jurisprudência , Genoma Humano , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Disseminação de Informação/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Neoplasias/genética , Fatores de Risco
7.
Fam Cancer ; 19(3): 203-209, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172432

RESUMO

CDK12 variants were investigated as a genetic susceptibility to ovarian cancer in a series of 416 unrelated and consecutive patients with ovarian carcinoma and who carry neither germline BRCA1 nor BRCA2 pathogenic variant. The presence of CDK12 variants was searched in germline DNA by massive parallel sequencing on pooled DNAs. The lack of detection of deleterious variants and the observed proportion of missense variants in the series of ovarian carcinoma patients as compared with all human populations strongly suggests that CDK12 is not an ovarian cancer predisposing gene.

9.
Cancer Res ; 80(7): 1374-1386, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32046981

RESUMO

Germline nonsense and canonical splice site variants identified in disease-causing genes are generally considered as loss-of-function (LoF) alleles and classified as pathogenic. However, a fraction of such variants could maintain function through their impact on RNA splicing. To test this hypothesis, we used the alternatively spliced BRCA2 exon 12 (E12) as a model system because its in-frame skipping leads to a potentially functional protein. All E12 variants corresponding to putative LoF variants or predicted to alter splicing (n = 40) were selected from human variation databases and characterized for their impact on splicing in minigene assays and, when available, in patient lymphoblastoid cell lines. Moreover, a selection of variants was analyzed in a mouse embryonic stem cell-based functional assay. Using these complementary approaches, we demonstrate that a subset of variants, including nonsense variants, induced in-frame E12 skipping through the modification of splice sites or regulatory elements and, consequently, led to an internally deleted but partially functional protein. These data provide evidence, for the first time in a cancer-predisposition gene, that certain presumed null variants can retain function due to their impact on splicing. Further studies are required to estimate cancer risk associated with these hypomorphic variants. More generally, our findings highlight the need to exercise caution in the interpretation of putative LoF variants susceptible to induce in-frame splicing modifications. SIGNIFICANCE: This study presents evidence that certain presumed loss-of-function variants in a cancer predisposition gene can retain function due to their direct impact on RNA splicing.


Assuntos
Processamento Alternativo , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Síndrome Hereditária de Câncer de Mama e Ovário/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Células-Tronco Embrionárias , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética
10.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32107557

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate precise age-specific tubo-ovarian carcinoma (TOC) and breast cancer (BC) risks for carriers of pathogenic variants in RAD51C and RAD51D. METHODS: We analysed data from 6178 families, 125 with pathogenic variants in RAD51C; and 6690 families, 60 with pathogenic variants in RAD51D. TOC and BC relative and cumulative risks were estimated using complex segregation analysis to model the cancer inheritance patterns in families, while adjusting for the mode of ascertainment of each family. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Pathogenic variants in both RAD51C and RAD51D were associated with TOC (RAD51C RR = 7.55, 95%CI:5.60-10.19, p = 5 × 10-40; RAD51D RR = 7.60, 95%CI:5.61-10.30, p = 5 × 10-39) and BC (RAD51C RR = 1.99, 95%CI:1.39-2.85, p = 1.55 × 10-4; RAD51D RR = 1.83, 95%CI:1.24-2.72, p = 0.002). For both RAD51C and RAD51D, there was a suggestion that the TOC RRs increased with age until around age 60 years and decreased thereafter. The estimated cumulative risks of developing TOC to age 80 were 11% (95%CI:6-21%) for RAD51C and 13% (95%CI:7-23%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. The estimated cumulative risks of developing BC to 80 were 21% (95%CI:15-29%) for RAD51C and 20% (95%CI:14-28%) for RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers. Both TOC and BC risks for RAD51C/D pathogenic variant carriers varied by cancer family history, and could be as high as 32-36% for TOC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with TOC; or 44-46% for BC, for carriers with two first degree relatives diagnosed with BC. CONCLUSIONS: These estimates will facilitate the genetic counselling of RAD51C and RAD51D pathogenic variant carriers and justify the incorporation of RAD51C and RAD51D into cancer risk prediction models.

11.
Gynecol Oncol ; 156(2): 377-386, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31753525

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carriers of pathogenic variants in both BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes as a double mutation (BRCA1/2 DM) have been rarely reported in women with epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: We reviewed the English literature and interrogated three repositories reporting EOC patients carrying BRCA1/2 DM. The clinicopathological parameters of 36 EOC patients carrying germline BRCA1/2 DM were compared to high-grade serous EOC women of the COEUR cohort with known germline BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carrier status (n = 376 non-carriers, n = 65 BRCA1 and n = 38 BRCA2). Clinicopathological parameters evaluated were age at diagnosis, stage of disease, loss of heterozygosity, type of mutation, immunohistochemistry profile, progression occurrence and survival. RESULTS: Median age at diagnosis of BRCA1/2 DM patients was 51.9 years, similar to BRCA1 mutation carriers (49.7 years, p = .58) and younger than BRCA2 mutation carriers (58.1 years, p = .02). Most patients were diagnosed at advanced stage (III-IV; 82%) and were carriers of founder/frequent mutations (69%). Tissue immunostainings revealed no progesterone receptor expression and low intraepithelial inflammation. The 5-year survival rate (60%) was significantly lower than that of BRCA2 mutation carriers (76%, p = .03) but not of BRCA1 mutation carriers (51%, p = .37). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggests some co-dominant effect of both mutations but the outcome of these patients more closely resembled that of BRCA1 mutation carriers with poor prognosis factors.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Receptores de Progesterona/biossíntese , Receptores de Progesterona/genética
12.
J Clin Oncol ; 38(7): 674-685, 2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841383

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To estimate age-specific relative and absolute cancer risks of breast cancer and to estimate risks of ovarian, pancreatic, male breast, prostate, and colorectal cancers associated with germline PALB2 pathogenic variants (PVs) because these risks have not been extensively characterized. METHODS: We analyzed data from 524 families with PALB2 PVs from 21 countries. Complex segregation analysis was used to estimate relative risks (RRs; relative to country-specific population incidences) and absolute risks of cancers. The models allowed for residual familial aggregation of breast and ovarian cancer and were adjusted for the family-specific ascertainment schemes. RESULTS: We found associations between PALB2 PVs and risk of female breast cancer (RR, 7.18; 95% CI, 5.82 to 8.85; P = 6.5 × 10-76), ovarian cancer (RR, 2.91; 95% CI, 1.40 to 6.04; P = 4.1 × 10-3), pancreatic cancer (RR, 2.37; 95% CI, 1.24 to 4.50; P = 8.7 × 10-3), and male breast cancer (RR, 7.34; 95% CI, 1.28 to 42.18; P = 2.6 × 10-2). There was no evidence for increased risks of prostate or colorectal cancer. The breast cancer RRs declined with age (P for trend = 2.0 × 10-3). After adjusting for family ascertainment, breast cancer risk estimates on the basis of multiple case families were similar to the estimates from families ascertained through population-based studies (P for difference = .41). On the basis of the combined data, the estimated risks to age 80 years were 53% (95% CI, 44% to 63%) for female breast cancer, 5% (95% CI, 2% to 10%) for ovarian cancer, 2%-3% (95% CI females, 1% to 4%; 95% CI males, 2% to 5%) for pancreatic cancer, and 1% (95% CI, 0.2% to 5%) for male breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These results confirm PALB2 as a major breast cancer susceptibility gene and establish substantial associations between germline PALB2 PVs and ovarian, pancreatic, and male breast cancers. These findings will facilitate incorporation of PALB2 into risk prediction models and optimize the clinical cancer risk management of PALB2 PV carriers.

13.
Bull Cancer ; 106(12): 1177-1189, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610911

RESUMO

Inactivating germline pathogenic variants of the DICER1 gene are responsible for a spectrum of rare diseases, which expanded a lot in recent years. The constitution of an U.S. registry with these patients and their families as well as the registration of patients in European databases of rare tumors helped to better identify diseases encountered in this syndrome but also to study its pathophysiology (major role in miRNA maturation and recently discovered functions, e.g. in genome integrity maintenance). Most encountered disorders are pediatric malignancies, mainly the pulmonary pneumoblastoma and Sertoli-Leydig tumours. However, benign pathologies such as thyroid goiters, cystic nephromas or pulmonary cystic lesions are also frequently reported. Homogeneous guidelines regimens written by the European groups working on very rare pediatric tumors are proposed but it is important to underscore that they rely on rare scientific data; therefore overall consensus remains precarious. The genetic counseling to families is still difficult due to the large observed spectrum of tumors and the incomplete penetrance. In this article, the authors update current knowledge on the DICER1 syndrome.


Assuntos
RNA Helicases DEAD-box/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Doenças Raras/genética , Ribonuclease III/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Feminino , Aconselhamento Genético , Humanos , Neoplasias Renais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Neoplasias Renais/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/metabolismo , Doenças Raras/diagnóstico , Doenças Raras/metabolismo , Ribonuclease III/metabolismo , Síndrome
14.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 262-269, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical factors associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in relapsing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with BRCA mutations and receiving olaparib as maintenance therapy in daily practice. METHODS: Multicenter (8 hospitals) European retrospective study of relapsing EOC patients having germline or somatic mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and treated with olaparib as maintenance therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Median age was 54 years. There were 90 BRCA1 carriers, 24 BRCA2 carriers and one patient had germline mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Six patients had somatic mutations (all BRCA1) and 109 had germline mutations. Ninety percent had serous carcinomas and were platinum-sensitive. Following ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy, 69% of the patients had normalization of CA-125 levels and 87% had RECIST objective responses, either partial (53%) or complete (34%). After a median follow-up of 21 months, median PFS was 12.7 months and median OS was 35.4 months. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with prolonged PFS under olaparib were: platinum-free interval (PFI) ≥ 12 months, RECIST complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and normalization of CA-125 upon ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy. Factors associated with prolonged OS were PFI ≥ 12 months, CR and normalization of CA-125. CONCLUSIONS: Platinum-free interval ≥ 12 months, complete response and normalized CA-125 levels after ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy are associated with prolonged PFS and OS in relapsing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated ovarian cancer patients who received olaparib as maintenance therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/tratamento farmacológico , Ftalazinas/uso terapêutico , Piperazinas/uso terapêutico , Antígeno Ca-125/metabolismo , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Genes BRCA1/fisiologia , Genes BRCA2/fisiologia , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cancers (Basel) ; 11(6)2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159331

RESUMO

In the era of precision medicine, research of biomarkers for identification of responders to nivolumab therapy is a major challenge. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) could be an interesting surrogate tissue for identifying pharmacodynamic biomarkers. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate the global serine/threonine kinase (STK) activity in PBMC from non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using a high throughput kinomic profiling method. PamChip® microarrays were used to explore the STK kinomic profile in PBMC from 28 NSCLC patients before nivolumab initiation (D0) and on day 14 (D14) of the first administration. Two clusters of patients (A and B) were identified at D0, median overall survival (OS) tended to be longer in cluster A than in B (402 vs. 112.5 days, respectively; p = 0.15). Interestingly, the PD-L1 tumor cell score (p = 0.045), the count of CD8+ cells (p = 0.023) and the total body weight (p = 0.038) were statistically different between the clusters. On D14, clusters C and D were identified. Greater activity of most STK, especially those of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, was noticed among cluster C. No significant difference between C and D was observed regarding OS. Considering the small number of patients, results from this preliminary study are not conclusive. However, the 4-fold longer median OS in cluster A paves the way to further investigate, in a larger cohort of NSCLC patients, the benefit of basal STK kinomic profile in PBMC to identify responders to nivolumab therapy.

16.
Oncotarget ; 10(18): 1669-1687, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30899440

RESUMO

Several mechanisms have been described to elucidate the emergence of resistance to MAPK inhibitors in melanoma and there is a crucial need for biomarkers to identify patients who are likely to achieve a better and long-lasting response to BRAF inhibitors therapy. In this study, we developed a targeted approach combining both mRNA and DNA alterations analysis focusing on relevant gene alterations involved in acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance. We collected baseline tumor samples from 64 melanoma patients at BRAF inhibitor treatment initiation and showed that the presence, prior to treatment, of mRNA over-expression of genes' subset was significantly associated with improved progression free survival and overall survival. The presence of DNA alterations was in favor of better overall survival. The genomic analysis of relapsed-matched tumor samples from 20 patients allowed us to uncover the largest landscape of resistance mechanisms reported to date as at least one resistance mechanism was identified for each patient studied. Alterations in RB1 have been most frequent and hence represent an important additional acquired resistance mechanism. Our targeted genomic analysis emerges as a relevant tool in clinical practice to identify those patients who are more likely to achieve durable response to targeted therapies and to exhaustively describe the spectrum of resistance mechanisms. Our approach can be adapted to new targeted therapies by including newly identified genetic alterations.

17.
Breast ; 45: 29-35, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30822622

RESUMO

Multigene panel testing for breast and ovarian cancer predisposition diagnosis is a useful tool as it makes possible to sequence a considerable number of genes in a large number of individuals. More than 200 different multigene panels in which the two major BRCA1 and BRCA2 breast cancer predisposing genes are included are proposed by public or commercial laboratories. We review the clinical validity and clinical utility of the 26 genes most oftenly included in these panels. Because clinical validity and utility are not established for all genes and due to the heterogeneity of tumour risk levels, there is a substantial difficulty in the routine use of multigene panels if management guidelines and recommendations for testing relatives are not previously defined for each gene. Besides, the classification of variant of unknown significance (VUS) is a particular limitation and challenge. Efforts to classify VUSs and also to identify factors that modify cancer risks are now needed to produce personalised risk estimates. The complexity of information, the capacity to come back to patients when VUS are re-classified as pathogenic, and the expected large increase in the number of individuals to be tested especially when the aim of multigene panel testing is not only prevention but also treatment are challenging both for physicians and patients. Quality of tests, interpretation of results, information and accompaniment of patients must be at the heart of the guidelines of multigene panel testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/normas , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos/normas , Análise de Sequência/normas , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Variação Genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Análise de Sequência/métodos
18.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(5): 792-800, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683922

RESUMO

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is routinely used for constitutional genetic analysis. However, cross-contamination between samples constitutes a major risk that could impact the results of the analysis. We have developed ART-DeCo, a tool using the allelic ratio (AR) of the Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms sequenced with regions of interest. When a sample is contaminated by DNA with a different genotype, unexpected ARs are obtained, which are in turn used for detection of contamination with a screening test, followed by identification and quantification of the contaminant. Following optimization, ART-DeCo was applied to 2222 constitutional DNA samples. The screening test was positive for 191 samples. In 33 cases (contamination percentages: 1.3% to 29.2%), the contaminant was identified and was mostly located in adjacent wells. Three other positive cases were due to barcoding errors or mixture of two DNA samples. Interestingly, the last contaminated sample corresponded to a bone marrow transplant recipient. Lastly, no contaminant was identified in 154 weakly positive ( < 4%) samples that were considered to be irrelevant to constitutional genetic analysis. ART-DeCo lends itself to mandatory quality control procedures, also highlighting the delicate steps of library preparation, resulting in practice improvement. Importantly, ART-DeCo can be implemented in any NGS workflow, from gene panel to genome-wide analyses. https://sourceforge.net/projects/ngs-art-deco/ .


Assuntos
Contaminação por DNA , DNA/análise , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular , Alelos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
20.
J Natl Cancer Inst ; 110(12): 1328-1341, 2018 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517737

RESUMO

Background: The BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS) is a hereditary tumor syndrome caused by germline pathogenic variants in BAP1 encoding a tumor suppressor associated with uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, cutaneous melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous BAP1-inactivated melanocytic tumors. However, the full spectrum of tumors associated with the syndrome is yet to be determined. Improved understanding of the BAP1-TPDS is crucial for appropriate clinical management of BAP1 germline variant carriers and their families, including genetic counseling and surveillance for new tumors. Methods: We collated germline variant status, tumor diagnoses, and information on BAP1 immunohistochemistry or loss of somatic heterozygosity on 106 published and 75 unpublished BAP1 germline variant-positive families worldwide to better characterize the genotypes and phenotypes associated with the BAP1-TPDS. Tumor spectrum and ages of onset were compared between missense and null variants. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: The 181 families carried 140 unique BAP1 germline variants. The collated data confirmed the core tumor spectrum associated with the BAP1-TPDS and showed that some families carrying missense variants can exhibit this phenotype. A variety of noncore BAP1-TPDS -associated tumors were found in families of variant carriers. Median ages of onset of core tumor types were lower in null than missense variant carriers for all tumors combined (P < .001), mesothelioma (P < .001), cutaneous melanoma (P < .001), and nonmelanoma skin cancer (P < .001). Conclusions: This analysis substantially increases the number of pathogenic BAP1 germline variants and refines the phenotype. It highlights the need for a curated registry of germline variant carriers for proper assessment of the clinical phenotype of the BAP1-TPDS and pathogenicity of new variants, thus guiding management of patients and informing areas requiring further research.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/diagnóstico , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Idade de Início , Alelos , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Síndromes Neoplásicas Hereditárias/epidemiologia , Fenótipo , Medição de Risco
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