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1.
J Neuroimmunol ; 335: 577007, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376787

RESUMO

We investigated the effects of chrysin in the experimental autoimmune encephomyelitis (EAE), a multiple sclerosis (MS) animal model. EAE was induced using myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) 35-55 peptide in C57BL/6 mice. Chrysin reduced weight loss, attenuated clinical signs and blunted the EAE-induced increase in histone deacetylase (HDCA) activity, glycogen synthase kinase-3ß (GSK-3ß) levels and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as well as in the EAE-induced decrease in histone acetyltransferases 3 and 4 (HAT3, HAT4). Altogether, results demonstrate beneficial effects and potential targets of chrysin in EAE.

2.
Neurochem Res ; 2019 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422521

RESUMO

Methylmalonic acidemia is a genetic disease characterized by accumulation of organic acids, such as methylmalonic (MMA) and malonic (MA) acids. Considering that the accumulation of MMA and MA causes several damages due to oxidative stress, antioxidants are thought to play a pivotal role in preventing deleterious effects associated with exposure to such compounds. Ilex paraguariensis (IP) was used here to test the hypothesis that supplementation with the aqueous extract of this plant could exert protective effect against MMA or MA induced mortality, behavioral and/or biochemical changes in Drosophila melanogaster (DM). Initially, a curve time- and dose-response to MMA (1-10 mM), MA (1-10 mM) and IP (63-500 µM) was performed. Thereafter, flies were concomitantly exposed to MA (5 mM), MMA (5 mM) and/or IP (250 µg/mL) during 15 days for survival assay, and for 48 hs to MA (1 or 5 mM), MMA (1 or 5 mM) and/or IP (250 µg/mL) for subsequent investigations. Both MMA and MA exposure resulted in higher incidence of mortality, a worse performance in the negative geotaxis assay and increased locomotion in open-field test as compared with control group. Furthermore, a marked increase in non-protein thiol (NPSH) and in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels, decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities, and decrease in MTT and resazurin reduction were noted in MMA or MA treated groups. IP treatment offered significant protection against all alterations associated to MMA or MA exposure. This study confirm the hypothesis that supplementation with IP offers protection against changes associated to MMA or MA exposure in DM, due, at least in part, to its antioxidant effect.

3.
Chemosphere ; 233: 905-912, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340418

RESUMO

We investigated the interconnected roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated upon seed exposure to glyphosate and/or gibberellic acid (GA3), and the possible interaction between the herbicide and the plant hormone during germination of sorghum seeds. GA3 decreased antioxidant enzyme activity in embryos, and the over accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in 1000 mM GA3-treated seeds resulted in the lowest germinability among treatments. The deleterious effects of glyphosate on germination rate, in contrast, were not related to H2O2 accumulation, but to its interference with the mitochondrial electron transport chain. However, interactions among glyphosate, GA3 and H2O2 during seed germination were observed. Similar to paclobutrazol, glyphosate appears to interfere with the de novo synthesis of gibberellin, which modulates seed germination through oxidative metabolism. Seeds experiencing increased oxidative status due to GA3 (100 mM) or H2O2 (50 mM) applications had the effects of glyphosate on germination rate reversed. Since decreased ATP synthesis is a secondary effect of glyphosate, increased H2O2 concentrations in embryos must facilitate germination by decreasing the energy required by ATP-demanding metabolism. Our results showed that glyphosate affect seed germination of sorghum, and that the herbicide interacts with oxidative and gibberellin metabolisms.

4.
Stat Med ; 38(22): 4363-4377, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292995

RESUMO

One difficulty for real-time tracking of epidemics is related to reporting delay. The reporting delay may be due to laboratory confirmation, logistical problems, infrastructure difficulties, and so on. The ability to correct the available information as quickly as possible is crucial, in terms of decision making such as issuing warnings to the public and local authorities. A Bayesian hierarchical modelling approach is proposed as a flexible way of correcting the reporting delays and to quantify the associated uncertainty. Implementation of the model is fast due to the use of the integrated nested Laplace approximation. The approach is illustrated on dengue fever incidence data in Rio de Janeiro, and severe acute respiratory infection data in the state of Paraná, Brazil.

5.
Am J Primatol ; 81(6): e23000, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31192493

RESUMO

Howler monkey capture is an arduous and expensive task requiring trained and specialized professionals. We compared strategies and methods to most efficiently capture Alouatta guariba clamitans in remnants of the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro and its bordering states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. We tested whether or not the success of expeditions in the forest with anesthetic darts, nets, and baited traps differed with and without the support of an information network, a contact chain built with key institutions and inhabitants to continuously monitor howler monkey presence. The influence of forest conditions (vegetation type and fragment size) upon darting success was also evaluated. We captured 24 free-living A. guariba clamitans. No howler monkey was caught with traps, probably due to the predominantly folivore feeding to high local plant diversity providing a great variety of food options. Captures based on an information network were significantly more efficient in terms of numbers of caught monkeys than without it. Captures with darts were considerably more efficient when performed in semideciduous forests and small forest fragments as opposed to ombrophilous forests or large woods. Although we walked great distances within the forest searching for howler monkeys, all but one animal were captured at the forest fringes. Hindrances to search and the darting method in the Atlantic Forest, for example, the steep terrain, high tree canopies, hunt pressure, and low A. guariba clamitans population density, were mitigated with the use of the information network in this monkey capture. Moreover, the information network enhanced the surveillance of zoonotic diseases, which howler monkeys and other nonhuman primates are reservoirs in Brazil, such as malaria and yellow fever.

6.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 86(6): 417-425, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204981

RESUMO

Although some suggest anti-Xa assays should be the preferred method for monitoring intravenous unfractionated heparin therapy, which method is best is unknown owing to the lack of large randomized controlled trials correlating different assays with clinical outcomes. This article provides an overview of heparin monitoring and the pros, cons, and clinical applications of anti-Xa assays.

7.
Neurosci Lett ; 706: 158-163, 2019 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31121284

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder that severely affects quality of life of patients and their families. The flavonoid chrysin (5,7-dihydroxylflavone) is a naturally occurring flavone with several pharmacological activities, including anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative. We investigated the effects of a 28-day chrysin treatment (10 mg/kg/day, i.g.) on a model of PD induced by 6-OHDA in aged (20-month old) mice. We found a protective effect of chrysin on behavioral and cognitive alterations (rotational behavior, passive avoidance and Barnes maze tests), nitric oxide synthesis (NOx), lipid peroxidation (HNE), glutathione levels (GSH), reactive species levels (RS), neuroinflammation (interleukin-1 beta - IL-1ß and tumor necrosis factor alpha - TNF-α), Na+, K+-ATPase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activity (NADPH oxidase) activities. In addition, chrysin protected against changes in striatal dopamine (DA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA) levels. In conclusion, chrysin improved several behavioral, cognitive and neurochemical parameters in a relevant preclinical model of PD in aged mice.

8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 116: 109014, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146108

RESUMO

The experimental design aiming at evaluating the performance of drugs nanoencapsulated involves inclusion of a formulation without drug (unloaded). This formulation has sometimes presented per se effect. In this sense, we sought to evaluate the toxicity of unloaded polymeric nanocapsules (NCs) with different surfaces (cationic and anionic) in male Wistar rats in male Wistar rats. The physicochemical characterization of NCs with different surfaces: polysorbate 80 (P80), polyethylene glycol (PEG), eudragit ®RS 100 (EUD) and chitosan (CS) was performed. Rats were treated with unloaded NCs (P80, PEG, EUD and CS surfaces) daily for 14 days per oral route. 24 h of last treatment, animals were euthanized and organs were removed and weighted. After, biochemical determinations were performed. In general, NCs-surfaces did not cause alterations in body weight, weight of organs and histopathological analysis. PEG-surface NCs did not generate hepatotoxicity. In investigation of lipid profile, the surface with P80 changed TC and HDL-C levels. Besides that, all NCs did not alter oxidative stress markers in organs studied (TBARS and Reactive Species) and CS-surface presented antioxidant activity in kidney. This study demonstrated that NCs-surfaces depending on their physicochemical characteristics had low or no toxicity.

9.
Pathophysiology ; 2019 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31040041

RESUMO

Some studies have showed that intake of blackberry juice (BBJ) can prevent urinary tract infections. However, there is a lack of studies that evaluate the mechanisms by which BBJ has protective effect. Thus, the aim of current study was to evaluate the effects of BBJ supplementation on cisplatin-induced renal pathophysiology in mice. Mice were supplemented with BBJ (10 mL/kg) for seven days. One hour after the last supplementation with BBJ, mice received cisplatin (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Seventy-two hours after cisplatin administration, blood was collected and biochemical analysis were performed (urea and creatinine), kidney was dissected and utilized in histological and oxidative evaluations. Cisplatin caused severe injury in renal tissue, in markers of renal damage (urea and creatinine) generated increased of plasmatic levels. Besides that, the cisplatin induced decreased of enzymes activities in renal tissue (superoxide dismutase, glutathione S-transferase and catalase). In contrast, BBJ supplementation protected against histopathological alterations through decreased in urea and creatinine levels and modulation of catalase enzyme activity. Thus, BBJ supplementation protected the renal system of mice from deleterious effects. We suggest that high concentrations of Cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and Cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside are responsible for antioxidant role of BBJ supplementation in renal pathophysiology induced by cisplatin exposure. Also, these results reinforcing the importance of including BBJ in the human diet aimed at preventing renal diseases.

10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(22): 6133-6142, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067046

RESUMO

Glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) applications were reported to induce physiological damages to glyphosate-resistant (GR) soybean, which were mainly attributed to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). In order to study glyphosate and AMPA dynamics in plants and associated phytotoxic effects, a greenhouse experiment was set where GR soybeans were exposed to GBH (0.7 to 4.5 kg glyphosate ha-1) and sampled over time (2, 7, 14, and 28 days after treatment (DAT)). Hydrogen peroxide content increased 2 DAT, while a decrease was observed for the effective quantum yield (2, 7, 14 DAT), stomatal conductance (2 DAT), and biomass (14 DAT). Glyphosate content was higher in leaves, followed by stems, and then roots. AMPA content tended to increase with time, especially in roots, and the amount of AMPA in roots was negatively correlated to mostly all phytotoxicity indicators. This finding is important since AMPA residues are measured in agricultural soils several months after GBH applications, which could impact productivity in GR crops.


Assuntos
Glicina/análogos & derivados , Resistência a Herbicidas , Herbicidas/análise , Compostos Organofosforados/análise , Soja/química , Glicina/análise , Glicina/metabolismo , Glicina/farmacologia , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Herbicidas/farmacologia , Compostos Organofosforados/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Caules de Planta/química , Caules de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Caules de Planta/metabolismo , Soja/efeitos dos fármacos , Soja/metabolismo
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 211: 163-172, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30991162

RESUMO

The mechanisms of cadmium toxicity to cyanobacterial photosynthesis have been extensively studied, but the response mechanisms to combinations of different cadmium concentrations and different light intensities are not yet well understood. The two principal objectives of the present work were to: 1) study the short term (5 h) toxic effects of cadmium on Synechocystis PCC6803 under three different culturing light intensity conditions; and, 2) investigate the effects of light history on Cd toxicity to Synechocystis. The maximal (ФM) and operational (Ф'M) photosystem II quantum yields, photosystem I quantum yield [Y (I)], cyclic electron flow, relative photochemical quenching (qPrel), relative non-photochemical quenching (qNrel), relative unquenched fluorescence (UQFrel), pigment contents, and cadmium uptake were evaluated when Synechocystis cells were treated with cadmium for 5 h under three different light conditions. We demonstrated that cadmium toxicity was enhanced with increasing growth light intensities due to increased cadmium uptake under higher light exposures, and the photoprotective mechanisms could not cope with cadmium and light stress under high light conditions. We also investigated Cd toxicity to Synechocystis adapted to three growth light intensities and subsequently shifted to different light intensity conditions to compare the effects of light regime shift on cadmium toxicity. We observed increased cadmium toxicity when the cells were transferred from low light to high light conditions. Interestingly, Synechocystis cells grown at high light intensities were more tolerant to cadmium than cells grown at low light intensities after the same light regime shift, due to the development of photoprotective mechanisms.


Assuntos
Cádmio/toxicidade , Luz , Synechocystis/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Cádmio/metabolismo , Fotossíntese/efeitos dos fármacos , Fotossíntese/efeitos da radiação , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Synechocystis/metabolismo , Synechocystis/efeitos da radiação , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
12.
J Environ Qual ; 48(2): 352-361, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30951125

RESUMO

Riparian buffer strips (RBS) are encouraged to control agricultural diffuse pollution. In Quebec Province, Canada, a policy promotes 3-m-wide RBS. Abiding farmers minimally maintain herbaceous vegetation, but nutrient retention efficiency could be improved with woody biomass. This work aimed to assess if fast-growing willows ( Seemen 'SX64') could reduce nutrient loads to a stream, in addition to yielding biomass. Triplicate treatments of two stem densities and a herbaceous control plot were monitored from 2011 to 2013 in a randomized block design on agricultural fields of the St. Lawrence Lowlands with sandy loam (Saint-Roch-de-l'Achigan [SR]) and organic-rich (Boisbriand [BB]) soils. Runoff, interstitial water, and water from the saturated zone were sampled 16 (SR) and 14 (BB) times to quantify nutrient buffering (NO, NH, P, and K). Sampling campaigns followed (i) snowmelt or ≥15-mm natural precipitation events after (ii) fertilization and (iii) glyphosate-based herbicide applications. Concentration reduction before and after the RBS was highest for nitrates (77-81% in runoff at BB, 92-98% at 35- to 70-cm depth at SR) just after fertilization, when edge-of-field concentrations peaked. Total P removal was observed in runoff after fertilization at SR, and K removal was punctually witnessed at BB. Riparian buffer strips were inefficient for NH and dissolved P removal, and RBS effluents exceeded aquatic life protection standards. plantations, irrespective of stem density, were not more efficient than herbaceous RBS. This shows that without fertilizer input reductions, narrow RBS are insufficient to protect streams from excess nutrients in corn ( L.) and soybean [ (L.) Merr.] crops.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Nitrogênio/análise , Poluição Difusa/prevenção & controle , Fósforo/análise , Agricultura , Poluição Difusa/análise , Poaceae , Quebeque , Salix , Soja , Zea mays
13.
Toxicon ; 165: 13-21, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004610

RESUMO

The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEA) has strong estrogenic effects and elicits reproductive toxicity. Chrysin is a natural flavonoid found in many plant and has a broad range of pharmacological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The present study aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of chrysin against ZEA toxicity. Mice received chrysin (5 or 20 mg/kg; i.g.) for ten days, and then received a single injection of ZEA (40 mg/kg). Two days thereafter, blood and testes were collected. ZEA decreased number and motility of sperm, plasma testosterone levels, enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase) and non-enzimatic defenses (reduced glutathione). Moreover, ZEA increased 4-hydroxynonenal and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine levels, myeloperoxidase activity and levels of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukins-1ß and 6, tumor necrosis factor alpha). ZEA also decreased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-10 and increased activity of caspases 3 and 9. Chrysin treatment increased the number and motility of sperm, testosterone levels, restored antioxidant defenses and reduced the inflammation and apoptosis process. In summary, chrysin attenuated the toxic effects caused by ZEA in blood and testes of mice, suggesting a potential preventive treatment against the deleterious effects of ZEA.


Assuntos
Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Masculino , Camundongos , Motilidade Espermática/efeitos dos fármacos , Testosterona/sangue
14.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 218-231, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866775

RESUMO

The yellow fever virus (YFV) caused a severe outbreak in Brazil in 2016-2018 that rapidly spread across the Atlantic Forest in its most populated region without viral circulation for almost 80 years. A comprehensive entomological survey combining analysis of distribution, abundance and YFV natural infection in mosquitoes captured before and during the outbreak was conducted in 44 municipalities of five Brazilian states. In total, 17,662 mosquitoes of 89 species were collected. Before evidence of virus circulation, mosquitoes were tested negative but traditional vectors were alarmingly detected in 82% of municipalities, revealing high receptivity to sylvatic transmission. During the outbreak, five species were found positive in 42% of municipalities. Haemagogus janthinomys and Hg. leucocelaenus are considered the primary vectors due to their large distribution combined with high abundance and natural infection rates, concurring together for the rapid spread and severity of this outbreak. Aedes taeniorhynchus was found infected for the first time, but like Sabethes chloropterus and Aedes scapularis, it appears to have a potential local or secondary role because of their low abundance, distribution and infection rates. There was no evidence of YFV transmission by Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti, although the former was the most widespread species across affected municipalities, presenting an important overlap between the niches of the sylvatic vectors and the anthropic ones. The definition of receptive areas, expansion of vaccination in the most affected age group and exposed populations and the adoption of universal vaccination to the entire Brazilian population need to be urgently implemented.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Mosquitos Vetores/classificação , Febre Amarela/epidemiologia , Febre Amarela/transmissão , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cidades , Feminino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vetores/virologia , Filogeografia , Dinâmica Populacional , Vírus da Febre Amarela
15.
Environ Pollut ; 249: 453-462, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927690

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of aquatic contaminants, such as antibiotics and herbicides, has motivated investigations into their interactive effects on aquatic organisms. We examined the combined effects of environmental concentrations of the antibiotic Enrofloxacin (Enro; 0-2.25 µg l-1) and Roundup OriginalDI (Roundup®; 0-0.75 µg active ingredient l-1), a glyphosate based-herbicide, on Elodea canadensis. Enro alone was not toxic, but the plants were highly sensitive to Roundup® whose toxicity is related to the induction of oxidative stress. The metabolism of Enro by plants into Ciprofloxacin (Cipro) was observed, and although former is not phytotoxic, oxidative events associated with Cipro generation were observed. The activity of cytochrome P450 was shown to be involved in Enro degradation in E. canadensis. As a cytochrome P450 inhibitor, Roundup® decreases Enro metabolism in plants. Enro, in turn, increases glyphosate uptake and toxicity, so that Enro and Roundup® have synergistic effects, disrupting the physiological processes of E. canadensis. Our results suggest E. canadensis as a potential candidate for the reclamation of Enro in contaminated waters, but not for Roundup® due to its high sensitivity to that herbicide.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Enrofloxacina/toxicidade , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Hydrocharitaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Hydrocharitaceae/fisiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 663: 173-182, 2019 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30639329

RESUMO

Muscle wasting or atrophy is extensively associated with human systemic diseases including diabetes, cancer, and kidney failure. Accumulating evidence from transcriptional profiles has noted that a common set of genes, termed atrogenes, is modulated in atrophying muscles. However, the transcriptional changes that trigger the reversion or attenuation of muscle atrophy have not been characterized at the molecular level until now. Here, we applied cDNA microarrays to investigate the transcriptional response of androgen-sensitive Levator ani muscle (LA) during atrophy reversion. Most of the differentially expressed genes behaved as atrogenes and responded to castration-induced atrophy. However, seven genes (APLN, DUSP5, IGF1, PIK3IP1, KLHL38, PI15, and MKL1) did not respond to castration but instead responded exclusively to testosterone replacement. Considering that almost all proteins encoded by these genes are associated with the reversion of atrophy and may function as regulators of cell proliferation/growth, our results provide new perspectives on the existence of anti-atrogenes.

17.
Sci Total Environ ; 651(Pt 2): 2671-2678, 2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30463122

RESUMO

Their continuous release into the environment, associated with their inherent biological activity, has motivated investigations into the detrimental effects of antibiotics and herbicides in natural and agricultural ecosystems. In this study, the interactive effects of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin (Cipro) and the herbicide Roundup on seed germination and root development were investigated. Although both compounds act as inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain in seeds, neither Cipro nor Roundup disrupted germinability of maize seeds. However, Cipro accelerated germination by promoting ROS accumulation in seeds, while the stimulatory effect of Roundup on ROS-scavenging enzymes (catalase and ascorbate peroxidase) seems to prevent ROS-signaling, delaying the germination process. Roundup reduced root elongation, possibly due to its interference with auxin production, thereby preventing cell division, while Cipro stimulated root elongation by increasing root oxidative status. Cipro and Roundup showed antagonistic effects on maize seeds and root physiology. The presence of the antibiotic is likely not to disturb plant development; however, its stimulatory effects were not sufficient to overcome the deleterious effects of Roundup. According to our results, glyphosate-based herbicides must be carefully used during maize cropping and although antibiotics such as Cipro may not negatively impact agricultural production, their accumulation by crops must be investigated since this can be a pathway of antibiotic-insertion into the food chain.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Ciprofloxacino/toxicidade , Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicina/análogos & derivados , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Glicina/toxicidade , Sementes/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/fisiologia
18.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 10(3): 239-245, dez. 2018.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-980933

RESUMO

Objetivo: O avanço da tecnologia no setor da saúde vem provocando, principalmente às Operadoras de Saúde, uma discussão sobre qual o melhor caminho para a incorporação de novos produtos médico-hospitalares. O objetivo deste estudo é fazer uma análise de custo comparando uma nova tecnologia (seringa pré-enchida) com uma tecnologia usual (seringa preenchida manualmente) em pacientes em uso de cateter venoso central (CVC). Métodos: Uma avaliação econômica baseada em modelo de Árvore de decisão foi desenvolvida para avaliar a seringa pré-enchida comercialmente em comparação com a seringa preenchida manualmente com solução salina para flushing em pacientes com CVC, considerando-se a perspectiva das operadoras de saúde. O horizonte de tempo considerado foi de um ano. Como desfechos clínicos, foram adotadas a ocorrência de infecção da corrente sanguínea associada a cateter (ICSAC) e a de oclusões. Para os desfechos econômicos, foram considerados os custos com flush, redução de ocorrência de ICSAC e da oclusão. Todos os custos foram extraídos de base de dados locais de custo para o Brasil. Resultados: A avaliação econômica mostrou que o uso da seringa pré-enchida promove redução de 77% (1,17 vs. 5,10) e 62% (3,26 vs. 8,57) nas ocorrências de ICSAC e oclusão, respectivamente, comparada à seringa de preenchimento manual. O custo por flushing é de R$ 32,88 e R$ 98,48 para seringa pré-enchida e seringa preenchida manualmente, respectivamente, redução absoluta de R$ 65,60 e percentual de 67%. Conclusão: A utilização da seringa pré-enchida comercialmente demonstrou ser uma opção dominante econômica e clinicamente para o flushing em pacientes com CVC, quando comparada à seringa preenchida manualmente.


Objective: The advancement of technology in the health sector has brought, mainly to the Health Insurances, a discussion on what is the best path for the incorporation of new medical and hospital products. The objective of this study is to do a cost analysis comparing a new technology (pre-filled syringe) with a usual technology (manually filled syringe) in patients in use of central venous catheter (CVC). Methods: An economic assessment based on a Decision Tree model was developed to evaluate the commercially pre-filled syringe in comparison to the manually filled syringe with saline solution for flushing in patients with CVC, considering the perspective of private health care providers. The time horizon considered was 1 year. As clinical outcomes, the occurrence of central line-associated blood stream (CLABSI) and occlusions were adopted. For economic outcomes, we considered flush costs, reduction of CLABSI and occlusion. All costs were extracted from local cost database for Brazil. Results: The economic evaluation indicated that the use of the pre-filled syringe presented a reduction of 77% (1.17 vs. 5.10) and 62% (3.26 vs. 8.57) in the occurrences of CLABSI and occlusion, respectively, compared to the manually filled syringe. The cost per flushing is R$ 32.88 and R$ 98.48 for pre-filled syringe and manually filled syringe, respectively, representing an absolute reduction of R$ 65.60 and percentual of 67%. Conclusion: The use of the commercially pre-filled syringe has been shown to be an economically and clinically dominant option for flushing in patients with CVC when compared to the manually filled syringe.


Assuntos
Humanos , Seringas , Cateterismo Venoso Central , Custos e Análise de Custo , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter , Obstrução do Cateter
19.
Future Microbiol ; 13: 1523-1535, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30311802

RESUMO

AIM: The shape-based virtual screening was used for the identification of new compounds anti-paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM). MATERIALS & METHODS: The study was performed according to the following steps: collection and curation of a dataset of quinolinyl N-oxide chalcones with anti-PCM activity, development and validation of shape-based models, application of the best model for virtual screening, and experimental validation. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Among 31 computational hits, eight compounds showed potent antifungal activity and low cytotoxicity for mammalian cells. The checkerboard assay showed that most promising hit (compound 3) displayed additive effects with the antifungal cotrimoxazole and amphotericin B. Therefore, the shape-based virtual screening allowed us to discover promising compounds in prospective hit-to-lead optimization studies for tackling PCM.

20.
PLoS One ; 13(9): e0202832, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30180215

RESUMO

Influenza constitutes a major challenge to world health authorities due to high transmissibility and the capacity to generate large epidemics. This study aimed to characterize the diffusion process of influenza A (H1N1) by identifying the starting point of the epidemic as well as climatic and sociodemographic factors associated with the occurrence and intensity of transmission of the disease. The study was carried out in the Brazilian state of Paraná, where H1N1 caused the largest impact. The units of spatial and temporal analysis were the municipality of residence of the cases and the epidemiological weeks of the year 2009, respectively. Under the Bayesian paradigm, parametric inference was performed through a two-part spatiotemporal model and the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) algorithm. We identified the most likely starting points through the effective distance measure based on mobility networks. The proposed estimation methodology allowed for rapid and efficient implementation of the spatiotemporal model, and provided evidence of different patterns for chance of occurrence and risk of influenza throughout the epidemiological weeks. The results indicate the capital city of Curitiba as the probable starting point, and showed that the interventions that focus on municipalities with greater migration and density of people, especially those with higher Human Development Indexes (HDIs) and the presence of municipal air and road transport, could play an important role in mitigation of effects of future influenza pandemics on public health. These results provide important information on the process of introduction and spread of influenza, and could contribute to the identification of priority areas for surveillance as well as establishment of strategic measures for disease prevention and control. The proposed model also allows identification of epidemiological weeks with high chance of influenza occurrence, which can be used as a reference criterion for creating an immunization campaign schedule.

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