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1.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 78(4): 233-238, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013691

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar a relação custo-utilidade do tratamento inicial com laser ou medicamentos do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA) no Brasil, considerando de um lado os custos totais e de outro lado o impacto na qualidade de vida dos pacientes. Métodos: O estudo foi realizado com base em um modelo de Markov, onde uma coorte teórica de portadores de GPAA em estágio inicial foi gerada. Os parâmetros usados no modelo foram obtidos na literatura e incluíram: custos médicos diretos (consultas, exames, tratamento); custos não médicos diretos (gasto com hospedagem, transporte, alimentação, acompanhante); custos indiretos (relacionados à incapacidade para o trabalho); valores de utilidade (qualidade de vida medida em QALY - quality-adjusted life year); e probabilidade de transição entre os estágios de saúde. Três estratégias de tratamento foram testadas no modelo: (1) sem tratamento; (2) tratamento inicial com colírios; (3) tratamento inicial com trabeculoplastia a laser. A medida de desfecho foi a razão de custo-utilidade incremental (RCUI). A robustez do modelo foi testada através de análise de sensibilidade. Resultados: As estratégias (2) e (3) de tratamento inicial do GPAA geraram ganhos em qualidade de vida em relação à (1) no Brasil. Iniciar o tratamento com laser gerou ganho médio de 1 QALY, enquanto que com medicamentos propiciou um ganho de 2 QALYs em média. Dentre as três estratégias testadas, a estratégia (2) foi a custo-efetiva e foi dominante sobre as demais, pois foi ao mesmo tempo a mais barata e a mais efetiva. Conclusão: Tanto a trabeculoplastia a laser quanto os medicamentos como tratamentos primários do GPAA inicial geraram ganhos significativos de qualidade de vida. A estratégia de se iniciar o tratamento com medicações foi custo-efetiva, quando se considera os custos totais. A alternativa de tratamento inicial através de trabeculoplastia a laser não foi custo-efetiva.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the cost-utility relation of the initial treatment with laser or primary open-angle glaucoma medications (PLA) in Brazil, considering on the one hand the total costs and on the other side the impact on patients' quality of life. Methods: The study was performed based on a Markov model, where a theoretical cohort of early-stage GPAA carriers was generated. The parameters used in the model were obtained in the literature and included: direct medical costs (consultations, examinations, treatment); direct non-medical costs (accommodation, transportation, meals, companions); indirect costs (related to incapacity for work); utility values (quality of life measured in QALY - quality-adjusted life year); and probability of transition between stages of health. Three treatment strategies were tested in the model: (1) without treatment; (2) initial treatment with eye drops; (3) initial treatment with laser trabeculoplasty. The measure of outcome was the incremental cost-utility ratio (RCUI). The robustness of the model was tested through sensitivity analysis. Results: The strategies (2) and (3) of the initial treatment of POAG generated gains in quality of life in relation to (1) in Brazil. Initiating the laser treatment generated an average gain of 1 QALY, whereas with medication it gave a gain of 2 QALYs on average. Among the three strategies tested, strategy (2) was cost-effective and was dominant over the other strategies, since it was at the same time the cheapest and the most effective strategy. Conclusion: Both laser trabeculoplasty and medications as primary treatments of early-stage POAG have generated significant gains in quality of life. The strategy of starting treatment with medications was cost-effective, whereas laser trabeculoplasty strategy was not cost-effective, when non-medical costs (direct and indirect) are included.

2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 95(52): e5745, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28033286

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in Brazil, from the payer's perspective (Brazilian Public Health System) in the setting of the Glaucoma Referral Centers. METHODS: Study design was a cost-effectiveness analysis of different treatment strategies for POAG. We developed 3 Markov models (one for each glaucoma stage: early, moderate and advanced), using a hypothetical cohort of POAG patients, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population. Different strategies were tested according to disease severity. For early glaucoma, we compared observation, laser and medications. For moderate glaucoma, medications, laser and surgery. For advanced glaucoma, medications and surgery. Main outcome measures were ICER (incremental cost-effectiveness ratio), medical direct costs and QALY (quality-adjusted life year). RESULTS: In early glaucoma, both laser and medical treatment were cost-effective (ICERs of initial laser and initial medical treatment over observation only, were R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY). Compared to observation strategy, the two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life. In moderate glaucoma population, medical treatment presented the highest costs among treatment strategies. Both laser and surgery were highly cost-effective in this group. For advanced glaucoma, both tested strategies were cost-effective. Starting age had a great impact on results in all studied groups. Initiating glaucoma therapy using laser or surgery were more cost-effective, the younger the patient. CONCLUSION: All tested treatment strategies for glaucoma provided real gains in quality of life and were cost-effective. However, according to the disease severity, not all strategies provided the same cost-effectiveness profile. Based on our findings, there should be a preferred strategy for each glaucoma stage, according to a cost-effectiveness ratio ranking.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/economia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Lasers de Gás/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Anti-Hipertensivos/economia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Brasil , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Cadeias de Markov , Prostaglandinas/economia , Prostaglandinas/uso terapêutico , Qualidade de Vida , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Sulfonamidas/economia , Sulfonamidas/uso terapêutico , Tiofenos/economia , Tiofenos/uso terapêutico , Timolol/economia , Timolol/uso terapêutico , Trabeculectomia/economia , Conduta Expectante/economia
3.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 75(1): 7-13, jan.-fev. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-771116

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo: Determinar a estratégia mais custo-efetiva para o tratamento do glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto em fase inicial, comparando-se as seguintes alternativas: observação, tratamento clínico ou tratamento com laser. Métodos: Por meio de um modelo de Markov, sob a perspectiva do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) e um horizonte da expectativa de vida média da população brasileira. Comparou-se a razão de custo-utilidade incremental (ICUR) entre 3 alternativas de tratamento, assim como seus custos e o ganho em qualidade de vida, medido em QALY (Quality-adjusted life years). Resultados: A ICUR do tratamento inicial com laser e do tratamento inicial com colírios, em relação a não tratar foi de R$ 2.811,39/QALY e R$ 3.450,47/QALY, respectivamente. Ambas as estratégias foram custo-efetivas, com uma discreta vantagem para o tratamento a laser. Esta diferença diminui ainda mais quando se aumenta a idade de entrada no modelo. As duas alternativas propiciaram ganhos significativos de qualidade de vida (em torno de 2,5 QALYs para o tratamento com laser e de 5,0 QALYs para o tratamento com colírios). Conclusão: Tanto o tratamento primário com trabeculoplastia a laser quanto com medicações foram custo-efetivos e proporcionaram ganhos reais de qualidade de vida quando comparados com o não tratamento do GPAA.


ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the most cost-effective strategy for the treatment of early-stage primary open-angle glaucoma, by comparing the following alternatives: observation, medical therapy or laser treatment. Methods: Using a Markov model, from the perspective of the Brazilian Public Health System (SUS) and a horizon of the average life expectancy of the Brazilian population, we compared the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) among the three treatment alternatives, as well as their costs and the gain in quality of life as measured in QALYs (Quality-adjusted life years). Results: The ICUR of initial laser treatment and initial medical treatment over observation only, was R$ 2,811.39/QALY and R$ 3,450.47/QALY, respectively. Both strategies were cost-effective, with a slight advantage for the laser treatment. This difference decreases further when increasing age into the model. The two alternatives have provided significant gains in quality of life (around 2.5 QALYs for the laser treatment and 5.0 QALYs for treatment with eye drops). Conclusion: Both primary treatments, with laser trabeculoplasty as well as with medications, were cost-effective and provided real gains in quality of life when compared with no treatment of POAG.

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