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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 754: 142122, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920399

RESUMO

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered the main sources of chemicals of emerging concern (CECs) in aquatic environments, and can negatively impact aquatic ecosystems. In this study, WWTP influent, effluent, and sludge, and upstream and downstream waters from the WWTP recipient were investigated at 15 locations for a total of 164 CECs, including pharmaceuticals, personal care products, industrial chemicals, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), and pesticides. In addition, zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity tests (ZFET) were applied to WWTP influent and effluent, and upstream and downstream waters from WWTP recipients. A total of 119 CECs were detected in at least one sample, mean concentrations ranging from 0.11 ng/L (propylparaben) to 64,000 ng/L (caffeine), in wastewater samples and from 0.44 ng/L (ciprofloxacin) to 19,000 ng/L (metformin) in surface water samples. Large variations of CEC concentrations were found between the selected WWTPs, which can be explained by differences in CEC composition in influent water and WWTP treatment process. The sludge-water partitioning coefficient (Kd) of CECs showed a significant linear correlation to octanol/water partition coefficient (KOW) (p < 0.001), and thus could be used for predicting their fate in the aqueous and solid phase. The ΣCEC concentrations in WWTPs declined by on average 60%, based on comparisons of WWTP influent and effluent concentrations. The high concentrations of CECs in WWTP effluent resulted in, on average, 50% higher concentrations of CECs in water downstream of WWTPs compared with upstream. Some WWTP samples showed toxicity in ZFET compared with the respective control group, but no individual CECs or groups of CECs could explain this toxicity. These results could provide a theoretical basis for optimization of existing treatment systems of different designs, and could significantly contribute to protecting recipient waters.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Esgotos , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Environ Pollut ; : 116121, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33272798

RESUMO

POCIS is the most widely applied passive sampler of polar organic substances, because it was one of the first commercially available samplers for that purpose on the market, but also for its applicability for a wide range of substances and conditions. Its main weakness is the variability of sampling performance with exposure conditions. In our study we took a pragmatic approach and performed in situ calibration for a set of 76 pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in five sampling campaigns in surface water, covering various temperature and flow conditions. In individual campaigns, RS were calculated for up to 47 compounds ranging from 0.01 to 0.63 L d-1, with the overall median value of 0.10 L d-1. No clear changes of RS with water temperature or discharge could be found for any of the investigated substances. The absence of correlation of experimental RS with physical-chemical properties in combination with the lack of mechanistic understanding of compound uptake to POCIS implies that practical estimation of aqueous concentrations from uptake in POCIS depends on compound-specific experimental calibration data. Performance of POCIS was compared with grab sampling of water in seven field campaigns comprising multiple sampling sites, where sampling by both methods was done in parallel. The comparison showed that for 25 of 36 tested compounds more than 50% of POCIS-derived aqueous concentrations did not differ from median of grab sampling values more than by a factor of 2. Further, for 30 of 36 compounds, more than 80% of POCIS data did not differ from grab sampling data more than by a factor of 5. When accepting this level of accuracy, in situ derived sampling rates are sufficiently robust for application of POCIS for identification of spatial and temporal contamination trends in surface waters.

3.
Talanta ; 219: 121294, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32887036

RESUMO

A new extraction method with limited clean-up requirements prior to screening various matrices for organic micropollutants using liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for analysis was developed. First, the performance of three extraction methods (QuEChERS with SPE clean-up, ultrasonication with SPE clean-up, extraction without SPE clean-up) was tested, optimized, and compared using >200 contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) together covering a wide range of physicochemical properties applicable for suspect and non-target screening in biota. White-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) muscle tissue was used in method development and optimization. The method without SPE clean-up was then applied to European perch (Perca fluviatilis) muscle, heart, and liver tissues. The optimization and application of the method demonstrated a wide applicable domain of the novel extraction method regarding species, tissues, and chemicals. For future applications, the suitability of the method for suspect and non-target screening was tested. Overall, our extraction method appears to be sufficiently simple and broad (relatively non-discriminant) for use prior to analysis of CECs in various biota.

4.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127293, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535449

RESUMO

The occurrence and distribution of 111 organic micropollutants (OMPs) were evaluated in water and sediment samples from Lake Mälaren, Sweden, using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The partitioning of contaminants between lake compartments was estimated using solid water distribution coefficients (Kd) and organic carbon-water partitioning coefficients (KOC). In total, 30 and 24 OMPs were detected in lake water and sediment, respectively. Concentrations ranged from low ng/L to 89 ng/L (lamotrigine) in lake water and from low ng/g dry weight (dw) to 28 ng/g dw (citalopram) in sediment. Carbamazepine, lamotrigine, caffeine, and tolyltriazole were the dominant compounds in Lake Mälaren samples (both water and sediment). Seventeen OMPs were detected in both water and sediment samples, including carbamazepine, DEET, tolyltriazole, bicalutamide, caffeine, lamotrigine, and cetirizine. Log Kd values varied between 0.84 for lamotrigine and 4.4 for citalopram, while log KOC values varied between 2.1 for lamotrigine and 5.9 for citalopram. These results indicate that sorption to sediment plays a minor role in removal of all OMPs analyzed in the aqueous phase except for citalopram and cetirizine, which showed high sorption potential. The environmental risks of OMPs were assessed based on the RQ values. The worst-case scenario for environmental risk assessment was conducted using the maximum measured environment concentration. For most of the target OMPs, including tolyltriazole, bicalutamide, fexofenadine, oxazepam, cetirizine, and diclofenac, the RQ values were below 0.01, indicating low or no risk to lake ecosystems.


Assuntos
Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Lagos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Ecossistema , Ecotoxicologia , Monitoramento Ambiental , Suécia
5.
Chemosphere ; 249: 126168, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086062

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to comprehensively investigate the occurrence of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in the surface water in Lake Mälaren over a period of one year and assess the spatial (horizontal and vertical) distribution and seasonal trends of OMPs. The applied multi-residue method comprised 111 OMPs covering compounds with wide range of physicalal-chemical properties. In total, 46 OMPs were detected at least once above limit of quantification (LOQ). DEET (diethyltoluamide), lamotrigine, bicalutamide, tolyltriazole, caffeine, carbamazepine, metoprolol, oxazepam, cetirizine, fexofenadine, lidocaine and tramadol were detected in more than 75% of the sampling points. The highest detected concentration was found for lamotrigine with 140 ng/L. The locations Ekoln and Västeråsfjärden were identified to be most affected by OMPs pollution. In the surface water (0.5 m depth) most highest concentrations of OMPs were observed in spring and lower concentrations in summer. Antihistamine demonstrated a seasonal trend that can be related to seasonal consumption patterns. The investigation of the vertical distribution of OMPs demonstrated that thermal lake stratification can lead to different concentrations within the water column. For instance, in February the highest concentration for most OMPs was observed in the deepest sampled water depth (30 m). Two industrial chemicals, tolyltriazole and tris(2-butoxylethyl)phosphate were detected frequently and it is recommended to incorporate these compounds more regularly in future analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first one to report the occurrence and distribution of OMPs representing such wide physico-chemical properties, including industrial chemicals, in a Swedish lake.


Assuntos
Água Potável/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Lagos/análise , Organofosfatos/análise , Estações do Ano , Suécia
6.
Environ Sci Technol ; 54(5): 2913-2921, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990190

RESUMO

Carbamazepine (CBZ) is an anticonvulsant medication with highly persistent properties in the aquatic environment, where it has the potential to affect nontarget biota. Because CBZ and many other pharmaceuticals are not readily removed in conventional sewage treatment plants (STP), additional STP effluent treatment technologies are being evaluated and implemented. Whole effluent ozonation is a prospective method to remove pharmaceuticals such as CBZ, yet knowledge on the toxicity of CBZ ozonation byproducts (OBPs) is lacking. This study presents, for the first time, in vivo individual and mixture toxicity of four putative OBPs, that is, carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide, 10,11-Dihydrocarbamazepine, 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-4-hydro-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2-one (BQM), and 1-(2-benzaldehyde)-(1H,3H)-quinazoline-2,4-dione (BQD) in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos. BQM and BQD were isolated from the ozonated solution as they were not commercially available. The study confirmed that the OBP mixture caused embryotoxic responses comparable to that of ozonated CBZ. Individual compound embryotoxicity assessment further revealed that BQM and BQD were the drivers of embryotoxicity. OBP chemical stability in ozonated CBZ water solution during 2 week dark storage at 22 °C was also assessed. The OBP concentrations remained over time, except for BQD which decreased by 94%. Meanwhile, ozonated CBZ persistently induced embryotoxicity over 2 week storage, potentially illustrating environmental concern.


Assuntos
Ozônio , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Carbamazepina , Estudos Prospectivos , Esgotos , Peixe-Zebra
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109912, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31706240

RESUMO

Synthetic progestins are emerging contaminants of the aquatic environment with endocrine disrupting potential. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the synthetic progestins gestodene, and drospirenone on sex differentiation in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) by histological analysis. To gain insights into the mechanisms behind the observations from the in vivo experiment on sex differentiation, we analyzed expression of genes involved in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad (HPG) and hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axes, histology of hepatopancreas, and in vitro bioassays. Carp were continuously exposed to concentrations of 2 ng/L of single progestins (gestodene or drospirenone) or to their mixture at concentration 2 ng/L of each. The exposure started 24 h after fertilization of eggs and concluded 160 days post-hatching. Our results showed that exposure of common carp to a binary mixture of drospirenone and gestodene caused increased incidence of intersex (32%) when compared to clean water and solvent control groups (both 3%). Intersex most probably was induced by a combination of multiple modes of action of the studied substances, namely anti-gonadotropic activity, interference with androgen receptor, and potentially also with HPT axis or estrogen receptor.


Assuntos
Androstenos/toxicidade , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Norpregnenos/toxicidade , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipófise/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/genética
8.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124587, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425864

RESUMO

Pharmaceuticals are emerging as environmentally problematic compounds. As they are often not appropriately removed by sewage treatment plants, pharmaceutical compounds end up in surface water environments worldwide at concentrations in the ng to µg L-1 range. There is a need to further explore single compound and mixture effects using e.g. in vivo test model systems. We have investigated, for the first time, behavioral effects in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to a binary mixture of an antidepressant drug (citalopram) and a synthetic opioid (tramadol). Citalopram and tramadol have a similar mode of action (serotonin reuptake inhibition) and are known to produce drug-drug interactional effects resulting in serotonin syndrome (SS) in humans. Zebrafish embryo-larvae were exposed to citalopram, tramadol and 1:1 binary mixture from fertilization until 144 h post-fertilization. No effects on heart rate, spontaneous tail coiling, or death/malformations were observed in any treatment at tested concentrations. Behavior (hypoactivity in dark periods) was on the other hand affected, with lowest observed effect concentrations (LOECs) of 373 µg L-1 for citalopram, 320 µg L-1 for tramadol, and 473 µg L-1 for the 1:1 mixture. Behavioral EC50 was calculated to be 471 µg L-1 for citalopram, 411 µg L-1 for tramadol, and 713 µg L-1 for the 1:1 mixture. The results of this study conclude that tramadol and citalopram produce hypoactivity in 144 hpf zebrafish larvae. Further, a 1:1 binary mixture of the two caused the same response, albeit at a higher concentration, possibly due to SS.


Assuntos
Analgésicos Opioides/farmacologia , Citalopram/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Tramadol/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Embrião não Mamífero/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
J Environ Radioact ; 211: 106043, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557702

RESUMO

The activity concentrations of Polonium-210 (210Po) and Lead-210 (210Pb) were determined in shellfish (Perna canaliculus and Paphies subtriangulata) sampled bimonthly from March 2018 to February 2019 from 14 sites around New Zealand. Activity concentrations of 210Po ranged from 4.7 ±â€¯1.1 to 324 ±â€¯17 Bq. kg-1 with a mean value of 57 ±â€¯72 Bq. kg-1 (wet weight). The activity concentrations of 210Pb were lower than those for 210Po (0.1 ±â€¯0.4 and 1.9 ±â€¯0.4 Bq. kg-1, with a mean value of 0.7 ±â€¯0.4 Bq. kg-1, wet weight). The calculated 210Po/210Pb activity concentration ratios were higher than unity in all samples indicating that radionuclides are not in equilibrium in shellfish and most of the 210Po was unsupported by its grandparent 210Pb. No significant difference was noted in 210Po activity concentration between different seasons, species or shellfish condition index. Significant spatial variability in 210Po activity concentration was observed with elevated 210Po activity concentration in two sampling sites: Ninety Mile Beach (mean 257 ±â€¯47 Bq. kg-1) and Maunganui Bluff (mean 127 ±â€¯22 Bq. kg-1). Elevated 210Po is hypothesised to be related to an increase of 210Po accumulation through diet. Individuals who consume large quantities of shellfish (10 g per day or more) from areas affected by elevated 210Po activity concentration may be exposed to an annual committed effective dose from 210Po in shellfish in excess of 1 mSv.


Assuntos
Polônio , Radioisótopos de Chumbo , Nova Zelândia , Monitoramento de Radiação , Frutos do Mar
10.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109407, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472377

RESUMO

Sewage sludge from wastewater treatment plants, which may contain various contaminants including pharmaceuticals, is often used as a soil amendment. These contaminants may subsequently be taken up by plants. In the present study we examined uptake of select pharmaceuticals from sewage sludge applied to soils by spinach plants. Seven soils were amended with sewage sludge from two wastewater treatment plants (A and B). Concentrations of compounds in plant tissues (roots and leaves) of spinach planted 45 days in these soils under greenhouse conditions were evaluated after harvest. The largest bioaccumulation in the roots and leaves was observed for sertraline (bioaccumulation factors (BAF) of 3.3-37.9 and 1-13.4, respectively), tramadol (1.3-10.0 and 4.8-30.0), and carbamazepine (2.2-17.2 and 6.1-48.8) and its metabolite carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide (not-quantified to 7.3 and 9.3-96.7). Elevated bioaccumulation in spinach roots was also identified for telmisartan (3.0-20.3) and miconazole (4.3-15.1), and leaves for metoprolol acid (not-quantified to 24.3). BAF values resulting from application of sludge B were similar to or moderately higher than BAFs from sludge A. The BAF values of carbamazepine and carbamazepine 10,11-epoxide in all tissues were negatively correlated with soil cation exchange capacity (CEC). This negative correlation between BAF and CEC was also observed for tramadol (A-roots and B-leaves), citalopram (B-roots), and telmisartan (B-roots) or between BAF and clay content for metoprolol acid (A-leaves and B-roots), tramadol (B-roots and A-leaves) and venlafaxine (B-roots). However, in the case of some other compounds (i.e. sertraline, amitriptyline, mirtazapine, metoprolol), uptake and the subsequent translocation and transformation from 3 soils of a higher pH and base cation saturation (Stagnic Chernozem Siltic, Haplic Chernozem and Greyic Phaeozem) significantly differed from 4 soils with a lower pH and base cation saturation (Haplic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol, Dystric Cambisol and Arenosol Epieutric). Such observations proved strong compound dependent influences of soil conditions on various compounds bioaccumulations in plants and necessity of studying these processes always in diverse soils.


Assuntos
Poluentes do Solo , Solo , Esgotos , Spinacia oleracea , Águas Residuárias
11.
Chemosphere ; 234: 931-941, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519102

RESUMO

Understanding the occurrence and sources of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in aquatic environments is essential for environmental risk assessment and adequate interventions to secure good status of aquatic environments. The occurrence and source apportionment of 77 OMPs in the River Fyris catchment (Uppsala, Sweden) were investigated by comparing hospital wastewater, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent, and surface water. Hospital wastewater was identified as an important source for some classes of OMPs, e.g., antibiotics (number of OMPs (n) = 6) and antidepressants (n = 4), contributing 38% and 31%, respectively, of the mass loads in total WWTP influent. Painkillers (n = 5) and hormones (n = 3), originating mainly from urban Uppsala, contributed 94% and 95%, respectively. WWTP removal efficiency varied from 100% for acetaminophen to <0% for i.e. clindamycin, lamotrigine, bicalutamide, and sucralose. In the recipient River Fyris, the ΣOMP concentration downstream of the WWTP (738 ng L-1) was more than double that upstream (338 ng L-1), demonstrating the high impact of the WWTP on recipient water quality. Surface water risk quotients (RQs) showed a moderate risk of adverse chronic effects (RQ > 0.1) for trimethoprim, norsertraline, and metoprolol downstream of the WWTP, and for norsertraline in the recipient river upstream and Lake Ekoln downstream of the WWTP. Recipient metoprolol and trimethoprim, compounds poorly removed in the WWTP, mainly (>90%) originated from wastewater from urban Uppsala, whereas recipient norsertraline originated upstream of the city. No risk compound was apparently sourced from hospital wastewater.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Hospitais , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Antibacterianos/análise , Cidades , Lagos , Rios , Suécia
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 692: 259-266, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349167

RESUMO

Traditional swine manure treatments are not fully effective in the removal of veterinary drugs. Moreover, they are costly and entail a significant carbon footprint in many cases. Innovative biological approaches based on phototrophic microorganisms have recently emerged as promising alternatives to overcome those limitations. This work evaluated the removal of 19 veterinary drugs (i.e., 16 antibiotics, 1 analgesic, 1 anti-parasitic and 1 hormone) from piggery wastewater (PWW) in two open photobioreactors (PBR) operated with a consortium of microalgae-bacteria (AB-PBR) and purple photosynthetic bacteria (PPB-PBR). Multiple hydraulic retention times (HRT), in particular 11, 8 and 4 days, were tested during stage I, II and III, respectively. Ten out of 19 target compounds were detected with inlet drug concentrations ranging from 'non-detected' (n.d.) to almost 23,000 ng L-1 for the antibiotic oxytetracycline. Moreover, three of the antibiotics (i.e., enrofloxacin, sulfadiazine and oxytetracycline) were found at concentrations above the analytical linearity range in some or all of the samples under study. AB-PBR supported higher removal efficiencies (REs) than PPB-PBR, except for danofloxacin. Overall, REs progressively decreased when decreasing the HRT. The highest REs (>90%) were observed for doxycycline (95 ±â€¯3%) and oxytetracycline (93 ±â€¯3%) in AB-PBR during stage I. The other drugs, except sulfadimidine that was the most recalcitrant, showed REs above 70% during stage I in the same photobioreactor. In contrast, no removal was observed for danofloxacin in AB-PBR during stage III, sulfadimidine in PPB-PBR during stage III or marbofloxacin in PPB-PBR during the entire experiment.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Microalgas/metabolismo , Consórcios Microbianos , Fotobiorreatores/microbiologia , Drogas Veterinárias/análise , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Proteobactérias/metabolismo , Sus scrofa , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/instrumentação , Águas Residuárias/análise
13.
Chemosphere ; 225: 191-199, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875502

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical residues are polluting the surface water environments worldwide. Sewage and wastewater treatment, therefore, needs to be improved in order to remove pharmaceutical residues from the effluent. One such treatment improvement is effluent ozonation. Even though ozonation has proven to be very efficient in reducing pharmaceutical parent compound concentrations in wastewater effluents, much remains unclear regarding potentially toxic ozonation by-product (OBP) formation. In this study, we sought to elucidate the aquatic toxicity of ozonated pharmaceuticals in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos in a static 144 h post fertilization (hpf) fish embryotoxicity (ZFET) assay. Three pharmaceuticals commonly detected in wastewater effluents, i.e. carbamazepine, diclofenac, and oxazepam, were selected for testing. Toxicity was assessed before and after 1 min ozonation (0.053 mg L-1 peak O3 concentration) and 10 min ozonation (0.147 mg L-1 peak O3 concentration). Chemical analysis showed that carbamazepine and diclofenac were largely removed by ozone (90 ±â€¯11% and 97 ±â€¯3.8%), whereas oxazepam was removed to a lesser extent (19 ±â€¯5.7%). The ZFET assay revealed diverging toxicities. Diclofenac embryotoxicity decreased with increasing ozonation. Oxazepam did not cause embryotoxicity in the ZFET assay either pre- or post ozonation, but larvae swimming activity was affected at 144 hpf. Carbamazepine embryotoxicity, on the other hand, increased with increasing ozonation. Chemical analysis showed the formation of two OBPs (carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide and 10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine), possibly explaining the increased embryotoxicity. The results of this study highlight the importance of new chemical and toxicological knowledge regarding the formation of OBPs in post-ozonated effluents.


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/toxicidade , Diclofenaco/toxicidade , Oxazepam/toxicidade , Ozônio/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra/embriologia , Animais , Carbamazepina/química , Diclofenaco/química , Oxazepam/química , Esgotos/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química
14.
Chemosphere ; 222: 333-344, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708167

RESUMO

Oxytetracycline (OTC) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic widely used in livestock production. Like many other pharmaceuticals, OTC is not completely metabolized by the organism and thus, increasing amounts of the compound are being detected in the aquatic environment. The assessment of the environmental risk of pharmaceuticals is hindered by their very low concentrations and specific modes of action and thus relevant exposure scenarios and sensitive endpoints are needed. Thus, this work aimed to study the long-term effect of OTC exposure in zebrafish (at behavior and biochemical levels) and associated bacterial communities (fish gut and water bacterial communities). Results revealed that at behavioral level, boldness increase (manifested by increased exploratory behavior of a new environment) was observed in fish exposed to low OTC concentrations. Moreover, changes in fish swimming pattern were observed in light periods (increased stress response: hyperactivity and freezing) probably due to photo-sensibility conferred by OTC exposure. Effects at biochemical level suggest that long-term exposure to OTC interfere with cellular energy allocation mainly by reducing lipids levels and increasing energy consumption. Moreover, evidences of oxidative damage were also observed (reduced levels of TG, GST and CAT). The analysis of water and gut microbiome revealed changes in the structure and diversity of bacterial communities potentially leading to changes in communities' biological function. Some of the effects were observed at the lowest concentration tested, 0.1 µg/L which is a concentration already detected in the environment and thus clearly demonstrating the need of a serious ecotoxicological assessment of OTC effects on non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oxitetraciclina/farmacologia , Peixe-Zebra/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Bactérias/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxitetraciclina/toxicidade , Natação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 663: 206-215, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30711587

RESUMO

High rates of progestins consumption in the form of active ingredients in women's oral contraceptives and other hormonal preparations may lead to their increased concentrations in aquatic environments and subsequent harmful effect on fish reproduction. The objective of the present study was to assess the effect of etonogestrel, a third-generation synthetic progestin, on the reproductive behavior, fertility, gonads histology, and secondary sexual characteristics of male and female Endler's guppies (Poecilia wingei). Fish were subjected for 34 days to two concentrations of etonogestrel, including one possibly environmentally relevant (3.2 ng L-1) and one sublethal (320 ng L-1) concentration. A mating behavior study was subsequently conducted and revealed that the treatment with etonogestrel significantly reduced mating frequency in the exposed fish compared to controls. All the exposed females were unable to reproduce. In addition, female fish exposed to the highest level of etonogestrel were masculinized, as their anal fins and body coloration showed patterns similar to those of male fish. Etonogestrel-exposed females also had fewer developed oocytes. In conclusion, the low etonogestrel concentration (3.2 ng L-1) led to a reduction of mating activity in males without effect on their reproductive success, but it completely inhibited reproduction in females. Exposure to etonogestrel clearly has more severe consequences for females than males.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Desogestrel/efeitos adversos , Poecilia/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Sexual Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Poecilia/anatomia & histologia , Caracteres Sexuais
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(10): 9876-9891, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30734257

RESUMO

Soils can be contaminated by pharmaceuticals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of soil conditions (influencing sorption and persistence of pharmaceuticals in soils) and plant type on the root uptake of selected pharmaceuticals and their transformation in plant-soil systems. Four plants (lamb's lettuce, spinach, arugula, radish) planted in 3 soils were irrigated for 20 days (26) with water contaminated by one of 3 pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, atenolol, sulfamethoxazole) or their mixture. The concentrations of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in soils and plant tissues were evaluated after the harvest. Sulfamethoxazole and atenolol dissipated rapidly from soils. The larger concentrations of both compounds and an atenolol metabolite were found in roots than in leaves. Sulfamethoxazole metabolites were below the limits of quantifications. Carbamazepine was stable in soils, easily uptaken, accumulated, and metabolized in plant leaves. The efficiency of radish and arugula (both family Brassicaceae) in metabolizing was very low contrary to the high and moderate efficiencies of lamb's lettuce and spinach, respectively. Compounds' transformations mostly masked the soil impact on their accumulation in plant tissues. The negative relationships were found between the carbamazepine sorption coefficients and its concentrations in roots of radish, lamb's lettuce, and spinach.


Assuntos
Atenolol/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Sulfametoxazol/metabolismo , Carbamazepina/análise , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raphanus/metabolismo , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 659: 326-334, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30599351

RESUMO

Drug consumption in individual cities, regions, and at various music events and festivals across the EU has generally been monitored via questionnaires, patients' medical data, and police reports. However, an overview of drug consumption obtained from these methods can be negatively affected by various subjective factors. We aimed to investigate an association between levels of target drugs in wastewater, music genres, and festival courses. The occurrence of illicit drugs, their metabolites, and psychoactive compounds was investigated in the influent of six wastewater treatment plants in the Czech and Slovak Republic during seven large-scale music festivals from different music genres: metal, rock, pop, country and folk, ethnic, multi-genre, dance, and trance. The total number of participants included >130,000 active festival attendees. The association between music genre and illicit drug and/or psychoactive pharmaceutical consumptions is discussed on the basis of the results obtained through wastewater analyses. The observed trend was similar to worldwide published data with a specific local phenomenon of methamphetamine prevalence that did not significantly change between music events. Increased specific loads of cocaine (measured as its metabolite benzoylecgonine) and Ecstasy, along with some cannabis, were mainly observed during pop/rock and dance music festivals. However, there was no significant increase observed in the specific loads of all monitored psychoactive pharmaceuticals. This study demonstrates that the abuse of some illicit drugs is closely associated with specific music preferences.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Férias e Feriados , Drogas Ilícitas/análise , Música , Águas Residuárias/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , República Tcheca , Humanos , Eslováquia
18.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 466-484, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159481

RESUMO

This study characterized changes in biomarker responses in common carp (Cyprinus carpio) upon exposure to effluent water discharged from a sewage treatment plant (STP) under real conditions. Fish were exposed to contamination in Cezarka pond, which receives all of its water input from the STP in the town of Vodnany, Czech Republic. Five sampling events were performed at day 0, 30, 90, 180, and 360 starting in April 2015. In total, 62 pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) were detected in the polar organic chemical integrative sampler. Compared to a control pond, the total concentration of PPCPs was 45, 16, 7, and 7 times higher in Cezarka pond at day 30, 90, 180, and 360, respectively. The result of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme biomarkers indicated alterations in the liver and intestine tissues of fish from Cezarka pond at day 30 and 360, respectively. High plasma vitellogenin levels were observed in both exposed females (180 and 360 days) and males (360 days) compared with their respective controls. However, only exposed female fish had higher vitellogenin mRNA expression than the control fish in these periods. Exposed female fish showed irregular structure of the ovary with scattered oocytes, which further developed to a vitellogenic stage at day 360. Low white blood cell levels were indicated in all exposed fish. Despite numerous alterations in exposed fish, favorable ecological conditions including high availability of food resulted in a better overall condition of the exposed fish after 1 year of exposure compared to the controls.


Assuntos
Carpas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Feminino , Masculino , Esgotos , Vitelogeninas
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 2): 2235-2246, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30326456

RESUMO

Synthetic musk compounds are extensively used in personal care and cosmetic products around the world. Because they are not completely removed in sewage treatment plants, they eventually end up in aquatic environments. The aim of this review was to summarize published information on effects of polycyclic musks on aquatic organisms and to discuss whether the experimental design of toxicological studies involving these substances could influence the results obtained. With the exception of one study run in a flow-through system, all published toxicological studies on synthetic polycyclic musks have been conducted in semi-static or even static systems. Based upon data in the literature and our own results, we conclude that in toxicological tests with semi-static set-ups, concentrations of polycyclic musks decrease with time between bath exchanges, and, as a result, tested organisms are not being exposed to stable concentrations but rather to concentration pulses. The duration and character of these pulses are influenced mainly by aeration of experimental baths, as polycyclic musks have a tendency to volatilize from water baths. Under semi-static conditions, tested organisms may be subjected to lower concentration of the tested substance for relatively long periods. Those levels may even fall below the limits of quantification. During these periods, some level of detoxification and/or elimination (depuration) of the toxicant may reduce toxic effect of the previous exposures. Consequently, toxicity of polycyclic musk substances for aquatic organisms obtained under these conditions may be underestimated. Based upon existing data in the literature, therefore, it is very difficult to correctly estimate risk of polycyclic musks to aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Organismos Aquáticos/efeitos dos fármacos , Produtos Domésticos/efeitos adversos , Compostos Policíclicos/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos
20.
Environ Manage ; 63(4): 485, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29404738

RESUMO

The original version of this Article unfortunately contained an error. The authors' given and family names were transposed erroneously. It has been corrected now in this Erratum.

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