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1.
Artigo em Português | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-51932

RESUMO

[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Verificar a existência de associação de indicadores de gestão de resíduos sólidos e socioeconômicos municipais com índices de incidência de dengue, Zika e Chikungunya nos municípios do estado brasileiro de Minas Gerais. Métodos. Este estudo de caráter exploratório, quantitativo e transversal abrangeu os 853 municípios do estado de Minas Gerais. Todos os dados utilizados foram secundários, coletados e agrupados por regionais de planejamento. Como variáveis independentes, foram consideradas a cobertura de coleta de resíduos sólidos urbanos, cobertura de coleta seletiva e massa de resíduos sólidos urbanos, além de um indicador da qualidade da destinação final de resídulos, índices de desenvolvimento humano municipal e de Gini, renda mensal per capita e porcentagem de vulneráveis à pobreza. Os fatores potencialmente associados aos desfechos – incidências municipais de dengue, Chikungunya e Zika – foram selecionados inicialmente através de análises univariadas. Posteriormente, os modelos de regressão linear para as incidências de dengue, Chikungunya ou Zika foram gerados considerando os preditores selecionados pela análise univariada. Resultados. Não foi observada associação entre gestão de resíduos sólidos e incidência de Chikungunya e Zika. Por sua vez, a incidência de dengue associou-se à gestão de resíduos sólidos e apresentou relação inversa significativa com o percentual de vulneráveis à pobreza. Houve também associação direta o índice de Gini, sugerindo que quanto maiores os registros de incidência de dengue de 2007 a 2016, maiores os valores de Gini dos municípios – ou seja, maior a desigualdade social. A cobertura da coleta seletiva apresentou relação inversa e significativa com os casos de dengue, sugerindo que quanto menor a cobertura da coleta de seletiva, maiores foram os casos registrados de dengue. Conclusões. A gestão de resíduos sólidos pode influenciar os casos de dengue e, por isso, deve ser considerada nas ações de saúde pública.


[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To investigate whether solid waste management and municipal socioeconomic indicators are associated with incidence rates of dengue, Zika, and Chikungunya in municipalities located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Methods. This exploratory, quantitative, cross-sectional study included all the 853 municipalities of Minas Gerais. Only secondary data were used, collected and grouped according to planning regions. Independent variables included regular urban solid waste collection, separated waste collection, and urban solid waste mass, in addition to a quality indicator of final waste disposal, municipal human development and Gini indices, monthly per capita income, and percentage of population vulnerable to poverty. The factors potentially associated with outcomes – municipal incidence of dengue, Chikungunya, and Zika – were initially selected by univariate analysis, followed by linear regression analysis for the incidence of dengue, Chikungunya, or Zika using the predictors selected through univariate analysis. Results. Solid waste management was not associated with incidence of Zika or Chikungunya. In turn, the incidence of dengue was associated with solid waste management and had a significant inverse association with percent population vulnerable to poverty. A direct association was also observed with Gini index, suggesting that the higher the incidence of dengue from 2007 to 2016, the higher the municipal Gini coefficient and thus social inequality. Selective waste collection was inversely and significantly correlated with dengue cases, suggesting that the lower the coverage by regular separated waste collection, the higher the number of dengue cases. Conclusions.Solid waste management may influence the occurrence of dengue cases, and therefore should be considered in the planning of public health actions.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Investigar si el manejo de los residuos sólidos y los indicadores socioeconómicos municipales están asociados con las tasas de incidencia de dengue, zika y chikunguña en los municipios del estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. Métodos. Estudio exploratorio, cuantitativo y transversal que incluyó los 853 municipios de Minas Gerais. Sólo se utilizaron datos secundarios, recopilados y agrupados según las regiones de planificación. Las variables independientes incluyeron la recolección urbana regular de residuos sólidos, la recolección separada de residuos y la masa de residuos sólidos urbanos, además de un indicador de calidad de la eliminación final de desechos, el desarrollo humano municipal y los índices de Gini, el ingreso mensual per cápita y el porcentaje de población vulnerable a la pobreza. Los factores potencialmente asociados con los resultados –incidencia municipal de dengue, zika y chikunguña– se seleccionaron inicialmente mediante un análisis univariado, seguido de un análisis de regresión lineal para la incidencia del dengue, zika o chikunguña utilizando los predictores seleccionados mediante el análisis univariado. Resultados. El manejo de residuos sólidos no se asoció con la incidencia de zika o chikungunya. A su vez, la incidencia del dengue se asoció con un manejo sólido y tuvo una asociación inversa significativa con el porcentaje de población vulnerable a la pobreza. También se observó una asociación directa con el índice de Gini, lo que sugiere que cuanto mayor sea la incidencia del dengue entre 2007 y 2016, mayor será el coeficiente de Gini municipal y, por lo tanto, la desigualdad social. La recolección selectiva de residuos se correlacionó de manera significativa e inversa con los casos de dengue, lo que sugiere que cuanto menor sea la cobertura de la recolección regular selectiva de residuos, mayor será el número de casos de dengue. Conclusiones. La gestión de los residuos sólidos puede influir en la aparición de casos de dengue y, por lo tanto, debe considerarse en la planificación de las medidas de salud pública.


Assuntos
Dengue , Zika virus , Vírus Chikungunya , Resíduos Sólidos , Brasil , Vírus Chikungunya , Resíduos Sólidos , Brasil , Zika virus , Vírus Chikungunya , Resíduos Sólidos
2.
J Nutr Biochem ; 77: 108317, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32004874

RESUMO

Consumption of poor nutrients diets is associated with fat tissue expansion and with a central and peripheral low-grade inflammation. In this sense, the microglial cells in the central nervous system are activated and release pro-inflammatory cytokines that up-regulate the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), promoting Nitric Oxide (NO) production. The excess of NO has been proposed to facilitate anxious states in humans and rodents. We evaluated whether consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate-containing diet (HC) in mice induced anxiety-like behavior in the Novelty Suppressed Feeding Test (NFST) trough facilitation of NO, in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP). We also verified if HC diet induces activation of microglial cells, alterations in cytokine and leptin levels in such regions. Male BALB/c mice received a standard diet or a HC diet for 3 days or 12 weeks. The chronic consumption of HC diet, but not acute, induced an anxiogenic-like effect in the NSF test and an increase in the nitrite levels in the PFC and HIP. The preferential iNOS inhibitor, aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg, i.p.), attenuated such effects. Moreover, microglial cells in the HIP and PFC were activated after chronic consumption of HC diet. Finally, the expression of iNOS in the PFC and TNF, IL6 and leptin levels in HIP were higher in chronically HC fed mice. Taken together, our data reinforce the notion that diets containing high-refined carbohydrate facilitate anxiety-like behavior, mainly after a long period of consumption. The mechanisms involve, at least in part, the augmentation of neuroinflammatory processes in brain areas responsible for anxiety control.

3.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 851, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964914

RESUMO

The Cereblon-CRL4 complex has been studied predominantly with regards to thalidomide treatment of multiple myeloma. Nevertheless, the role of Cereblon-CRL4 in Thalidomide Embryopathy (TE) is still not understood. Not all embryos exposed to thalidomide develop TE, hence here we evaluate the role of the CRL4-Cereblon complex in TE variability and susceptibility. We sequenced CRBN, DDB1, CUL4A, IKZF1, and IKZF3 in individuals with TE. To better interpret the variants, we suggested a score and a heatmap comprising their regulatory effect. Differential gene expression after thalidomide exposure and conservation of the CRL4-Cereblon protein complex were accessed from public repositories. Results suggest a summation effect of Cereblon variants on pre-axial longitudinal limb anomalies, and heatmap scores identify the CUL4A variant rs138961957 as potentially having an effect on TE susceptibility. CRL4-Cereblon gene expression after thalidomide exposure and CLR4-Cereblon protein conservation does not explain the difference in Thalidomide sensitivity between species. In conclusion, we suggest that CRL4-Cereblon variants act through several regulatory mechanisms, which may influence CRL4-Cereblon complex assembly and its ability to bind thalidomide. Human genetic variability must be addressed not only to further understand the susceptibility to TE, but as a crucial element in therapeutics, including in the development of pharmacogenomics strategies.

4.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 11413, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388035

RESUMO

Thalidomide is widely used for several diseases; however, it causes malformations in embryos exposed during pregnancy. The complete understanding of the mechanisms by which thalidomide affects the embryo development has not yet been obtained. The phenotypic similarity makes TE a phenocopy of syndromes caused by mutations in ESCO2, SALL4 and TBX5 genes. Recently, SALL4 and TBX5 were demonstrated to be thalidomide targets. To understand if these genes act in the TE development, we sequenced them in 27 individuals with TE; we verified how thalidomide affect them in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) through a differential gene expression (DGE) analysis from GSE63935; and we evaluated how these genes are functionally related through an interaction network analysis. We identified 8 variants in ESCO2, 15 in SALL4 and 15 in TBX5. We compared allelic frequencies with data from ExAC, 1000 Genomes and ABraOM databases; eight variants were significantly different (p < 0.05). Eleven variants in SALL4 and TBX5 were previously associated with cardiac diseases or malformations; however, in TE sample there was no association. Variant effect prediction tools showed 97% of the variants with potential to influence in these genes regulation. DGE analysis showed a significant reduction of ESCO2 in hPSCs after thalidomide exposure.

5.
Reprod Toxicol ; 88: 67-75, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31362043

RESUMO

The recognition of molecular mechanisms of a teratogen can provide insights to understand its embryopathy, and later to plan strategies for the prevention of new exposures. In this context, experimental research is the most invested approach. Despite its relevance, these assays require financial and time investment. Hence, the evaluation of such mechanisms through systems biology rise as an alternative for this conventional methodology. Systems biology is an integrative field that connects experimental and computational analyses, assembling interaction networks between genes, proteins, and even teratogens. It is a valid strategy to generate new hypotheses, that can later be confirmed in experimental assays. Here, we present a literature review of the application of systems biology in embryo development and teratogenesis studies. We provide a glance at the data available in public databases, and evaluate common mechanisms between different teratogens. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using this strategy in future teratogenesis researches.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Embrionário/efeitos dos fármacos , Biologia de Sistemas , Teratogênese , Animais , Humanos , Biologia de Sistemas/métodos , Teratogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Teratogênios/toxicidade
6.
Br J Pharmacol ; 176(10): 1541-1551, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30101419

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) bind to CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the brain and modulate the mesolimbic dopaminergic pathway. This neurocircuitry is engaged by psychostimulant drugs, including cocaine. Although CB1 receptor antagonism and CB2 receptor activation are known to inhibit certain effects of cocaine, they have been investigated separately. Here, we tested the hypothesis that there is a reciprocal interaction between CB1 receptor blockade and CB2 receptor activation in modulating behavioural responses to cocaine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Male Swiss mice received i.p. injections of cannabinoid-related drugs followed by cocaine, and were then tested for cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion, c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens and conditioned place preference. Levels of endocannabinoids after cocaine injections were also analysed. KEY RESULTS: The CB1 receptor antagonist, rimonabant, and the CB2 receptor agonist, JWH133, prevented cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion. The same results were obtained by combining sub-effective doses of both compounds. The CB2 receptor antagonist, AM630, reversed the inhibitory effects of rimonabant in cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion and c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens. Selective inhibitors of anandamide and 2-AG hydrolysis (URB597 and JZL184, respectively) failed to modify this response. However, JZL184 prevented cocaine-induced hyperlocomotion when given after a sub-effective dose of rimonabant. Cocaine did not change brain endocannabinoid levels. Finally, CB2 receptor blockade reversed the inhibitory effect of rimonabant in the acquisition of cocaine-induced conditioned place preference. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The present data support the hypothesis that CB1 and CB2 receptors work in concert with opposing functions to modulate certain addiction-related effects of cocaine. LINKED ARTICLES: This article is part of a themed section on 8th European Workshop on Cannabinoid Research. To view the other articles in this section visit http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bph.v176.10/issuetoc.

7.
Nitric Oxide ; 80: 61-69, 2018 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30125695

RESUMO

Obesity is characterized by abnormal adipose tissue expansion and is associated with chronic inflammation. Obesity itself may induce several comorbidities, including psychiatric disorders. It has been previously demonstrated that proinflammatory cytokines are able to up-regulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nitric oxide (NO) release, which both have a role in compulsive related behaviors. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether acute or chronic consumption of a high-refined carbohydrate-containing (HC) diet will modify burying-behavior in the Marble Burying Test (MBT) through augmentation of NO signaling in the striatum, a brain region related to the reward system. Further, we also verified the effects of chronic consumption of a HC diet on the reinforcing effects induced by cocaine in the Conditioned Place Preference (CPP) test. METHODS: Male BALB/c mice received a standard diet (control diet) or a HC diet for 3 days or 12 weeks. RESULTS: An increase in burying behavior occurred in the MBT after chronic consumption of a HC diet that was associated with an increase of nitrite levels in the striatum. The pre-treatment with Aminoguanidine (50 mg/kg), a preferential inhibitor of iNOS, prevented such alterations. Additionally, a chronic HC diet also induced a higher expression of iNOS in this region and higher glutamate release from striatal synaptosomes. Neither statistical differences were observed in the expression levels of the neuronal isoform of NOS nor in microglia number and activation. Finally, the reinforcing effects induced by cocaine (15 mg/kg, i.p.) during the expression of the conditioned response in the CPP test were not different between the chronically HC diet fed mice and the control group. However, HC diet-feeding mice presented impairment of cocaine-preference extinction. CONCLUSION: Altogether, our results suggest that the chronic consumption of a HC diet induces compulsive-like behavior through a mechanism possibly associated with NO activation in the striatum.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/etiologia , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Animais , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Cocaína/farmacologia , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Potássio/metabolismo
8.
J. bras. psiquiatr ; 67(2): 126-134, jan.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-893960

RESUMO

RESUMO Objetivo Realizar uma revisão integrativa identificando na literatura trabalhos que pudessem sintetizar resultados que refletissem a possível relação entre dependência de internet (DI) e transtorno de déficit de atenção com hiperatividade (TDAH) na população adolescente, bem como achados desses estudos que agreguem informações para o aprimoramento e diagnóstico de DI. Métodos Revisão integrativa da literatura em três bases de dados: PsycINFO, Scopus e Cinahal, com os seguintes termos: "internet addiction", "adolescent" e "attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity", de 2007 a 2017, com informações sobre a relação da dependência de internet e o TDAH. Resultados A amostra ficou composta por 12 artigos originais, provenientes, em sua maioria, da Ásia e Oriente Médio. De sua análise emergiram as seguintes categorias: Relação entre DI e TDAH; Outros fatores associados à DI; Instrumentos para avaliação de DI e dados de incidência. Há ausência de critérios definidos de diagnóstico de dependência de internet, tendo sido identificados quatro instrumentos para mensurar a DI, todos os questionários foram preenchidos pelos próprios adolescentes, com índices na população variando entre 2,4% e 10,6%. Nos adolescentes diagnosticados com DI, as desordens de ansiedade e depressão foram as comorbidades mais citadas depois do TDAH. Conclusões Há evidências de associação importante entre os dois transtornos identificados, sem resultados conclusivos quanto ao processo da interação. Torna-se necessário o avanço em pesquisas visando a uma definição de critérios diagnósticos da DI, taxas de prevalência e preditores do problema, de modo a poder estabelecer intervenções terapêuticas e estratégias de prevenção do problema.


ABSTRACT Objective To perform an integrative review of the possible relationship between internet addiction (ID) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents aged 12 to 18 years. Also to gather informations in these studies for a more efficient diagnosis of DI. Methods Integrative review of the literature in three databases: PsycINFO, Scopus and Cinahal, with the following terms: "internet addiction", "adolescent" and "attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity", 2007-2017, with information about the relationship between Internet addiction and ADHD. Results The sample consisted of 12 original articles, mostly from Asia and the Middle East. From their analysis, the following categories emerged: Relationship between ID and ADHD; Other factors associated with ID; Instruments for evaluation of ID and incidence data. There is a lack of defined criteria for diagnosis of internet addiction, and four instruments were identified to measure ID, all questionnaires were completed by the adolescents themselves, with rates ranging from 2.4% to 10.6%. Anxiety and depression disorders were the most cited comorbidities after ADHD in the adolescents diagnosed with ID. Conclusions There are evidences of an important association between the two identified disorders, however without conclusive results on the interaction process. In order to establish therapeutic interventions and strategies to prevent the problem, it is necessary to advance research on the definition of the diagnostic criteria of ID, prevalence rates and predictors of the problem.

9.
Birth Defects Res ; 110(5): 456-461, 2018 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29193903

RESUMO

Thalidomide is a drug used worldwide for several indications, but the molecular mechanisms of its teratogenic property are not fully understood. Studies in animal models suggest the oxidative stress, the inhibition of angiogenesis, and the binding to E3-ubiquitin ligase complex as mechanisms by which thalidomide can change the expression of genes important to embryonic development. In this study, seven polymorphisms in genes related to development (FGF8, FGF10, BMP4, SHH, TP53, TP63, and TP73) were analyzed in people with thalidomide embryopathy (TE) and compared to people without malformations. The sample consisted of 36 people with TE and 135 unrelated and nonsyndromic people who had their DNA genotyped by PCR real-time. Although no allelic or genotypic differences were observed between the groups, we hypothesized that other regions in these genes and related genes may play an important role in thalidomide teratogenesis, which is known to have a genetic contribution. Identifying such molecular mechanisms is essential for the development of a molecule that will be analogue to thalidomide but safe enough to avoid the emergence of new cases of TE.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Induzidas por Medicamentos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Polimorfismo Genético , Talidomida/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Talidomida/administração & dosagem
10.
Nutr Neurosci ; 21(1): 33-39, 2018 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27472404

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a chronic disease frequently associated with serious co-morbidities, such as diabetes type II, metabolic syndrome, and psychiatric disorders. Little is known, however, regarding the behavioral consequences of modified diet constituents and the propensity to development of stress related disorders. Thus, the aim of this study was to verify whether chronic exposure to a normocaloric/high-carbohydrate diet will modify the animal's behavior after different stressful stimuli. METHODS: BALB/c mice were fed for 12 weeks with a standard chow diet or high refined carbohydrate-containing diet (HC). Following this period, independent groups of animals were exposed to different stress paradigms: 1 - two hours of restraint stress followed by exposure to the Elevated Plus Maze test (EPM) 24 hours later; 2 - The contextual fear conditioning (CFC) test and 3 - the tail suspension test (TST). RESULTS: Despite no change on total body weight, animals fed with HC diet showed increase in serum leptin levels and higher adiposity compared to diet control group. In behavioral tests, animals from HC diet group displayed reduction in the percentage of entries into the open arms of the EPM, evaluated 24 hours after restraint stress, suggesting an anxiogenic-like effect. It is also observed increase in aversive memory in the CFC test and depressive-like behavior in TST. DISCUSSION: Our results suggest that a moderate obesity, induced by high refined carbohydrate diet, may facilitate the development of anxiety and depressive-like behaviors after the stress. The mechanisms responsible for such effects remain to be elucidated.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Depressão/diagnóstico , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Estresse Psicológico , Animais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peso Corporal , Depressão/etiologia , Dieta , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
11.
Neuroimmunomodulation ; 25(5-6): 320-327, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630174

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of the Zika virus (ZIKV) and the discovery that perinatal Zika exposure can lead to the Congenital Zika Syndrome has promoted a call for prevention measures. Due to the increased number of babies born with microcephaly, structural brain abnormalities, and neurological alterations in regions affected by ZIKV, investigations were carried out in order to better understand this process. The maternal immune system directly influences the fetal central nervous system, and complications during pregnancy have been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a neurodevelopmental disorder commonly manifested in the first years of life, is a disease with multifactorial etiology and is manifested typically by social and communication impairments, as well as stereotyped behaviors. Brain abnormalities, including both anatomically and functionally, can be observed in this disorder, suggesting delays in neuronal maturation and altered brain connectivity. It is known that some viral congenital infections, such as rubella, and cytomegalovirus can interfere with brain development, being associated with brain calcification, microcephaly, and ASD. Here, we reviewed a range of studies evaluating the aspects concerning brain development, immunological status during pregnancy, and neuroimmunomodulation in congenital viral infections, and we discuss if the fetal brain infection caused by ZIKV could predispose to ASD. Finally, we suggest a mechanism encompassing neurological and immunological pathways that could play a role in the development of ASD in infants after ZIKV infection in pregnancy.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/imunologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/virologia , Neuroimunomodulação/imunologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/imunologia , Infecção por Zika virus/complicações , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
12.
J Clin Periodontol ; 44(11): 1153-1163, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28800160

RESUMO

AIM: To evaluate the effects of physical training on inflammatory and behavioural parameters of Wistar rats with periodontal disease (PD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty four animals were distributed in a 2 × 2 factorial design (with and without exercise, with and without PD). Trained animals swimmed one hour daily during 8 weeks. PD was induced by ligature 14 days before the end of experiment, and in the last week, all animals were submitted to the Marble Burying Test. Histomorphometric analyses of the mandibles and expression of cytokines were conducted by Western blotting. We also evaluated the morphometry of hippocampal astrocytes using anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein antibody. RESULTS: Physical training attenuated bone loss and epithelial attachment loss levels of rats with PD. Trained animals with PD presented lower TNF-α expression in periodontal tissues while IL-10 was increased. TNF-α/IL-10 ratio was lower in trained animals with PD compared to those with induced periodontitis. PD increased anxiety-like behaviour, and physical training attenuated this parameter. Exercise increased the ramifications of hippocampal astrocytes in rats without PD. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise decreased anxiety behaviour, inflammatory proteins expression and bone loss in rats with PD.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Periodontite/terapia , Condicionamento Físico Animal , Animais , Western Blotting , Citocinas/análise , Gengiva/química , Masculino , Periodontite/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Water Sci Technol ; 76(3-4): 605-622, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28759443

RESUMO

The adverse impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes modules have grown dramatically around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of recycling by chemical oxidation of end-of-life RO membranes for applications in other separation processes with specifications less rigorous. The recycling technique consisted in to cause a membrane exposition with oxidant solutions in order to remove its aromatic polyamide layer and subsequent conversion to a porous membrane. The recycling technique was evaluated by water permeability and salt rejection tests before and after the oxidative treatments. Initially, membranes' chemical cleaning and pretreatment procedures were assessed. Among factors evaluated, the oxidizing agent, its concentration and pH, associated with the oxidative treatment time, showed important influence on the oxidation of the membranes. Results showed that sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate are efficient agents for the membrane recycling. The great increased permeability and decreased salt rejection indicated changes on membranes' selective properties. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and contact angle characterization techniques revealed marked changes on the main membranes' physical-chemical properties, such as morphology, roughness and hydrophobicity. Reuse of produced effluents and fouling tendency of recycled membranes were also evaluated.


Assuntos
Membranas Artificiais , Reciclagem , Purificação da Água/métodos , Filtração , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nylons/química , Osmose , Permeabilidade , Espectrometria por Raios X , Água/química
14.
Brain Inj ; 31(3): 390-395, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28156136

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is an inducible metalloproteinase that can degrade the cerebrovascular matrix leading to disruption of the blood-brain barrier and exacerbation of oedema in neurotrauma. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether MMP-9 plasma levels were associated with intensive care unit (ICU) mortality after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) despite the presence of extracerebral injuries. METHODS: This cohort enrolled 80 patients who suffered severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale: 3-8 at hospital admission). The plasma MMP-9 level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay assay at ICU admission. RESULTS: Severe TBI was associated with a 32.5% ICU mortality rate. There was no association between the presence of extracerebral injuries (72.5% of the patients) and ICU mortality (P = 0.419). Higher plasma MMP-9 concentrations were associated with fatal outcome: 181.1 ± 16.0 ng/mL for survivors and 257.0 ± 23.2 ng/mL for nonsurvivors (mean ± S.E.M., P = 0.009). In contrast, there was no significant difference between MMP-9 levels and associated lesions: 220.8 ± 26.3 ng/mL for isolated TBI and 196.8 ± 15.8 ng/mL for patients with extracerebral injuries (P = 0.397). CONCLUSION: Increased plasma MMP-9 levels predicted short-term fatal outcome following severe TBI, regardless the presence of extracerebral injuries.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/mortalidade , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Adulto Jovem
15.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 25(11): 2086-97, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26321203

RESUMO

Activation of the brain angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) triggers pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory mechanisms which are involved in the neurobiology of bipolar disorder (BD). Candesartan (CDS) is an AT1 receptor antagonist with potential neuroprotective properties. Herein we investigated CDS effects against oxidative, neurotrophic inflammatory and cognitive effects of amphetamine (AMPH)-induced mania. In the reversal protocol adult mice were given AMPH 2 mg/kg i.p. or saline and between days 8 and 14 received CDS 0.1, 0.3 or 1 mg/kg orally, lithium (Li) 47.5 mg/kg i.p., or saline. In the prevention treatment, mice were pretreated with CDS, Li or saline prior to AMPH. Locomotor activity and working memory performance were assessed. Glutathione (GSH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) and TNF-α levels were evaluated in the hippocampus (HC) and cerebellar vermis (CV). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK-3beta) levels were measured in the HC. CDS and Li prevented and reversed the AMPH-induced increases in locomotor activity. Only CDS prevented and reversed AMPH-induced working memory deficits. CDS prevented AMPH-induced alterations in GSH (HC and CV), TBARS (HC and CV), TNF-α (HC and CV) and BDNF (HC) levels. Li prevented alterations in BDNF and phospho-Ser9-GSK3beta. CDS reversed AMPH-induced alterations in GSH (HC and CV), TBARS (HC), TNF-α (CV) and BDNF levels. Li reversed AMPH-induced alterations in TNF-α (HC and CV) and BDNF (HC) levels. CDS is effective in reversing and preventing AMPH-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations, providing a rationale for the design of clinical trials investigating CDS׳s possible therapeutic effects.


Assuntos
Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Anfetamina , Bloqueadores do Receptor Tipo 1 de Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antimaníacos/sangue , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Transtorno Bipolar/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Compostos de Lítio/sangue , Compostos de Lítio/farmacologia , Masculino , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/fisiopatologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Crescimento Neural/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória
16.
Neural Plast ; 2015: 692541, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26075103

RESUMO

Oxidative imbalance, alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and mitochondrial dysfunction are implicated in bipolar disorder (BD) pathophysiology and comorbidities, for example, cardiovascular conditions. Carvedilol (CVD), a nonselective beta-blocker widely used for the treatment of hypertension, presents antioxidant and mitochondrial stabilizing properties. Thus, we hypothesized that CVD would prevent and/or reverse mania-like behavioral and neurochemical alterations induced by lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). To do this, male Wistar rats were submitted to two different protocols, namely, prevention and reversal. In the prevention treatment the rats received daily oral administration (mg/kg) of CVD (2.5, 5 or 7.5), saline, valproate (VAL200), or the combination of CVD5 + VAL100 for 7 days. From the 8th to 14th day LDX was added. In the reversal protocol LDX was administered for 7 days with the drugs being added from the 8th to 14th day of treatment. Two hours after the last administration the behavioral (open field and social interaction) and neurochemical (reduced glutathione, lipid peroxidation, and BDNF) determinations were performed. The results showed that CVD prevented and reversed the behavioral and neurochemical alterations induced by LDX. The administration of CVD5 + VAL100 potentiated the effect of VAL200 alone. Taken together these results demonstrate a possible antimanic effect of CVD in this preclinical model.


Assuntos
Antimaníacos/administração & dosagem , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carbazóis/administração & dosagem , Propanolaminas/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antimaníacos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Bipolar/induzido quimicamente , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Carbazóis/uso terapêutico , Carvedilol , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Dimesilato de Lisdexanfetamina , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Propanolaminas/uso terapêutico , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Isolamento Social , Ácido Valproico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Valproico/uso terapêutico
17.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 56(5): 829-836, Sept.-Oct. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: lil-689811

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of integral and decaffeinated coffee brews (Coffea arabica L and C. canephora Pierre) on the metabolic parameters of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet. Thirty male Wistar rats (initial weight of 270 g ± 20 g) were used in the study, which were divided into six groups five each. The treatments were normal diet, hyperlipidemic diet, hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee arabica or canephora brews (7.2 mL/kg/day) and hyperlipidemic diet associated to decaffeinated arabica, or canephora brews, using the same dosage. After 41 days, performance analyses were conducted.The rats were then euthanized and the carcasses were used for the analysis of dried ether extract and crude protein. Fractions of adipose tissue were processed for histological analysis. There was a reduction in weight gain and accumulation of lipids in the carcasses, lower diameter of adipocytes and a lower relative weight of the liver and kidneys of rats fed with hyperlipidemic diet associated with integral coffee brew. Integral coffee brew reduced the obesity in the rats receiving hyperlipidemic diet, but the same effect did not occur with the decaffeinated types.

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