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1.
Braz Dent J ; 30(4): 404-409, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340232

RESUMO

Crossover studies continue to be published in spite of warnings about their inherent risks in relation to behavioral outcomes. This study took the opportunity of access to secondary data analysis in order to demonstrate the impact of a crossover design on the outcomes of randomized clinical trials aimed at the behavior of children during dental treatment. We evaluated the effect of the sequence of sedative administration, the sedative and the participant's age on the behavior of children undergoing two sequential dental visits. Eighteen uncooperative healthy young children were equally randomly assigned to: (G1) 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (first session) and oral placebo (second session); (G2) oral placebo (first) and 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (second). One trained observer assessed children's behavior. Data were analyzed by three-way mixed ANOVA. Both midazolam [mean(SD); 71.7%(16.5)] and placebo [48.6%(33.1)] produced more struggling behavior when they were administered in the first session compared to the second one (p=0.001). For the placebo, children aged 2-3 years exhibited more struggling behavior [G1 54.9%(36.2); G2 80.5%(8.3)] than those aged 4-5 years (p=0.04). Also, the reduction of percentage of struggling behavior was higher in G1 for older children (76.2%) and in G2 for younger children (32.9%). There were significant interactions between drug and sequence of administration, and between drug and age. The results of our study confirm the conventional wisdom that crossover study design is inappropriate to evaluate children's behavior/anxiety related-dental treatment under sedation and the results of crossover studies of dental sedation should be treated with extreme caution.

2.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(4): 404-409, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011571

RESUMO

Abstract Crossover studies continue to be published in spite of warnings about their inherent risks in relation to behavioral outcomes. This study took the opportunity of access to secondary data analysis in order to demonstrate the impact of a crossover design on the outcomes of randomized clinical trials aimed at the behavior of children during dental treatment. We evaluated the effect of the sequence of sedative administration, the sedative and the participant's age on the behavior of children undergoing two sequential dental visits. Eighteen uncooperative healthy young children were equally randomly assigned to: (G1) 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (first session) and oral placebo (second session); (G2) oral placebo (first) and 1.0 mg/kg oral midazolam (second). One trained observer assessed children's behavior. Data were analyzed by three-way mixed ANOVA. Both midazolam [mean(SD); 71.7%(16.5)] and placebo [48.6%(33.1)] produced more struggling behavior when they were administered in the first session compared to the second one (p=0.001). For the placebo, children aged 2-3 years exhibited more struggling behavior [G1 54.9%(36.2); G2 80.5%(8.3)] than those aged 4-5 years (p=0.04). Also, the reduction of percentage of struggling behavior was higher in G1 for older children (76.2%) and in G2 for younger children (32.9%). There were significant interactions between drug and sequence of administration, and between drug and age. The results of our study confirm the conventional wisdom that crossover study design is inappropriate to evaluate children's behavior/anxiety related-dental treatment under sedation and the results of crossover studies of dental sedation should be treated with extreme caution.


Resumo Pouco se sabe sobre o impacto de um delineamento cruzado nos desfechos de ensaios clínicos randomizados voltados ao comportamento de crianças durante tratamento odontológico. Este estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito da sequência de administração do sedativo, da droga em si e da idade dos participantes no comportamento de crianças que receberam duas consultas odontológicas consecutivas. Dezoito crianças saudáveis não colaboradoras, 2-5 anos de idade, foram randomizadas em dois grupos: G1 - 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (primeira sessão) e placebo oral (segunda sessão); G2 - placebo (primeira) e 1,0 mg/kg midazolam oral (segunda). Um observador treinado avaliou o comportamento infantil. Os dados foram analisados por ANOVA de três fatores (alfa=0,05). Midazolam [média(DP); 71,7%(16,5)] e placebo [48,6%(33,1)] resultaram em mais comportamento não cooperativo quando administrados na primeira sessão comparado com a segunda (p=0,001). Com o uso do placebo, crianças de 2-3 anos de idade exibiram mais comportamento não cooperativo [G1 54,9%(36,2); G2 80,5%(8,3)] que as de 4-5 anos de idade (p=0,04). Além disso, a porcentagem de redução do comportamento não cooperativo foi maior em crianças mais velhas em G1 (76,2%) e em crianças mais novas em G2 (32,9%). Considerando a avaliação do comportamento infantil sob sedação, a primeira sessão odontológica influenciou a segunda visita. Os resultados deste estudo confirmam a especulação de que o delineamento cruzado é inadequado para avaliar o comportamento odontológico relacionado à ansiedade/comportamento infantil; os resultados dos ensaios cruzados de sedação odontológica devem ser tratados com extrema cautela.

3.
Int J Paediatr Dent ; 2018 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29984460

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of evidence about cognitive behaviour therapy in the management of dentally anxious children. AIM: To systematically review evidence of the effectiveness of cognitive behaviour therapy for children with dental anxiety or dental phobia. DESIGN: Clinical trial registries, grey literature, and electronic databases, including The Cochrane Library, EMBASE, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, LILACS/BBO, and PsycINFO, were searched (April 2018). The reference lists of relevant studies were hand-searched. Randomised controlled trials that evaluated the effects of cognitive behaviour therapy on dental anxiety or on acceptance of dental treatment in dental patients up to 18 years were included. Two trained and calibrated reviewers performed the study selection and risk of bias assessment. The quality of the evidence was evaluated using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). RESULTS: Six studies with a total of 269 patients, aged 41 months to 18 years, were included. Cognitive behaviour therapy decreased level of anxiety compared to control groups and improved cooperation/behaviour, although the quality of the evidence was low. CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive behaviour therapy produces better anxiety reduction than diverse behavioural management techniques but the evidence was of low quality and further studies in children are needed.

4.
Trials ; 18(1): 172, 2017 04 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28399933

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Uncooperative children may need to receive dental treatment under sedation, which is indicated when nonpharmacological behavior guidance is unsuccessful. There are randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different sedative protocols for dental procedures; however, the evidence for superiority of one form over another is weak. The primary aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of intranasally administered ketamine plus midazolam for the dental treatment of children. METHODS: We have designed a three-armed, parallel RCT to assess intranasal sedation using ketamine/midazolam in terms of the following measures: efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness. Two- to 6-year-old healthy children, referred for dental treatment in a dental sedation center in Brazil due to uncooperative behavior and requiring restorative dental procedures, will be recruited. Each child will be randomly assigned to one of the three groups: A - Intranasal administration of ketamine (4.0 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg) and midazolam (0.2 mg/kg, maximum 5.0 mg); B - Oral administration of ketamine (4.0 mg/kg, maximum 100 mg) and midazolam (0.5 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg); and C - Oral administration of midazolam (1.0 mg/kg, maximum 20 mg). The primary outcome is the child's behavior assessed through an observational scale using digital videos of the restorative dental treatment under sedation. The secondary outcomes are as follows: acceptance of sedative administration; memory of intraoperative events; the child's stress; adverse events; the child's pain during the procedure; the parent's, dentists', and child's perceptions of sedation; and economic analysis. Measures will be taken at baseline and drug administration and during and after the dental procedure. The necessary sample size was estimated to be 84 children after a blinded interim analysis of the first 30 cases. DISCUSSION: This study will provide data that can substantially add to science and pediatric dentistry as it examines the effect of sedative regimes from different perspectives (outcomes). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02447289 . Registered on 11 May 2015, named "Midazolam and Ketamine Effect Administered Through the Nose for Sedation of Children for Dental Treatment (NASO)."


Assuntos
Sedação Consciente/métodos , Restauração Dentária Permanente/métodos , Ketamina/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Administração Intranasal , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Midazolam/efeitos adversos , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Tamanho da Amostra
5.
BMC Oral Health ; 16(1): 74, 2016 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27539128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dental procedures may cause stress and increase the salivary cortisol levels. It is important to known if apparently simple procedures such as professional dental prophylaxis at low speed (DP) are stressful for children with dental behaviour management problems (DBMP) to help with behaviour guidance strategies. This longitudinal study aimed to evaluate if DP changes a physiological marker of stress (salivary cortisol) in children with DBMP who were referred to dental treatment under sedation. METHODS: One paediatric dentist carried out a DP with rubber cup and pumice followed by dental examination in 39 children aged 2-5 years, prior to the dental sedation appointment. Children's saliva was collected at three different moments: upon waking (UW), on arrival at the dental office reception area (RA) and 25 min after the dental prophylaxis (DP). The saliva samples were analysed using an enzyme immunoassay kit. The Wilcoxon test was used in paired comparison (P < 0.05). RESULTS: Salivary cortisol levels decreased from UW (0.34; 0.15-0.54) to RA (0.14; 0.08-0.56) (P = 0.019) and increased from RA to DP (0.25; 0.06-1.48) (P = 0.008). Higher salivary cortisol levels were observed at DP when compared to RA in children who did not have previous dental treatment (P = 0.007), had toothache (P = 0.006), presented some protest behaviour during DP (P = 0.008), or needed protective stabilisation by parents for the dental examination (P = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: Paediatric dentists should be aware that even simple procedures such as professional dental prophylaxis are related to stress in young children.


Assuntos
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Profilaxia Dentária , Hidrocortisona/análise , Criança , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Saliva/química
6.
Braz Oral Res ; 29(1): S1806-83242015000100305, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26892359

RESUMO

Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children's behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children's behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children's behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children's saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children's behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.


Assuntos
Anestesia Local/métodos , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Saliva/química , Administração Oral , Análise de Variância , Pré-Escolar , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 29(1): 1-9, 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-777241

RESUMO

Little is known about whether midazolam sedation can reduce salivary cortisol levels and consequently influence children’s behaviour during dental treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of midazolam sedation on salivary cortisol and its correlation with children’s behaviour during restorative dental treatment. Eighteen healthy children, aged two to five years, were randomly assigned to two dental treatment appointments, both with physical restraint: oral midazolam 1 mg/kg (MS) and placebo (PS). An observer assessed the children’s behaviour (videos) using the Ohio State University Behavioral Rating Scale (OSUBRS). The children’s saliva was collected just after waking up, on arrival at the dental school, 25 minutes after local anaesthesia, and 25 minutes after the end of the procedure. Salivary cortisol levels were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay. The data were analysed by bivariate tests and multivariate analysis of variance (5% level). Salivary cortisol levels were lower in the MS group than in the PS group at the time of anaesthesia (p = 0.004), but did not vary during the appointment within sedation (p = 0.319) or placebo (p = 0.080) groups. Children’s behaviour was negative most of the time and did not differ between MS and PS; however, the behaviour (OSUBRS) did not correlate with salivary cortisol levels. Oral midazolam is able to control salivary cortisol levels during dental treatment of pre-schoolers, which might not lead to better clinical behaviour.


Assuntos
Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Anestesia Local/métodos , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/administração & dosagem , Midazolam/administração & dosagem , Saliva/química , Administração Oral , Análise de Variância , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico/prevenção & controle , Assistência Odontológica para Crianças/métodos , Movimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Saliva/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
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