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1.
Braz Oral Res ; 34: e111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876124

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effect of selective carious tissue removal on the fracture strength and failure mode of composite restorations in molars presenting only the buccal cusps. Deep cavities were prepared on the occlusal surface, and the lingual cusps were removed. Carious lesions in the middle of the pulpal wall were artificially induced with acetic acid (pH = 4.5) for 35 days. The demineralized dentin was left intact or was completely removed prior to restoration with a bulk-fill composite (n = 10). Images of the specimens were obtained by optical coherence tomography (OCT) before and after the caries induction/removal. The mechanical resistance to fracture by axial compressive loading and the failure type and extension were determined. The pulpal wall/composite interface of the fractured specimens was analyzed by OCT. The data were analyzed for significance with t-tests (α = 0.05). The deepest cavities and a more frequent occurrence of pulpal exposure were observed more often for non-selective carious tissue removal. The protocol of carious tissue removal did not affect the fracture strength (p = 0.554). An increased occurrence of catastrophic failures involving the roots was observed for non-selective carious tissue removal. Some occurrences of restoration displacement or cracks throughout the resin-dentin were observed only for the selective carious tissue approach. Selective carious tissue removal is a feasible approach to extensively damaged teeth since it reduced the occurrence of pulpal exposure and root fractures, without compromising the fracture strength.

2.
Clin Oral Investig ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32607827

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to investigate the influence of Nd:YAG laser and aluminum oxide sandblasting on the shear bond strength (SBS) of lingual brackets and to optically analyze the behavior of the enamel morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-five bovines' incisors teeth were divided into 5 groups (n = 7), according to the surface preconditioning: G1, control group; G2, Nd:YAG laser; G3, laser + aluminum oxide sandblasting (Al2O3); G4, Al2O3; and G5, Al2O3 + laser. All groups had lingual brackets bonded and shear debonded after 72 h. SBS values were analyzed, and the enamel morphology was evaluated by optical coherence tomography (OCT) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), before and after preconditioning surface. The optical attenuation coefficient (α) analysis was obtained from OCT images. Data analysis used the ANOVA test, followed by post hoc Tukey, Kruskal Wallis, and post hoc Dunn tests (significance of 5%). RESULTS: The SBS values presented similarly among groups, but the value of α showed statistical difference (p-value = 0.0124) between G3 and G5 with the others. Optical analyses indicated a melting on the enamel that suffered laser irradiation for G2 and G5 and crystal surface disorganization for G4. Sandblasting partially removes the melting of the laser effect (G3). CONCLUSION: The sandblasting is a dispensable step for bonding lingual brackets, and the melting of the enamel after laser irradiation does not compromise the bracket adhesive resistance. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The Nd:YAG laser became an interesting tool to prevent caries and decrease prevalence of white spot lesions in orthodontic treatments, without systemic effects in patients with genetic high risks of caries.

3.
Langmuir ; 36(30): 8723-8732, 2020 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643936

RESUMO

A simple method for immobilization of the chemotherapy drug paclitaxel (PTX) on hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (n-HAP) using the biopolymer chitosan as a trapping agent is described focusing on applications involving breast cancer cells. n-HAP with two distinct crystallinity profiles were used: with predominant crystallization along the long axis and with a more homogeneous crystallization in all directions. In the first scenario, the interactions between chitosan and both the OH and PO43- groups on the surface of the nanoparticles are favored and lead to a more efficient attachment of the drug. In this case, PTX is found to remain mostly attached to the n-HAP for at least 24 h, while being dispersed in aqueous solution. During this time, the activity of the drug is inhibited as corroborated by in vitro assays with breast cancer cells. With that, the in vitro experiments revealed distinct effects from the drug-loaded nanoparticles on the cells depending on the experimental conditions. In a short term, that is, in 24 h, the cells exhibit higher viability than those challenged with nonloaded materials. Nevertheless, after 72 h, even a small content of PTX in the presence of n-HAP can reduce the cells' viability via stimulation of the apoptotic phenotype and suppression of survival stimuli.

4.
Nanoscale ; 12(29): 15706-15710, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672308

RESUMO

We demonstrate random laser emission from Rhodamine 6G with ZrTe2 transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) as nanoscatters, both in powder and 2D nanoflakes liquid suspension. The 2D semimetal ZrTe2 was synthesized by a modified redox exfoliation method to provide single layer TMD, which was employed for the first time as the scatter medium to provide feedback in an organic gain medium random laser. In order to exploit random laser emission and its threshold value, replica symmetry breaking leading to a photonic paramagnetic to photonic spin glass transition in both 2D and 3D (powder) ZrTe2 was demonstrated. One important aspect of mixing organic dyes with ZrTe2 is that there is no chemical reaction leading to dye degradation, demonstrated by operating over more than 2 hours of pulsed (5 Hz) random laser emission.

5.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(6)2020 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521831

RESUMO

The Columbidae species (Aves, Columbiformes) show considerable variation in their diploid numbers (2n = 68-86), but there is limited understanding of the events that shaped the extant karyotypes. Hence, we performed whole chromosome painting (wcp) for paints GGA1-10 and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) probes for chromosomes GGA11-28 for Columbina passerina, Columbina talpacoti, Patagioenas cayennensis, Geotrygon violacea and Geotrygon montana. Streptopelia decaocto was only investigated with paints because BACs for GGA10-28 had been previously analyzed. We also performed phylogenetic analyses in order to trace the evolutionary history of this family in light of chromosomal changes using our wcp data with chicken probes and from Zenaida auriculata, Columbina picui, Columba livia and Leptotila verreauxi, previously published. G-banding was performed on all these species. Comparative chromosome paint and G-banding results suggested that at least one interchromosomal and many intrachromosomal rearrangements had occurred in the diversification of Columbidae species. On the other hand, a high degree of conservation of microchromosome organization was observed in these species. Our cladistic analysis, considering all the chromosome rearrangements detected, provided strong support for L. verreauxi and P. cayennensis, G. montana and G. violacea, C. passerina and C. talpacoti having sister taxa relationships, as well as for all Columbidae species analyzed herein. Additionally, the chromosome characters were mapped in a consensus phylogenetic topology previously proposed, revealing a pericentric inversion in the chromosome homologous to GGA4 in a chromosomal signature unique to small New World ground doves.

6.
J Contemp Dent Pract ; 21(3): 227-232, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32434965

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the effect of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser at different irradiation parameters and acid etching on the shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets to enamel. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty bovine incisors were randomly distributed into groups (n = 10): GI: 37% phosphoric acid etching; GII: Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching 19.1 J/cm2; GIII: Er,Cr:YSGG, 29.3 J/cm2; and GIV: Er,Cr:YSGG, 42.4 J/cm2. After treatments, metallic brackets were bonded using Transbond XT adhesive system. After light curing, the samples were subjected to 500 thermal cycles, debonded with a universal testing machine, and the SBS values were recorded. After debonding, surface morphology was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The values of SBS testing were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey post hoc test, at 5% significance level. RESULTS: The mean SBS values of GI, GII, GIII, and GIV groups were 6.2 ± 1.7 MPa, 4.6 ± 2.5 MPa, 7.0 ± 2.2 MPa, and 8.0 ± 3.6 MPa, respectively. Laser irradiation promoted rough surfaces in all parameters used, and the OCT analysis revealed higher optical changes on lased groups when compared with phosphoric acid. CONCLUSION: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation operated at 42.4 J/cm2 and 29.3 J/cm2 is a better alternative for etching enamel prior to the orthodontic treatment than the phosphoric acid. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation is better than the phosphoric acid for etching enamel prior to the orthodontic treatment because laser irradiation promotes similar SBSs and preventing demineralization around orthodontic brackets.


Assuntos
Colagem Dentária , Lasers de Estado Sólido , Braquetes Ortodônticos , Animais , Bovinos , Esmalte Dentário , Propriedades de Superfície
7.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(5): 4631-4642, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637716

RESUMO

To better address whether the long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) HOTAIR and HOTTIP are mechanosensitive genes, they were investigated in differentially challenged endothelial cells with respect to a circuit of tensional forces, considering the performance of both arterial and venous endothelial cells. We subjected arterial- and venous-obtained endothelial cells to a circuit of tensional forces within a shear stress model in vitro. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that microRNA (miRNA)-related processing machinery is significantly required in shear stressed arterial endothelial cell metabolism, which orchestrates miRNA (small noncoding RNA) involvement, and their involvement suggests lncRNA involvement. Of lncRNAs HOTAIR and HOTTIP, only HOTAIR was mechanosensitive considering both arterial and venous endothelial cells, presenting a positive correlation between methylation signature and gene expression. Thereafter, using bioinformatics tools, lncRNA HOTAIR was predicted to modulate miRNA185, miRNA-21, and miRNA23b downregulation. We compared the values of gene expression with a Pearson's correlation test, and expected correlations were observed for miRNA185 (r = 0.8664), miRNA-21 (r = 0.8605), and miRNA23b (0.9128). Taken together, these findings clearly show that lncRNA HOTAIR responds to the shear stress and emerges as a novel mechanosensitive gene in endothelial cells. Altogether, this understanding of mechanosensitive transcriptional and posttranscriptional control involving HOTAIR can also lead to new forms of therapeutic intervention for various diseases, as well as new strategies for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

8.
Braz. dent. sci ; 23(2): 1-8, 2020. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1096444

RESUMO

Objective: This study's aim was to quantify the hydrogen peroxide (HP) penetration into the pulp chamber of teeth submitted to different protocols of bleaching. Material and Methods: Ninety premolars were randomly divided into nine groups according to the bleaching agent protocol (n = 10): control (no bleaching), carbamide peroxide 10% [10% CP], carbamide peroxide 16% [16% CP], carbamide peroxide 22% [22% CP], hydrogen peroxide 4% [4% HP], hydrogen peroxide 6% [6% HP], hydrogen peroxide 7.5% [7.5% HP], hydrogen peroxide 10% [10% HP] and hydrogen peroxide 35% [35% HP]. The penetration of HP was measured via spectrophotometric analysis of the acetate buffer solution from the pulp chamber. The absorbance of the resulting solution was determined in a spectrophotometer and converted into equivalent concentration of HP (µg/ mL). To analyze the concentration of HP, the titration of bleaching agents with potassium permanganate was used. Data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test for pairwise comparison (α = 0.05). Results: Higher concentration of HP in the pulp chamber was found in the HP 35% group (p < 0.0001). No significant difference between at-home protocols were observed (p = 0.64). Titration values showed that the concentration of the products was similar to that claimed by the manufacturer. Conclusion: It follows that the amount of HP that reaches the pulp chamber is not proportional to the concentration of whitening gels, but depends on the application time recommended by the manufacturers (AU)


Objetivo: o objetivo deste estudo foi quantificar a penetração do peróxido de hidrogênio (PH) na câmara pulpar dos dentes submetidos a diferentes protocolos de clareamento. Material e Métodos: Noventa pré-molares foram divididos aleatoriamente em nove grupos, de acordo com o protocolo do agente clareador (n = 10): controle (sem clareamento), peróxido de carbamida 10% [PC 10%], peróxido de carbamida 16% [PC 16%], peróxido de carbamida 22% [PC 22%], peróxido de hidrogênio 4% [PH 4%], peróxido de hidrogênio 6% [PH 6%], peróxido de hidrogênio 7,5% [PH 7,5%], peróxido de hidrogênio 10% [PH 10%] e peróxido de hidrogênio 35% [PH 35%]. A penetração de PH foi medida por análise espectrofotométrica da solução de tampão de acetato da câmara pulpar. A absorvância da solução resultante foi determinada em um espectrofotômetro e convertida em concentração equivalente de PH (µg / mL). Para analisar a concentração de PH, foi utilizada a titulação de agentes clareadores com permanganato de potássio. Os dados foram submetidos à ANOVA e teste de Tukey para comparação pareada (α = 0,05). Resultados: Foi encontrada maior concentração de PH na câmara pulpar no grupo PH 35% (p < 0,0001). Não foi observada diferença significativa entre os protocolos domiciliares (p = 0,64). Os valores de titulação mostraram que a concentração dos produtos era semelhante à reivindicada pelo fabricante. Conclusão: Conclui-se que a quantidade de PH que atinge a câmara pulpar não é proporcional à concentração de géis clareadores, porém depende do tempo de aplicação recomendado pelos fabricantes.(AU)


Assuntos
Clareamento Dental , Permeabilidade do Esmalte Dentário , Clareadores , Peróxido de Carbamida , Peróxido de Hidrogênio
9.
J Cell Physiol ; 235(6): 5256-5269, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31858593

RESUMO

Modifications on shear stress-based mechanical forces are associated with pathophysiological susceptibility and their effect on endothelial cells (EC) needs to be better addressed looking for comprehending the cellular and molecular mechanisms. This prompted us to better evaluate the effects of shear stress in human primary venous EC obtained from the umbilical cord, using an in vitro model to mimic the laminar blood flow, reaching an intensity 1-4 Pa. First, our data shows there is a significant up-expression of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) in shear-stressed cells culminating downstream with an up-phosphorylation of AKT and up-expression of MAPK-ERK, concomitant to a dynamic cytoskeleton rearrangement upon integrin subunits (α4 and ß 3) requirements. Importantly, the results show there is significant involvement of nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), nNOS, and vascular endothelial growth factors receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in shear-stressed EC, while cell cycle-related events seem to being changed. Additionally, although diminution of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in shear-stressed EC, suggesting a global repression of genes transcription, the promoters of PI3K and eNOS genes were significantly hydroxymethylated corroborating with their respective transcriptional profiles. Finally, to better address, the pivotal role of PI3K in shear-stressed EC we have revisited these biological issues by wortmannin targeting PI3K signaling and the data shows a dependency of PI3K signaling in controlling the expression of VGFR1, VGFR2, VEGF, and eNOS, once these genes were significantly suppressed in the presence of the inhibitor, as well as transcripts from Ki67 and CDK2 genes. Finally, our data still shows a coupling between PI3K and the epigenetic landscape of shear-stressed cells, once wortmannin promotes a significant suppression of ten-11 translocation 1 (TET1), TET2, and TET3 genes, evidencing that PI3K signaling is a necessary upstream pathway to modulate TET-related genes. In this study we determined the major mechanotransduction pathway by which blood flow driven shear stress activates PI3K which plays a pivotal role on guaranteeing endothelial cell phenotype and vascular homeostasis, opening novel perspectives to understand the molecular basis of pathophysiological disorders related with the vascular system.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11765, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31409828

RESUMO

We report an alternative random laser (RL) architecture based on a flexible and ZnO-enriched cellulose acetate (CA) fiber matrix prepared by electrospinning. The electrospun fibers, mechanically reinforced by polyethylene oxide and impregnated with zinc oxide powder, were applied as an adsorbent surface to incorporate plasmonic centers (silver nanoprisms). The resulting structures - prepared in the absence (CA-ZnO) and in the presence of silver nanoparticles (CA-ZnO-Ag) - were developed to support light excitation, guiding and scattering prototypes of a RL. Both materials were excited by a pulsed (5 Hz, 5 ns) source at 355 nm and their fluorescence emission monitored at 387 nm. The results suggest that the addition of silver nanoprisms to the ZnO- enriched fiber matrix allows large improvement of the RL performance due to the plasmon resonance of the silver nanoprisms, with ~80% reduction in threshold energy. Besides the intensity and spectral analysis, the RL characterization included its spectral and intensity angular dependences. Bending the flexible RL did not affect the spectral characteristics of the device. No degradation was observed in the random laser emission for more than 10,000 shots of the pump laser.

11.
Eur J Oral Sci ; 127(5): 472-475, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361368

RESUMO

Dental biofilm - in which a diverse set of microorganisms are embedded in a complex polysaccharide matrix that adheres to oral components - is one of the most complex microbial communities in the human body. As biofilm formation is related to oral infections, such as caries and periodontal diseases, strategies for biofilm control are crucial for maintaining oral health. Xylitol, a synthetic sugar used as a sucrose substitute, has been shown to reduce biofilm formation. However, its precise mechanism of action on biofilm reduction has so far not been elucidated. Previous studies demonstrate that bacterial ß-glucosidase action is crucial for biofilm formation. Here, we investigated the correlation between salivary ß-glucosidase activity and dental plaque occurrence. We found a positive correlation between enzymatic activity and the presence of dental biofilm. We observed that xylitol inhibits ß-glucosidase in human saliva. Kinetic studies also confirmed that xylitol acts as a mixed type inhibitor of salivary ß-glucosidase. Based on our data, we suggest that xylitol impairs oral biofilm formation by the inhibition of bacterial ß-glucosidase, which is essential for biofilm formation in the oral cavity.

12.
Imaging Sci Dent ; 49(2): 171-176, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281794

RESUMO

The available methods for veneer evaluation are limited to clinical and radiographic examinations, which may not allow the appropriate identification of failure. In this report, we demonstrate the use of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a noninvasive diagnostic and follow-up method to evaluate gingival recovery and the adhesive interface in aesthetic oral rehabilitation involving periodontal plastic surgery and ceramic laminate veneers. OCT was efficient for evaluating both soft and hard tissues, as well as the quality of the adhesive interface. In conclusion, OCT was found to be a promising approach for the professional evaluation of aesthetic oral rehabilitation, as it was capable of generating images that enabled the analysis of gingival recovery and the adhesive interface.

13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8927, 2019 06 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222126

RESUMO

This paper reports on a micro-certification procedure using femtosecond laser irradiation to microscopically mark a single-crystalline gemological and natural diamond, synthetic ruby and synthetic sapphire, inscribing a QR Code on them. The QR-code was composed of a set of 25 × 25 micropoints, and the irradiation energy was optimized at 1kHz repetition rate. The code was made at a 20 µm relative depth into the gemstone surfaces by controlling the incident laser energy, that was set to 3 µJ for all the samples. Characterization by optical and electron microscopy, as well as micro-Raman hyperspectral imaging showed that the microdots have a diameter of about 14 µm perpendicular to the irradiation direction, being laterally spaced by 14 µm-18 µm applied for each sample. This work corroborates the feasibility of using ultrafast laser inscription technology to fabricate microdots with great quality on gemstone surfaces, which offers a great potential for the jewelry industry to safely micro-encrypt gemological certifications. The compositional and morphological characterization of the modified surface was carried by micro-Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy.

14.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 54: 163-171, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109607

RESUMO

Angiogenesis is a relevant mechanism to be considered for the success of bone healing, even considering endosseous implantable devices, providing adequate delivery of substances necessaries for the cell viability and bone de novo deposition. Within of the repertory of metal-based implantable alloys, cobalt-chromium (CoCr) has emerged with very interesting properties for biomedical applications. Additionally, we have shown that released molecules from implants devices are able to modulate cells away and because that we hypothesized these released molecules might act on endothelial cells. In order to better address this issue, we investigated the effect of Co-Cr-enriched medium on endothelial cells (HUVECs), considering a biological model subjecting those cells to shear-stress to partially mimic the physiological environment and further allow investigating intracellular pathways responsible to drive cytoskeletal rearrangement, cell viability and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling processes. Considering the analysis of the metalloproteinases (MMPs) activities, our data indicates an intense ECM remodeling in response to CoCr-enriched medium suggesting some role on angiogenesis once ECM remodeling is prerequisite to cell growth. This was better addressed by revealing its involvement on modifying both mRNA expression and protein levels of members of the MAPK family. Additionally, the expression of CDK4 gene was modulated within the cell response to Co-Cr-enriched medium, while the modulation in the expression of P15 and P21 indicates an important regulatory mechanism required. Overall, our results demonstrate that trace of CoCr elements triggers decisive intracellular signaling in shear-stressed endothelial cells, suggesting influence on angiogenesis-related mechanism and they bring novel insights to explain the biological activity of CoCr as it has been emerged as interesting biomedical materials within the medical and dentistry fields.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Cromo/química , Cobalto/química , Vasos Sanguíneos/citologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana , Humanos , Metaloproteases/metabolismo , Resistência ao Cisalhamento , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 122(14): 143903, 2019 Apr 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050490

RESUMO

The ground breaking extension of the key concept of phase structure to nonequilibrium regimes was only recently achieved in Floquet systems, characterized by a time-dependent quantum Hamiltonian with a periodic driving source. However, despite the theoretical advances, only very few systems are known to display experimental Floquet phases, not one of them employing a laser emission-based mechanism. Here we report the first experimental observation of a Floquet phase in a photonic system, a disordered fiber laser with spatial eigenmode localization. We apply a periodically oscillating cw pumping source that drives the random couplings of the Floquet Hamiltonian. A photonic Floquet spin-glass phase is demonstrated in the random-lasing regime by extensive measurements of the Parisi overlap parameter and asymmetry properties of its distribution. In contrast, in the fluorescent regime below threshold, the absence of mode localization prevents the stabilization of a Floquet phase. Our results are nicely described by theoretical arguments.

16.
Biotechnol Rep (Amst) ; 22: e00342, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31080766

RESUMO

The use of alginate and chitosan polymer in the immobilization of Aspergillus oryzae ATCC 3940 fungal crude enzyme extract (CEE) amylase was presented. The assembly results change in the application of optimal pH and temperature hydrolysis to convert starch to sugar. Bead arrangement in three microgel supports: the internal support phase (IP), the external support phase (EP), and the internal and external support phase (UP). The best results were obtained using IP and EP. Reusing beads evaluated the stability of immobilized enzymes on IP support, remained active and bound during three cycles of reuse. For free and immobilized (IP) activity showed pH ranged from 5.0 to 7.0; optimum thermal enzymatic greater activity at 45 °C. The method of building the microgel influencing sugar reduction, in a single-step way to immobilize crude fungal amylase extracts can be used in industry.

17.
J Phys Chem B ; 123(17): 3776-3785, 2019 05 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964991

RESUMO

The distribution and protonation states of amino acids in water droplets are of considerable concern in studies on the formation of clouds in the atmosphere as well as in many biological contexts. In the present work we use the amino acid cysteine as a prototypical example and explore the protonation states of this molecule in aqueous solution, which are strongly affected by the acidity of the environment and also can show different distributions between surface and bulk. We use a combination of X-ray photoelectron chemical shift measurements, density functional theory calculations of the shifts, and reactive force field molecular dynamics simulations of the underlying structural dynamics. We explore how the photoelectron spectra distinctly reflect the different protonation states that are generated by variation of the solution acidity and how the distribution of these protonation states can differ between bulk and surface regions. At specific pH values, we find that the distribution of the cysteine species at the surface is quite different from that in bulk, in particular, for the appearance in the surface region of species which do not exist in bulk. Some ramifications of this finding are discussed.

18.
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 2019 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30790402

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In-office bleaching gels are usually marketed in different pHs. This study is aimed at evaluating the efficacy, enamel surface morphology and concentration of hydrogen peroxide (HP) in the pulp chamber of teeth bleached with 40% HP with different pHs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty premolars were randomly divided according to bleaching gel pH: 5.1, 6.3, 7.0, and control (no bleaching). Teeth were prepared, an acetate buffer was placed in the pulp chamber and teeth were bleached with two 20-minutes applications. The amount of HP was determined on a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Color change was assessed by using a digital spectrophotometer before and 1 week after bleaching treatment. Five additional premolars were divided into four parts, assigned to the same groups above for analysis under scanning electron microscope. Data were subjected to anova and Tukey's tests (alpha = 0.05). RESULTS: The group pH 5.1 showed the highest HP diffusion in the pulp chamber (P < .001). No significant difference was detected in color change (P = .51). All groups presented the same pattern of enamel demineralization. CONCLUSIONS: The bleaching agent with pH 5.1 presented the highest HP amounts in the pulp chamber, but color change and enamel morphology were similar among groups. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Regardless of the pH, the bleaching effect can be observed in teeth submitted to high concentrations of HP, but a higher permeability of HP was found in the pulp chamber of teeth bleached with more acidic bleaching agents. Based on that, we suggest the use of alkaline gels for in-office bleaching to minimize damage to the pulpal tissue.

19.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 19(1): 4002, 01 Fevereiro 2019. tab, ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-998179

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the use of nanosilver fluoride in the enamel remineralization process through optical coherence tomography. Material and Methods: All samples were submitted to demineralization process by pH cycling during 14 days and randomly distributed into three groups (n = 11): Nanosilver Fluoride (NSF), Sodium fluoride (NaF), and negative control. Optical coherence tomography images were acquired at three different moments: initial stage (T0), post caries formation (T1), and post pH cycling (T2). The integrity of the enamel surface and the measurement of the volume loss for the tissue after pH cycling in comparison to initial images were obtained from optical coherence tomography images. Results: After analyzing the exponential decay of A-scans from each group, it was possible to identify differences in light propagation among samples. In T1 it is not possible to visualize the dentin-enamel junction, probably due to the higher back scattering of the demineralized enamel, which does not allow light to reach the dentin. The decay curves obtained from NaF and nanosilver fluoride groups showed similar behavior, while the negative group showed lower extinction coefficient. Conclusion: Nanosilver fluoride showed the best effect against caries compared to conventional fluoride treatments.


Assuntos
Desmineralização do Dente/diagnóstico , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Esmalte Dentário , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica/métodos , Fluoretos , Técnicas In Vitro/métodos , Brasil
20.
J Cell Physiol ; 234(5): 6382-6396, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30238981

RESUMO

Whereas endothelial responses to shear stress are well-characterized, the cell physiological effects of shear stress in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) remain largely obscure. As SMCs are directly challenged by shear stress after endothelial denuding injury following procedures such as angioplasty or endarterectomy, characterization of these responses represents an important scientific question. Hence we decided to contrast cytoskeletal reorganization, epigenetic reprogramming, signaling transduction, and changes in miRNA (miRs) profiles in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells (AoSMCs) between unstressed cells and cells exposed to shear stress. We observed that shear stress-provoked reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in an apparently Cofilin-dependent fashion and which related to altered integrin signaling, apparently caused by remodeling of the extracellular matrix. The latter appeared a downstream effect of increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases and downregulation of tissue metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP1) protein levels. In turn, these effects related to shear stress-provoked changes in expression and nuclear localization of the epigenetic regulators demethylases TET1, TET2, DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B, HDAC6, and SIRT1. Accordingly, TIMP1 promotor CpG hypomethylation was a prominent effect, and resulted in a significant increase in TIMP1 transcription, which may also have related increased expression of miRs involved in modulating TIMP1 translation. Thus epigenetic-reprogramming of TIMP1 emerges as critical element in smooth muscle responses to mechanical signals and as epigenetic machinery is amendable to pharmacological manipulation, this pathway may have important clinical consequences.


Assuntos
Citoesqueleto de Actina/metabolismo , Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Inibidor Tecidual de Metaloproteinase-1/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Epigênese Genética , Humanos , Estresse Mecânico
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