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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444072

RESUMO

Previous canoe sprint studies evaluated the best paddlers of their categories. This investigation aimed to identify the importance of biological maturation and athletes' experience in kayaking performance and observe possible differences regarding anthropometry, years of practice, and performance. Eighty under 14 years of age (U14) and fifty under 16 years of age (U16) kayakers aged 13.40 ± 0.54 and 15.25 ± 0.61 years were evaluated. Kayakers were assessed for anthropometry (body mass (kg); stretch stature (cm); and sitting height (cm)), performance (time at 3000 m for U14 and 5000 m for U16 kayakers), and somatic maturation (predicted adult height (PAH) and maturity offset). In the U14 kayakers, years of practice, sitting height, and maturity offset showed significant differences (p < 0.05) between the Top10 and Middle, and Middle and Bottom10 performance times. Significantly higher (p < 0.05) sitting heights were identified between the Top10 and Middle U16 kayakers. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed for maturity offset and PAH% between the Top10 and Middle groups compared to the Bottom10 group. In conclusion, this research shows differences in the maturity status of young U14 and U16 kayakers, identifying that the more biologically mature individuals, with more years of specific practice, achieved better performances.


Assuntos
Esportes Aquáticos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antropometria , Atletas , Estatura , Criança , Humanos , Navios
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(1): 59-64, 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-990005

RESUMO

SUMMARY: We investigated the effect of the intervention using the BFR method on functional capacity after 16 weeks in elderly women. In a controlled clinical trial, 23 women were randomly allocated into two groups, low-intensity exercise with blood flow restriction (LI + BFR, N = 11, Age: 69.40 ± 5.73) and control group (CG, N = 12, Age: 69.00 ± 6.39). The LI + BFR group had a volume of 75 repetitions at 20-30 % of 1RM and 3-4 sets per exercise (30, 15, 15 and repetitions with 30" rest between sets). The CG did not undergo any type of exercise. Functional capacity, anthropometry and sarcopenia were verified through a battery of tests before and after 16 weeks. The LI + BFR group had significant improvement in performance in Handgrip strength, Chair Stand, Arm curl, 2.44 Up-and-Go and 6 min walk, Sit-andreach and Back Scratch (p<0.05) after the intervention. The elderly women were still classified as sarcopenic, despite the improvement in the Muscle Mass Index (p<0.01). CG did not present significant changes. The BFR method can be an effective in the intervention process using physical exercise as an auxiliary strategy in the control of sarcopenia, providing a physical profile during the aging process.


RESUMEN: Investigamos en mujeres ancianas el efecto de la intervención utilizando el método de restricción del flujo sanguíneo en la capacidad funcional, después de 16 semanas. En un ensayo clínico controlado, 23 mujeres fueron asignadas aleatoriamente en dos grupos; ejercicio de baja intensidad con restricción de flujo sanguíneo (BI + RFS, N = 11, edad: 69,40 ± 5,73) y grupo control (GC, N = 12, Edad: 69,00 ± 6,39). El grupo BI + RFS tuvo un volumen de 75 repeticiones al 20-30 % de 1RM y 3-4 series por ejercicio (30, 15, 15 y repeticiones con 30 " de descanso entre series). El GC no fue sometido a ningún tipo de ejercicio. La capacidad funcional, la antropometría y la sarcopenia se verificaron mediante una batería de pruebas antes y después de 16 semanas. El grupo BI + RFS tuvo una mejora significativa en el rendimiento de la fuerza de la empuñadura, soporte de la silla, curvatura del brazo, 2,44 up-and-go y 6 min, 'sit-and-reach' 'Back Scratch' (p<0,05) después de la intervención. Las mujeres de edad avanzada seguían clasificadas como sarcopénicas, a pesar de la mejora en el índice de masa muscular (p<0,01). El GC no presentó cambios significativos. El método de restricción del flujo sanguíneo puede ser efectivo en el proceso de intervención utilizando ejercicio físico como estrategia auxiliar en el control de la sarcopenia, proporcionando un perfil físico durante el proceso de envejecimiento.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Exercício Físico , Força Muscular , Sarcopenia/terapia
3.
Exp Gerontol ; 114: 78-86, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30391274

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 16 weeks of resistance training using different occlusion pressures, followed by 6 weeks of detraining on the muscular strength levels of older women. METHODS: This randomized-controlled trial included 56 recreationally active women (68.8 ±â€¯5.09 years), randomized into 5 groups: 1) Low-intensity with blood flow restriction "High" (LI + BFR_H): with higher occlusion pressure, 2) Low-intensity with blood flow restriction "Low" (LI + BFR_L): with lower occlusion pressure, 3) High-intensity (HI), 4) Low-intensity (LI), and 5) Control Group (CG). Participants completed 16 weeks of resistance exercise training, followed by a 6-week detraining period. Maximal isokinetic torque (N.m) of right and left knee extension (PTRE/PTLE) and flexion (PTRF/PTLF) was measured at pre-training, post-training and immediately following the detraining period. RESULTS: Increased strength was observed in the LI + BFR_H, LI + BRF_L and HI groups post-training compared to baseline in the PTRE (Δ% = 27.2, 15.75 and 13.81%, p < .05, respectively), PTLE (Δ% = 25.2, 18.95 and 30.39%, p < .05, respectively), PTRF (Δ% = 36.7, 22.79 and 34.97%, p < .05, respectively) and PTLF in the groups (Δ% = 35.8, 24.93 and 26.14%, p < .05, respectively). Following the detraining period, the LI + BFR_H, LI + BFR_L and HI groups had a decrease in strength levels, but values did not decrease below baseline level. CONCLUSION: Low intensity BFR resistance exercise increases muscle strength in older women similar to HI, with higher occlusion pressures being more effective. Muscle strength was well preserved following a 6-week detraining period, and although reductions were observed, some preservation of strength can be explained by possible neural adaptations to exercise.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento Saudável/fisiologia , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/irrigação sanguínea , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Treinamento de Força/métodos , Adaptação Fisiológica , Idoso , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esforço Físico , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Torque
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